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Berlin

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  • 1. Berlin
  • 2. Berlin Blockade • Stalin decided that the Western powers would have to be driven from West Berlin. • In the summer of 1948 he blocked all road, rail and water links to West Berlin from the Western zones. • With these supply lines blocked, Stalin thought that the West would have to withdraw and leave West Berlin to him.
  • 3. Berlin Airlift • The Western Allies decided to bring essential supplies to West Berlin by air. • It was a huge operation and lasted almost a year. • In the end, Stalin saw that Truman would not give in so he ended the Blockade.
  • 4. The Wall
  • 5. Fortifications
  • 6. Escapes
  • 7. Escapes • 5 043 East Germans, including 574 border guards,  managed to escape. • The first one being Conrad Schuman who jumped over  the barbed wire, on 15th August 1961.  • In the first year the Wall was smashed through by heavy  lorries 14 times. • In October 1964 57 East Berliners passed under the  Wall, they had been digging the tunnel for months.  • Cars were used in various ways by escapees. The  fugitive was strapped under the vehicle or hidden in the  trunk where the petrol tank had been downsized. 9  people escaped in an Isetta – a car similar to a Fiat 500.
  • 8. Victims • 18 year old East German,  Peter Fechter was shot by  East German border guards as  he tried to cross. He bled to  death while East German  guards looked on and West  German guards were  forbidden to go and help him.  • In 28 years, the Wall claimed  at least 239 victims. • The first victim was Rudolf  Urban, who was killed on 19th  August 1961 on jumping out of  a window.
  • 9. Spies • • • • • Berlin was the hottest spot for  communist and western  intelligence services  In West Berlin powerful receivers  were set up, capable of listening in  and decoding messages.  In East Berlin, from 1958 to 1987  Markus Wolf, " the man without a  face ", was head of the espionage  service. February 1962, Francis Powers,  the American pilot of a U2 spy  plane shot down over Soviet  territory was exchanged for Soviet  agent Rudolf Abel on Glienicke  Bridge. Berlin formed the backdrop to spy  films and books: John Le Carré,  The Spy who came in from the  Cold ; Len Deighton, Funeral in  Berlin.
  • 10. Spies • • • • • Berlin was the hottest spot for communist and western intelligence services In West Berlin powerful receivers were set up, capable of listening in and decoding messages. In East Berlin, from 1958 to 1987 Markus Wolf, " the man without a face ", was head of the espionage service. February 1962, Francis Powers, the American pilot of a U2 spy plane shot down over Soviet territory was exchanged for Soviet agent Rudolf Abel on Glienicke Bridge. Berlin formed the backdrop to spy films and books: John Le Carré, The Spy who came in from the Cold ; Len Deighton, Funeral in Berlin.