On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
By continuing to use LinkedIn’s SlideShare service, you agree to the revised terms, so please take a few minutes to review them.
“ there is huge conceptual difference between teaching students or ‘covering’ a topic as it is sometimes referred to, and students learning the information presented” (Exley and Dennick, 2004).
EVS (polling) systems:
Encourage active learning and engagement
Offer anonymity of response; immediate and shared results
Provides diagnostic info to inform future teaching practice/course design (response data can also be exported as a spreadsheet)
Why use EVS?
How is EVS used to enhance lectures?
SAQs (self-assessment questions) 1 : simple questions to check understanding: gives formative feedback to both students and lecturer.
Discussion-based pair/group tasks 1 : generating arguments for and against alternative answers is a powerful promoter of learning.
Contingent teaching 1 : using responses (e.g. proportion who got it right) to switch what you do next; teaching that is adapted on the spot to the group.
Survey tool: to gather information about preferences/opinions; can be used to inform course design/delivery in future.
1 Steve Draper, 2005, http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/ilig/why.html
Rationales for use: diagnostic, formative or both?
Diagnostic – to find out something about your students’ learning, e.g. working through a difficult problem, where:
You don’t know where students are going wrong
You know where students are going wrong but not why
(what you find out will inform the way you cover this territory in future)
Formative , e.g. working through a difficult problem, during which you want to:
make sure no-one is left behind
be able to switch teaching strategies ‘on the fly’ to ensure that this happens (‘contingent teaching’)
Most real-life EVS scenarios will end up addressing both .
One question, one (individual) vote:
Students vote individually
One question, multiple (individual) votes (“Peer Instruction” Mazur, 1997)
Students vote individually (a well-designed question will split the class)
Students discuss their answer with peer(s)
Students vote for second time, again individually
One question, one (pair/group) vote, discussion (“Class-wide discussion” Dufresne et. al., 1996):
Initial vote by pairs/groups (a well-designed question will split the class)
Some pairs/small groups explain their response to the class
Class-wide discussion initiated
Effective use – findings from University of Surrey pilot of TurningPoint
Existing beliefs about teaching and student learning
Willingness to experiment; openness to developing practice
Teaching confidence and personal concerns: “The traditional power balances shift” (Exley and Dennick, 2004)
Suitability of physical environment e.g. acoustics; layout
Student culture and expectations: some students “expect to switch off in lectures” (D’Inverno, 2003)
“ Questions that target core concepts...most effective in promoting conceptual change, especially when answer choices reflect common student conceptions that may diverge from target understandings” (Penuel et al, 2006)
Use of EVS ranged in effectiveness and influenced by multiple factors:
Tips for best practice
Have a clear rationale for using EVS. For instance, do you want to:
Work through a difficult problem to ensure students have grasped everything?
Work through a difficult problem to determine where students are going wrong and tweak your teaching methods accordingly?
Check understanding at key points to enable you to ‘backtrack’ or explain something differently if needed?
Announce before each lecture whether EVS will be used (experience suggests that EVS is good for attendance)
For each question, say what the (pedagogical) point of this question is.
Consider using seminars to ask for some direct feedback from students on your EVS use in lectures.
Summary: pros and cons
Improves student learning if used well
Instant anonymous, formative feedback to students
Instant diagnostic feedback to lecturer
Students like it; good for attendance and engagement
Logistics: Takes time to distribute apparatus, eating into lecture time. Handsets can go missing!
Authoring: Lecturer must spend time adding interactive slides to existing PowerPoint presentations
Steve Draper’s Interactive Lectures Interest Group (ILIG): http:// www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/ilig /
Why Use EVS – the short answer , Steve Draper, Glasgow: http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/ilig/why.html
Teaching metrics using EVS (Electronic Voting System) handsets (EVS use in English teaching): http://www.english.heacademy.ac.uk/explore/projects/archive/technology/tech9.php
ALT Newsletter article about Kingston University’s EVS pilot : http://newsletter.alt.ac.uk/e_article000468708.cfm?x=b11,0,w
EVS JISCmail list : www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/ELECTRONIC-VOTING-SYSTEMS.html
Banks, D., 2006. Audience Response Systems in Higher Education: Applications and Cases . London: Information Science Publishing.
Exley, K and Dennick, R., 2004. Giving a lecture: From presenting to teaching . London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Nicol, D. and Boyle, J., 2003. Peer Instruction versus Class-wide Discussion in large Classes: a comparison of two interaction methods in the wired classroom. Studies in Higher Education, 28 (4), pp.457-473.
Simpson, V and Oliver, O., 2007. Electronic voting systems for lectures then and now: A comparison of research and practice. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23 (2): pp.187-208.