Good Exposure

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  • Subject lighting: not always under your control Go over aperture again
  • Good Exposure

    1. 1. Film Exposure How to make a good negative
    2. 2. <ul><li>Film Exposure: The amount of light that strikes the film when you take the photo </li></ul><ul><li>What effects exposure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lens Aperture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shutter Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film Speed (ISO) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you Identify good exposure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow Density </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>underexposure: not enough light reaches the film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too small of an aperture or shutter is too fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative is sparse of information. Negative is very transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underexposed negative lacks details in the shadows and has too much contrast. </li></ul></ul>Underexposed Negative Print from Underexposed Negative
    4. 4. <ul><li>overexposure : too much light reaches the film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too large of an aperture or shutter is too slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative is does not have defined information. Negative is very dark. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overexposed negatives are cloudy or foggy. They lack contrast </li></ul></ul>Overexposed Negative Print from overexposed Negative
    5. 5. Combining Aperture and Shutter Speed: Achieving Good Exposure in Camera <ul><li>Reciprocal Relationship- if you change one, you must change the other </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IF you make the lens aperture one stop smaller (letting in half as much light) , THEN Increase the shutter speed by one stop (letting the light strike the film for twice as long. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent Exposures: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/22 @ 1/15 (Small lens aperture & slow speed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/16 @ 1/30 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/11 @ 1/60 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/8 @ 1/125 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/5.6 @ 1/250 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/4 @ 1/500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f/2.8 @ 1/1000 (Large lens aperture & fast speed) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>CHOOSE combinations with a consideration for your subject matter: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your choice of one f-stop or shutter speed over another may affect your final result, for example in the case of shooting a subject with movement (if too slow then it will blur) or if the aperture is too large then you will loose depth of field </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Shutter Speed and F-Stops are based on film speed </li></ul><ul><li>Fast films are more sensitive to light than slower films (400 is considered fast) so they require less light for proper exposure (so you can use a smaller lens aperture or a faster shutter speed). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which also means you will be able to achieve a greater depth of field </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slower films have a finer grain </li></ul>Film Speed
    8. 8. Light Meters <ul><li>Light meter measures the subjects lighting and suggests an f-stop & shutter speed that should produce the correct exposure for the film speed you are using. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most 35mm have a built in meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>point your camera at the subject and press the shutter button halfway down </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Setting Exposure (M) </li></ul><ul><li>Set your camera on “M” for manual exposure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that you set both the f-stop and shutter speed yourself guided by the recommendation of your light meter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other settings will allow you to choose only one of the settings and the camera chooses the other (DON’T USE!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TYPES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual Exposure Displays: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match- Needle : on one side of the viewfinder. As you change f-stop or shutter one or two needles move. When you have the “correct” exposure both needles will match-up as one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LED display : different types of illuminated displays either a: +/- signs with a circle between them, or a pair of arrows, or green/red dot lights. Can tell you have the correct exposure when the circle is the only lit mark, or when the or the two arrows light up at the same time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>get to know how your light meter works—read up about it in the manual. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Grey Card <ul><li>Light Meters read for middle grey (18% grey) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This works out well because most scenes are a mix of dark and light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, when you are shooting a white wall, it is a problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grey Card : use as a reference point for your light meter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Card is 18% grey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place grey card directly in front of your subject. Be sure that the card is getting the exact same lighting as your subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point camera at card. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set chosed aperture or shutter speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-Depress the shutter to take reading. And set camera accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove card and take picture. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Tips: <ul><li>expose for the shadows </li></ul><ul><li>overexpose (let in more light) & underdevelop film (develop for a slightly shorter time than required) </li></ul><ul><li>Bracketing: taking more than one exposure at a range of settings. Good when shooting in difficult lighting or for important work. It ensures that you will get at least one correctly exposed negative. </li></ul>

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