Brain  aging and plasticity and environmental enrichment!
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Brain aging and plasticity and environmental enrichment!






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    Brain  aging and plasticity and environmental enrichment! Brain aging and plasticity and environmental enrichment! Presentation Transcript

    • Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle • MD Francisco Mora • Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience 2013 March • University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.
    • Abstract • Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, older people suffer from memory loss and cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms behind the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a functional plasticity, which is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article these lfactors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors promote healthy and successful aging of the brain.
    • INTRODUCTION • Aging of the brain is a very complex biological process associated with decline in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. However, aging is not a disease • Aging without the appearance of concurrent diseases is successful aging. • Nonetheless, the possibility of individuals suffering from dementia, as a consequence of that physiological process of aging, has been postulated.
    • • It has been suggested that around 120 years of age, without diseases, the population of neocortical synapses could decline to the level found in Alzheimer's disease, with a loss of intracerebral connectivity of around 40%. This causes senile dementia without the presence of the plaques and tangles that characterize Alzheimer's disease(debatable) • Increase in life expectancy is humanity's greatest achievement.
    • Genome,Ambiome and longevity
    • Genome • Aging is not a genetically programmed process. • It is controlled by molecular events which cause accumulations in the brain cells and have deleterious effects. • Mostly the causes of aging are: Increase in oxidative stress free radicals Mitochondrial instability hence low energy for maintenance
    • Longevity • Longevity means to delay aging. • It is controlled by genes that maintain and fix damage caused by free radicals and antioxidant activity. • Today we know that longevity depends more on genes that are activated by different lifestyles. • Lifestyle factors govern how long and healthily we live and grow old gracefully.
    • Ambiome • Ambiome is a set of cultural ,physical , structural factors that affect anatomy and physiology of the brain. • The aging brain retains a certain plasticity dependant on its environment.
    • Changes in the Aging Brain
    • Anatomical Changes • These changes are governed by interaction with environment. • Non homologous changes, hypothesis: 1.During aging, neuronal morphology and tissue density along with interaction of neurotransmitters No significant loss of neurons except in mono amine cells of mid brain.
    • Functional Changes • More functional changes compared to anatomical ones. 1.Deficits in potentiating induction 2.Deficits in long term depression induction 3.Changes in Calcium ion homeostasis which is related to protein oxidation ( high accumulation of Ca ion in intracellular fluid causes neuron death ) • All these lead to cognitive diseases.
    • Neurotrophic Factors • Brain diseases depend on 3 main age related changes in the Neurotrophic Factors: Aging causes decrease in BDNF Production in Hippocampus, Causing age related impairments in rats. Deficit in expression of genes encoding Neuronal factors lead to disease.
    • Environmental Enrichment • Experimental setting in which individuals receive better social and cognitive interactions which leads to better learning and successful brain aging.
    • Increased BDNF release increased brain weight and neurogenesis These organisms exhibit Reduction in stress Improved memory and learning
    • Caloric Restriction • 20 to 40% reduction (without malnutrition) • Decrease brain aging by decrease in mitochondrial reactive Oxygen Species that damage macromolecules. • Reduce cognitive deficits. • Improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. • Elevated production of BDNF in hippocampus.
    • Specific nutrients • Omega 3 fatty acid is important for the neuronal membranes, its increased intake leads to increased BDNF in the hippocampus. • Another example is flavonoids. Omega 3 fatty acid increased intake Increased BDNF in hippocampus Counteracts brain damage
    • Stress Reduction Increase in stress Glucocorticoids released from adrenals Anatomical changes in amygdala neurons
    • Conclusion • Aging is not a disease. Aging is actually controlled by genes activated by our lifestyle factors and their affects on the anatomy and function of the brain. The primary goal of this article is for people to grow old gracefully with full participation In life. Factors like exercise, low stress, caloric restriction and environmental enrichment can result in successful aging.
    • Critical Analysis • Helpful and practical review, however the use of flow charts and a few figures could have made it much better and more interesting.