Paper Machine

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Paper Machine

  1. 1. Paper machine1 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  2. 2. Contents 1. The history of paper 3 2. The paper machine – Parts & components 8 2.1. Schematic overview 10 2.2. Wet end 12 2.3. Head box 14 2.4. Wire section 17 2.4.1. Couch broke 20 2.5. Press section 21 2.5.1. Conventional & German presses 22 2.5.2. Shoe press 23 2.6. Drying section 24 2.7. Size press 27 2.7.1. Conventional size presses 28 2.7.2. Film press 29 2.7.3. IR drying 30 2.8. Calender 31 2.9. Winder 32 3. Water circulation 342 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  3. 3. 1. The history of paper • China: earliest paper remains – 180-50 B.C. – Paper from the early Han dynasty has been found in various parts of China, proving that paper was used at this early stage. • Invention of paper and spread from China – 105 B.C. – Tsai Lun from Gue Yang in the province of Hunan reports his invention of paper to the Chinese emperor Ho Ti. The materials he used for his paper were tree bark, hemp, rags and fishing nets (Häberli).3 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  4. 4. 1. The history of paper • 610 – Introduction of paper making in Japan • 751 – The Arabs learn the art of paper making from Chinese prisoners of war • 794 – Various paper mills are built in Bagdad • 1109 – Earliest paper document (Archive of Palermo, Italy) • 1144 – First mention of a paper mill in Spain (Xativa/San Felipe near Valencia)4 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  5. 5. 1. The history of paper • 1390/91 – First German paper mill built in Nürnberg by Ulman Stromer • 1436 - 1444 – Gutenberg performs various printing experiments in Strasbourg • 1450 – Gutenberg signs a contract with Mainz citizen Fust for the production of a printed bible • 1472 – A paper mill is built on the Wert Place in Zürich • 1490 – First paper mill in England5 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  6. 6. 1. The history of paper • 1706 – First paper mill is built in Alfeld • 1774 – Discovery of chloride as a bleaching agent • 1798 – France: Invention of the continuous wire paper machine by Nicolas-Louis Robert • 1799 – The continuous wire paper machine is patented6 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  7. 7. 1. The history of paper • 1803 – 1806 – Didot and his English brother-in-law John Gamble acquire a patent in England and sell their rights to London based paper merchants Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier – First paper machines built by English machine manufacturer Hall in Dartford, Kent, under general direction of Bryan Donkin • 1841 – Paper machine construction by Escher Wyss in Switzerland • 1872 – Sulphite process • 1884 – Sulphate process7 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  8. 8. 2. The paper machine – Parts & components • Components – Wet end – Headbox – Wire section – Press section – Drying section – Size press – Winder • Paper machine must be adapted to specific paper and its intended use – Paper machine for fine papers – Yankee paper machine for special papers – Tissue paper machine8 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  9. 9. 9 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  10. 10. 2.1. Paper machine - Construction10 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  11. 11. 2.1. Schematic overview Headbox Drying sections 1 & 2 Jumbo reel 99% water Wire section Press section Size press Calender Wet end11 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  12. 12. 2.2. Wet end • All components from stock preparation to headbox – Supply bins – Cleaner (cone spinner  centrifugal force) – Pressure screen – Re-grinding refiner – Conduits • Purpose: – Bridge between stock preparation and headbox – Transport of paper stock from stock preparation to paper machine – Stock density: 1% solid material, 99% water – Stock has to be absolutely clean12 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  13. 13. 2.2. Wet end Cleaner – Cone spinner Pressure screen13 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  14. 14. 2.3. Headbox • Purpose: – Even stock distribution on the wire – Uniform basis weight across the entire width – Crushing all structures in the stock – Sheet formation on the wire instead of in or before the headbox14 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  15. 15. 2.3. Headbox15 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  16. 16. 2.3. Headbox High pressure headbox High turbulence headbox16 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  17. 17. 2.4. Wire section • Purpose: – De-watering of the paper web, allowing it to be taken over by the press section – Sheet formation / sheet structuring • Process: – The mixture of water and cellulose is sprayed onto one or between two wires  1% cellulose, 99% water  PVC wire, formerly bronze – Two wires:  Water simultaneously drains off in both directions (above and beneath)  No side differences, no wire and felt side  De-watering by vacuum and as a result of surface tension17 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  18. 18. 2.4. Wire section Classical Fourdrinier paper machine 1. Forming board 2. Register rolls 3. Wet suction boxes 4. Single foils 5. Suction boxes 6. Breast roll 7. Wire suction roll 8. Wire drive roll 9. Egoutteur* *Egoutteur: wire roll used to smooth the paper web and enhance density. Can also be used for watermarking.18 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  19. 19. 2.4. Wire section Example of double wire19 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  20. 20. 2.4.1. Couch broke Pick-up roll Couch broke = paper web edges sprayed off by the side jets or, in case of a web break, the entire web. Waste bin20 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  21. 21. 2.5. Press section • Purpose: – Mechanical de-watering of the moist fibre suspension • Process: – The paper web is supported by two felt rolls pressing the paper – The last roll is commonly known as the „German press“ without felt – Press nips increase the proportion of dry material to approx. 55%  At maximum press nip the dry material proportion can be as high as 70%  Followed by re-moistening by capillar interaction between felt and paper web Press felts Paper web21 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  22. 22. 2.5.1. Konventional & German press Felt Conventional press German press Conventional press: 2 rolls – 1 nip – 1 felt German press: 2 rolls – 1 nip – no felt22 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  23. 23. 2.5.2. Shoe press • Current technical status – Sphere instead of nip Upper roll Shoe Press felt Lower roll – Drying is more economical and faster – Drawback: more technical effort and expensive equipment23 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  24. 24. 2.6. Drying section • Purpose: – Bringing the paper web to the desired degree of final dryness by leading it over a series of vapour heated rolls  Higher degree of moisture in sheets (approx. 55%) than in reel paper (approx. 30%) • Process: – The paper web is transported between a series of vapour heated cilinders and felts – The felts also ensure fixation – Thermal drying  Starting temperature: approx. 60°C  Final temperature: approx. 118°C  Gradual drying  to prevent picking – The drying section is the most energy intensive part of the paper machine  Combined power/heat installations are often used  Residual heat, such as exhaust steam, is often used24 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  25. 25. 2.6. Drying section25 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  26. 26. 2.6. Drying section Heated steel Fixing felts rolls26 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  27. 27. 2.7. Size press • Purpose: – Making the paper web surface water repellent – Size and film press (in some cases off-line) – Paper must be ink retaining, or, in other words, water repellent – Ink has to stay on the paper surface  On the paper, not in the paper  Measuring unit: Cobb value – Different types of sizing can be used – bulk sizing, surface sizing and mixed methods27 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  28. 28. 2.7.1. Conventional size press Roll Size pool28 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  29. 29. 2.7.2. Film press Sizing nip Sized paper web Unsized paper web Roll blade Sizing jets29 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  30. 30. 2.7.3. IR drying Infrared • IR drying usually takes place after sizing, behind the size press – In support of drying section 2 – Shock drying, gas radiation – Temperature: approx. 1000°C30 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  31. 31. 2.8. Calender Soft calendering Rubber roll Paper web Heated steel roll31 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  32. 32. 2.9. Winder • Weight: 20 to 200 tons • „Flying Splice“ = Roll change „on the fly“ Core Empty core magazine Fully wound mother reel32 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  33. 33. 2.9. Winder33 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  34. 34. 3. Water circulation34 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe
  35. 35. Thank you for your attention Jörg Abelmann35 | Papiermachine | Sappi Fine Paper Europe

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