The Professional
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  • 1. The Professional
  • 2. MYTH OF JOURNALISM“One of the myths, of journalism, often used as acornerstone of criticism by its detractors, is thatthere is somehow a uniform approach or perspectivethat all journalists share about the world?
  • 3. ?Why would the naysayers of journalism believethis? What type of stereotypes do wepotentially face as we enter the world ofjournalism?
  • 4. RUSH IS RIGHT!http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/columnist/neuharth/2004-10-28-endorsing-candidates-neuharth_x.htm
  • 5. ?Is it possible for journalists to practice perfectobjectivity and distance in their reporting?http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/newswar/tags/objective.html
  • 6. What is a worldview?http://www.worldji.com/pages/view/francis-a-schaeffer-chair-of-apologetics
  • 7. Worldview:· a way to protect us from confusion,· an ability to focus on what we think isimportant· a way of defining what we see.· Definitions are the result conforming whatwe SEE in the world in regards to what wealready think we know about the world
  • 8. DEFINEBEFORE WE SEE
  • 9. Define Before We See“We pick out what our culture has alreadydefined for us, and we tend to perceive thatwhich we have picked out in the formstereotyped for us by our culture.” WalterLippmann
  • 10. ?Does information prove our critics right? Thatjournalists try, on purpose, to bend events andissues to their viewpoint and opinion?
  • 11. ?WORLDVIEW VS. BIAS. Is there a difference?
  • 12. Worldview cont.It is impossible for all journalists to have thesame “worldview,” on every subject. And giventhe same task, two journalists with two differentworldviews, can gather the same facts andpresent them in a similar fashion. HOWEVER,worldviews do determine what a journalistthinks is newsworthy on a given day and alsohow the facts are gathered.
  • 13. EXAMPLEThe importance of time. West vs. East
  • 14. OPTIMISMExpect good things to happen. Bad things are theMOST newsworthy. How does this differ from thenews of the rest of the world?
  • 15. AMERICAhttp://www2.hawaii.edu/~jour/parvin/parvwrite.html
  • 16. EthnocentrismWhat is Ethnocentrism? Where is thisprevalent?http://www.john-zhu.com/blog/2010/01/11/relax-its-just-chicken-and-american-ethnocentrism/
  • 17. Cultural ImmersionShould we expect to be able to shed ourcultural values and views in order to be moreobjective?
  • 18. ?Should we even place high expectations onourselves to be completely objective, or shouldwe accept the fact that is it impossible to shedall worldviews and culturual norms that wewere raised
  • 19. Involvement vs. Detachment● "New Journalism" ○ Believed that to get the most accurate information one had to immerse themselves in the story ○ George Plimpton-trained with the Detroit Lions● Professional Detachment ○ "Some reporters seem to put professional detachment on some sort of pedestal. Ive heard it asked, "If a man is dying at your feet, do you try to save his life or note the color of his lips?" Some journalists would say your job is to let the person die and record the death accurately. " -Barry Bearak, The Mind of a Journalist pg 34-35
  • 20. AmbiguityHow can we interpret the needs of the public?● High- Context: needs all the blanks filled-in, the specifics of an event● Low- Context: comfortable with vague details and generalizations" Less is more"● Make sure that what you write is interesting yet clear and concise
  • 21. Diversity Among Journalists● Journalists resent the idea that their background influences their reporting in any way● There is not a proportionate representation of reporters to the American population ○ Example: Hispanics make up 13.4% of the US population but only 3.3% of reporters are Hispanic
  • 22. Journalists as Gatekeepers " News consumers are dependent upon aperson they do not know-or often do not knowabout-to bring them a focused and accuratepicture of reality." -The Mind of a Journalist, pg. 39
  • 23. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values● The combination of these 3 things is what makes us unique individuals● There are always exceptions to the rules, we can choose who we are despite how we are raised
  • 24. The Priesthood of Journalism"Journalists see journalism as a kind ofprofessional priesthood in which they, muchlike the clergy or even police officers, surrenderto the higher calling of serving others." - The Mind of a Journalist
  • 25. The Fourth Estate- Journalism as the fourth branch ofgovernment.
  • 26. Journalistic Inbreeding Journalists learn real skills form other journalists who learned them from other journalists, etc. Journalistic organizations like the Society of Professional Journalists and the American Society of Newspaper Editors publish codes of ethics and standards that journalists are expected to live by.
  • 27. Necessary Separation● Social● Distance in order to see clearly any other side of the argument● Emotional self- preservation
  • 28. Fourth aspect to the priesthood of journalists- Confidentiality What is confidentiality is journalism? Is confidentiality good or bad?
  • 29. When-and when not-is it ok to grant confidentiality to sources? Hotly debated question in journalism.
  • 30. Is confidentiality good for journalism?Protects the source from fear of:● Loss of job● Personal Harm● Being ostracized● Damage to reputation
  • 31. Is confidentiality bad for journalism?1. Anonymous sources are often perceived by readers or viewers as lesscredible than stories in which the source is named.2. Granting confidentiality means that the source can say whatever he or shewants without having to be accountable.3. Anonymous sources making allegations of ethical or legal wrongdoingagainst another person. If the accused person decides to sue the newspaper,magazine, or television station for libel- and if the reporter refuses to identify thesource of these allegations- the judge can find the reporter in contempt of court. ● Reporters usually only have to prove that they had good reason to believe that what they printed was true, to avoid serious legal offenses. However, this becomes extremely difficult when they cant name the source of the incorrect information.http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/20/us/20anthrax.html
  • 32. Editors strongly discourage confidentiality.Janet Cooke- "Jimmys world"● Fabricated story of an 8-year-old boy who had become hooked on heroin by his mothers boyfriend.● The story was rewarded the Pulitzer Prize.● Discovered that there was no "Jimmy." Suffered humiliation and discredited.● Cooke lost her job as a result and became ostracized in the journalistic community.● http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bradlee/background_cooke.html
  • 33. Editors strongly discourage confidentiality.Stephen Glass ● American former journalist fabricated several magazine articles. ● Glass fabricated quotations, sources, and even entire events in articles he wrote for that magazine and others ● Film created after him called, "Shattered Glass." ● Caught upon Upon the publication of "Hack Heaven" when competitor found that none of the sources of his story even existed. ● At least 27 of his 41 stories were proved to contain fabricated material. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=A1fcF9LLjYE&feature=related