World History/ MUN Finals Review Sheet                                  (Second Semester)• Peninsulares-­‐	  people	  born...
•   Factory-­‐	  large	  building	  filled	  with	  machinery	  to	  manufacture	  goods	  •   Entrepreneur-­‐	  person	  ...
•   Suez	  Canal-­‐	  human	  made	  waterway	  used	  to	  connect	  the	  Red	  Sea	  to	  the	      Mediterranean	  	  ...
•   Fourteen	  Points-­‐	  series	  of	  proposals	  by	  Wilson	  outlined	  for	  achieving	  a	  lasting	      peace	  ...
•   Mein	  Kampf-­‐	  “My	  Struggle”	  written	  by	  Hitler	  during	  imprisonment	  from	  1923-­‐24,	      where	  he...
•   Marshall	  Plan-­‐	  US	  program	  of	  economic	  aid	  to	  European	  countries	  to	  help	  them	      rebuild	 ...
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Second Semester Review Sheet

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Review Sheet for Mr. Wat's second semester finals. Good Luck!!!

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Second Semester Review Sheet

  1. 1. World History/ MUN Finals Review Sheet (Second Semester)• Peninsulares-­‐  people  born  in  Spain  (the  only  Iberian  Peninsula)  • Creoles-­‐  Spaniards  born  in  Latin  America  (ranked  under  peninsulare)    • Miguel  Hidalgo-­‐  priest  from  the  village  of  Dolores,  who  took  steps  toward   independence    • Conservative-­‐  style  of  government  where  wealthy  property  owners  and  nobility   argue  about  protecting  the  traditional  monarchies  of  Europe  • Liberals-­‐  style  of  government  where  middle  class  business  leaders  and   merchants  give  more  power  to  elected  parliaments,  but  only  educated  &  land   owners  could  vote  • Radicals-­‐  style  of  government  which  favored  drastic  changes;  extending   democracy  to  all  people  &  practiced  ideas  of  French  Revolution  (liberty,  equality,   brotherhood)  • Nationalism-­‐  belief  that  people’s  greatest  loyalty  should  be  to  a  nation  of  people   who  share  similar  culture  or  history  • Nation-­‐State-­‐  nation  whose  independent  government  can  defend  territory  and  a   way  of  life    • The  Balkans-­‐  region  controlled  by  the  Ottoman  Empire;  included  parts  of  Greece,   Albania,  Bulgaria,  Romania,  Turkey,  and  Yugoslavia  •  Louis-­‐Napoleon-­‐  nephew  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte  who  won  presidential  election   in  December  1848;  took  title  of  Emperor  Napoleon  III  • Alexander  II-­‐  Nicholas’s  son  who  decided  to  move  Russia  toward  modernization   and  social  change  • Otto  Von  Bismark-­‐  appointed  the  prime  minister  of  Prussia  by  King  Wilhelm  I  in   1862;  a  conservative  Junker  • Realpolitik-­‐  practice  of  tough  power  politics  without  room  for  idealism;  politics  of   reality  • Kaiser-­‐  German  emperor    • Romanticism-­‐  movement  reflected  upon  deep  interest  in  both  nature  and   thoughts  /feelings  on  individuals  • Realism-­‐  19th  century  artistic  movement,  where  artists  and  writers  wanted  to   show  how  life  is  and  not  how  is  should  be  • Impressionism-­‐  19th  century  movement  for  painters,  which  was  against  realism   and  showed  a  more  positive  view  of  the  new  urban  society  • Industrial  Revolution-­‐  shift  in  18th  century  of  making  goods  by  hand  to   manufacturing  them  by  machine  • Enclosure-­‐  fenced/hedged  in  fields  of  British  landowners  on  land  worked  by   village  farmers  • Crop  Rotation-­‐  system  of  growing  different  crops  in  different  fields  every  year  to   preserve  fertility  of  land  &  nutrients  in  soil  • Factors  of  Production-­‐  resources  required  to  produce  goods  for  IR  (land,  labor,   wealth)    
  2. 2. • Factory-­‐  large  building  filled  with  machinery  to  manufacture  goods  • Entrepreneur-­‐  person  who  organizes,  manages,  &  takes  on  business  risks  • Industrialization-­‐  process  of  developing  machine  production  of  goods  from   developing  industries    • Urbanization-­‐  growth  of  cities  &  migration  of  people  into  them  • Corporation-­‐  business  owned  by  stockholders  who  share  the  profits,  but  not   personally  responsible  for  the  debts  • Capitalism  (Marxism)-­‐  economic  system  where  factors  of  production  are   privately  owned  &  money  is  invested  in  business  ventures  to  make  a  profit  • Laissez  Faire-­‐  economic  policy  of  allowing  industry  and  business  owners  set   working  conditions,  without  interference    • Utilitarianism-­‐  Jeremy  Bentham’s  theory  that  government  actions  are  only  useful   if  promoting  the  greatest  good  for  the  greatest  number  of  people  • Socialism-­‐  factors  of  production  are  owned  by  the  public  &  operate  for  the   welfare  of  all  • Karl  