World Trade System: It is a term because it doesn’t have a deep sence , we could talk about
The world trade system in a political, economical, or cultural way.
Technology: It is considered as a term because it only have one definition; technology is
the advance of tools and crafts and deals on how it affect a species ability.
B. New Technology: A Key to Power
Technology advance, because the developments made ocean passage possible, new ships
Were designed for ocean traffic and also to carry heavier weapons, the compass improved
Mapmaking allowed more proficient navigation for long voyages. All the technology for the
Trade improve in a numerous way. And also they were more sophisticated civilizations.
C. Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack
Many expedition were developed this century Henry the Navigator, initiated the first voyages
of discovery along the Atlantic coast; also Vasco da Gama was the first Portuguese captain to
successfully reach India in 1498.
By 1514,the Portuguese had reached as far as the islands of Indonesia and China.
Another expedition reached Japan in 1542.Spanish colonial ventures began with the
voyage of the Genoese captain Christopher Columbus in 1492.
His early explorations of a direct western route to Asia led to the discovery of the
Portugal held trade forts in Africa and India, rights in Indonesia, China, and Japan, and Brazil as a result of early explorations. Spain claimed the Philippines and most of the Americas. Concepts and terms: Commercial Interest: It is a term because it is considered as a benefit in the social, and economic way in some especific area. D . Northern European Expeditions European nations became more active in sponsoring voyages of discovery; also they concentrated on lands in the Americas north of the Spanish and Portuguese claims; explorers first reached Canada in 1534 and pressed inland along the system of waterways to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River valley. England, in search of a northwest passage to Asia, instead established colonies along the Atlantic coast of North America. The Dutch rivaled the Portuguese in the Asian trade network, the merchants succeeded; they also establish a small way station on the southern tip of Africa. The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company received monopolies from their respective governments, but financed their activities from privately raised capital.
Internal or regional trade remained in the hands of Asian or Muslim merchants,
but transoceanic voyages were the monopoly of Europeans. Dominance at sea was the
result of military and technological advances that made European navies more powerful.
Europeans did not seize much territory as part of their trading initiative, but limited their
incursions to fortified trading posts. European merchants entered local trade networks
through the establishment of enclaves in cities. This pattern was evident in the
Concepts and terms:
Trading Initiative: It is considered as a concept because it is the idea of progress referring to
Trade, the way to progress or start a “business”.
D. Imbalances in World Trade
Spain and Portugal, declined in the face of later competition from England, France,
and Holland. These nations exported manufactured goods in return for raw materials to
expand their profit margins. Outside of the core region of Europe lay areas that were
economically dependent on the world trade system. These regions produced commercial
things. The construction of core and dependent areas was critical the formation of
the world trade system.
Some of the areas of the Americas and Africa managed to remain outside the global trading system for centuries. In the Americas, the economy of Latin America, the Caribbean and the southern British colonies was based on the importation of African slaves. Also in Latin America, many indigenous people were taken to a farm system that was able to extract work. Concepts and terms: Coercive Labor Systems: it is a concept because it is understood as the illegal work of a person meaning s forced to work. F. How Much World in the World Economy? East Asia largely remained outside the world trade system. China simply ignored European trade in favor of continuation of its traditional reliance on an internal system of exchange. Japan initially showed some interest in trade with Europe, but quickly reversed course. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires within the Islamic world similarly limited European merchants to enclaves within their cities. Russia's trade was oriented toward central Asia. Much of Africa, remained outside the orbit of European trade. E. A System of International Inequality
The world trade system expanded, some areas of South Africa and India were
brought into the system on a more complete basis in the eighteenth century.
Both the British and French East India Companies regarded India as suitable for
incorporation as a dependent region and a producer of cotton. In this fashion India
was slowly introduced to the world trade system as a supplier of raw materials for
the looms. In return, Western manufactured goods began to infiltrate Eastern
IV. Colonial Expansion
The Control of the seas permitted Europeans to achieve dominance over a variety of cultures,
some colonies were immediately reduced to dependent status within the world trade system.
Western leaders fostered colonialism as a means of creating controlled markets.
Concepts and terms:
Dependent Status: This is considered as a term because it refers that The State start to
Depend from another state or colony because they had a political, cultural
Or in more cases economical problems.
B. The Americas: Loosely Controlled Colonies . Colonization in the Americas, where Europeans enjoyed enormous technological advantages. The Spanish seizure of lands in the New World began with the Caribbean islands, Central American mainland in 1509. In South America, the Spaniards defeated the Incas. Agricultural settlements were made. France, Britain, and Holland established colonies in North America after the foundation of settlements in Central and South America. Concepts and terms: Administrative Structures: Is a concept that explain the “new rules” to construct or advance In a technologial way. C. British and French North America: Backwater Colonies European nations remained largely disinterested in the Atlantic colonies, because they supplied less valuable raw materials than plantation colonies. British colonies were closer to European models of government, religion, and political theory. The Atlantic colonies produced their own merchant class and engaged in international trade. Atlantic colonists remained abreast of European intellectual movements. European immigration produced a corresponding Indian emigration to the plains. Colonists did not intermarry extensively with indigenous groups, as had occurred in Latin America.
North America reproduced most of the patterns of Western culture but as the frontiers moved westward, household formation and family patterns more closely approximated the European norms. Even in rebellion, colonists after 1776 couched their resistance in European political theories. Canada was originally founded as a French but the region was ceded to the British. The Thirteen American developed representative institutions; Economic equality was greater in the colonies than in Europe, and there was no formal aristocracy.
E. Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations
Dutch settlers fanning out from the trade station created the Cape Colony. Their expansion brought them into conflict with indigenous peoples such as the Bantus. The Spanish colonized the Philippines and the Dutch controlled the islands of Indonesia.
France began to contest control of the potentially valuable trade with India. Following the decline of the Mughal rulers, the French and British East India Companies were able to construct trade forts along the coasts of the subcontinent.
Economically, India was drawn into the world trade system. Latin America drew more settlers from Spain and Portugal, who often intermarried with the local population, but Europeans remained a small minority of the total population.