DefinitionFirst Uses: Late 1940s – Architecture Literary Critics – Experimental fictional writingToday:A range of debates that are far from in agreement with one another.Postmodernism Post + Modern
Postmodernism… breaks with Modernism Unity & Presentation resists historicism & performs ahistorically as self-reference fiction which reinforces the idea of reality all answers are relative & provisional.
Jean-François Lyotard Born : 10 August 1924Versailles, France Died : 21 April 1998 Paris, France Era: 20th-century philosophy Region: Western Philosophy School: Postmodernism Main interest: Meta-narrative Notable ideas : The "postmodern condition" Collapse of the "grand narrative" Influenced by: Montaigne · Kant · Marx · Freud Wittgenstein · Parsons· Durkheim J.L. Austin Influenced: Rorty · Barthes
Characterizations a persistent opposition to universals, meta-narratives, and generality. critical of many of the Enlightenment movement, serve to undermine the fundamental principles that generate these broad claims.
The collapse of the "Grand Narrative"meta-narratives = grand narratives are: grand, large-scale theories and philosophies of the world, such as - the progress of history, - the ability of knowing everything by science, and - the possibility of absolute freedom
The sublimeLyotard was a frequent writer on aesthetic matters. The "sublime" is a term in aesthetics whose fortunes revived under postmodernism after a century or more of neglect. It refers to the experience of pleasurable anxiety that we experience when confronting wild and threatening sights like, for example, a massive craggy mountain, black against the sky, looming terrifyingly in our vision.
Mathematical sublime; an object strikes the mind in such a way that we find ourselves unable to take it in as a whole. we experience a clash between our reason (which tells us that all objects are finite) and the imagination (the aspect of the mind that organizes what we see, and which sees an object incalculably larger than ourselves, and feels infinite).Dynamic sublime; the mind recoils at an object so immeasurably more powerful than we, whose weight, force, scale could crush us without the remotest hope of our being able to resist it.
All of Kant`s example of sublimity are scenes & events in the natural world, such as: The immeasurable host of starry systems e.g.: the Milky Way Shapeless mountain masses towering one above the other in wild disorder Volcanoes in all their violence of destruction Hurricanes leaving desolation in their track The boundless ocean rising with rebellious force The high waterfall of some mighty river.
Jean Baudrillard Born : 27 July 1929 Reims, France Died : 6 March 2007 (aged 77)Paris, France Era: 20th / 21st-century philosophy Region : Western Philosophy School: Post-Structuralism · Marxism · Post-Marxism Main interests: Postmodernity · Mass Media Notable ideas: Hyperreality · Simulacra · Sign value Influenced by: Marx · Nietzsche · Freud · Wiener· Mauss · Lévi- Strauss · Lefebvre · Barthes · Bataille · Adorno · Lukács· Debord · Dick · Borges · Benjamin · McLuhan · Castoriadis Influenced: Giannina Braschi, Victor Pelevin · Gerald Vizenor · Slavoj Žižek · Wachowski brothers · Alain de Benoist
The object value system consumerism, and how different objects are consumed in different ways. needs are constructed, rather than innate Objects always, say something about their users the "ideological genesis of needs” precedes the production of goods to meet those needs
The four value-making processes are as follows:1. the functional value of an object; its instrumental purpose.2. the exchange value of an object; its economic value.3. the symbolic value of an object; a value that a subject assigns to an object in relation to another subject.4. the sign value of an object; its value within a system of objects.
Simulacra and Simulation Simulacrum (plural: -cra) = "likeness, similarity“ 16th cent. = representation of another thing, such as a statue or a painting, especially of a god; Late 19th cent. = association of inferiority: an image without the substance or qualities of the originalBaudrillard:“a simulacrum is not a copy of the real, but becomes truth in its own right: the hyperreal”
Simulacra = a negation of the concept of reality as we usually understand it. Simulation, Baudrillard claims, is the current stage of the simulacrum All is composed of references with no referents, a hyperreality Simulacrum gives itself value & need not equate with any real thing. The image is far removed from the product as it is removed from the mode of production.
Hyperreality used in semiotics and postmodern philosophy to describe a hypothetical inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy. The McDonalds "M" “the world we live in has been replaced by a copy world, where we seek simulated stimuli and nothing more”
Conclusion Postmodernism demonstrates that when we try & reproduce objects as a perceivable shape, it appears sadly lacking to us. It is present only in its absence; knowable only through its unrepresentability For Lyotard, Postmodern non-representation is the most ethical & divine blank text & should not be writing over. Baudrillard also values the postmodern principle of non- representation.