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Each warrior carried several quivers full of arrows, some used for shooting at close range, and others used for penetrating armor at long range.
They each carried their own sharpening stone to keep their metal equipment in good condition.
In addition to the average knife, they also carried their own needle and thread in order to make efficient repairs in the midst of battle.
Each soldier generally kept three to four horses ready. This gave them the advantage of speed when they had to ride for days, and they didn’t tire out or wear down their animals.
Catapults which would be disassembled and carried on horses
Ballistae, or large cross-bows that could shoot large arrows over 320 meters
Famous Mongolian War Tactics!
Signals were conveyed by banners, drums, or smoke signals
*Fun Fact* Mongols fought in complete silence : )
The most skilled women were allowed to fight with the men.
“ Encirclement” Strategy.
When facing the enemy, two of the five squadrons would become the front, or spearhead, ranks, with the three remaining the rear ranks. When the battle began, the rear ranks would march through the lines of the front, showering arrows on the enemy. Then, the rear ranks retreated, turning towards the sides to prevent escape while the front ranks charged with the decisive blow.
“ Encirclement” Strategy Diagram
While Europeans prized strength and heavy armor, Mongols emphasized speed and mobility. Once they shot the horses from under the opponent, there was little left fro them to do in their heavy metal armor.
Mongols shied away from hand to hand combat at the beginning of a battle, not from lack of strength, but because they liked to harass the opponent with feints, showers of arrows, and javelins until the enemy was sufficiently exhausted.
Under the leadership of Genghis Khan and his decedents, the Mongolian empire grew rapidly. The first target was Xixia, followed a few years later by the Jin Dynasty.
They continued to march westward, eventually reaching Eastern Europe, North Asia, Central Asia, the Arab region and the vast Central Plain regions of China.
Then, Kublai Khan, one of Genghis Khan's grandsons, unified the northern areas of China and founded a new dynasty in 1271- the Yuan Dynasty, with Yuandadu (currently Beijing) as its capital.
After China and Persia, the Mongols moved into Russia. After securing Russian tribute, they set their eyes on Europe. However, right as they were regrouping after the first attacks on Poland, a messenger arrived with news of the death of the Khan. The khan had made a law that all his descendants must return to their homeland, no matter where they were, to elect a new Khan. Therefore, the Mongols called off their invasion and didn’t come back.