Marx-­‐  German  journalist  who  introduced  Marxism,  arguing  human  societies   have  always  been  warring  classes  • Communism-­‐  form  of  complete  socialism,  in  which  the  means  of  production   would  be  owned  by  the  people  &  private  property  would  cease  to  exist  • Suffrage-­‐  the  right  to  vote  • Third  Republic-­‐  republic  established  in  France  after  the  fall  of  Napoleon  II;  ended   with  the  German  Occupation  of  France  in  WWII  • Anti-­‐Semitism-­‐  prejudice  against  Jewish  people  • Zionism-­‐  movement  started  in  the  1890s  to  promote  the  establishment  of  a   Jewish  homeland  in  Palestine    • Manifest  Destiny-­‐  idea  that  the  United  States  had  the  right  and  duty  to  rule   North  America  from  the  Atlantic  to  Pacific  Ocean    • Imperialism-­‐  Seizure  of  a  country  or  territory  by  a  stronger  country  • Racism-­‐  belief  that  one  race  is  superior  to  others    • Social  Darwinism-­‐  application  of  Darwin’s  theory  of  evolution  to  human  society  • Berlin  Conference-­‐  meeting  of  14  European  countries  in  1884/85  to  establish   rules  for  the  division  of  Africa  • Boer-­‐  Dutch  term  for  farmers    • Boer  War-­‐  conflict  between  Boers  &  British;  fought  over  control  for  territory  in   South  Africa  between  1899-­‐1902  • Paternalism-­‐  policy  of  treating  subject  people  as  if  they  were  children,  providing   for  their  needs  but  not  giving  them  rights  • Assimilation-­‐  policy  where  a  nation  forces/encourages  a  subject  people  to  adopt   its  institutions  and  customs  • Menelik  II-­‐  Ethiopian  emperor  who  successfully  resisted  the  Europeans  &  played   the  Italians,  French,  and  British  against  each  other  in  1889  • Geopolitics-­‐  interest  in/  taking  land  for  its  strategic  location  or  products  
  3. 3. • Suez  Canal-­‐  human  made  waterway  used  to  connect  the  Red  Sea  to  the   Mediterranean    • Sepoy-­‐  Indian  soldiers  serving  under  British  command  • “Jewel  in  the  Crown”-­‐  British  colony  of  India;  named  this  because  of  its   importance  to  the  British  as  a  supplier  &  market  for  trading  •  Sphere  of  Influence-­‐  a  foreign  region  in  which  a  nation  has  control  over  trade   and  other  economic  activities    • Russo-­‐Japanese  War-­‐  1904-­‐05  conflict  between  Russia  &  Japan,  created  by  the   two  countries  efforts  to  dominate  Manchuria  &  Korea  • Annexation-­‐  the  adding  of  a  region  to  the  territory  of  an  existing  political  unit  • Militarism-­‐  policy  of  glorifying  military  power  and  keeping  a  standing  army   always  prepared  for  war  • Triple  Alliance-­‐  military  alliance  between  Germany,  Austria-­‐Hungary,  &  Italy  in   the  years  preceding  WWI  • Kaiser  Wilhelm  II-­‐  ruler  of  Germany  who  forced  Bismark  to  resign    • Triple  Entente-­‐  military  alliance  between  Great  Britain,  France,  &  Russia  in  years   preceding  WWI  • Schlieffen  Plan-­‐Germany’s  military  plan  @  outbreak  of  WWI;  involved  rapidly   defeating  France,  then  moving  east  to  attack  Russia  • Central  Powers-­‐  WWI  nations  of  Germany  &  Austria-­‐Hungary  w/  many  other   nations  fighting  on  their  side  • Allies-­‐  WWI  nations  of  Great  Britain,  France  &  Russia  along  with  others  (U.S.A.   added  in  WWII)  • Western  Front-­‐  WWI  region  of  northern  France  where  allied  and  central  power   forces  battled  each  other  • Trench  Warfare-­‐  form  of  warfare,  where  opposing  armies  fight  each  from   trenches  dug  in  battlefield  • No  Man’s  Land-­‐  area  between  the  trenches  of  opposing  sides  • Eastern  Front-­‐  WWI  region  along  German-­‐Russian  border  where  Russians  &   Serbians  battled  Germans,  Austrians,  and  Turks.    • Unrestricted  Submarine  Warfare-­‐  use  of  submarines  to  sink,  without  warning,   any  ship  (including  neutral  &  unarmed  passenger  ships)  found  in  enemy  waters  • Total  War-­‐  conflict  in  which  participating  countries  devote  all  their  resources  to   the  war  effort    • Rationing-­‐  limiting  the  amounts  of  goods  people  can  buy;  often  imposed  by   governments  in  wartime,  when  goods  were  in  short  supply  • Propaganda-­‐  information  or  material  spread  to  advance  a  cause  or  to  damage  an   opponent’s  cause  • Armistice-­‐  agreement  to  stop  fighting  • Treaty  of  Versailles-­‐  peace  treaty  signed  by  Germany  &  Allied  Powers  after  WWI   on  June  28th,  1919  • Woodrow  Wilson-­‐  US  president  &  representative  at  the  Paris  Peace  Conference   who  proposed  the  Fourteen  Points  
  4. 4. • Fourteen  Points-­‐  series  of  proposals  by  Wilson  outlined  for  achieving  a  lasting   peace  after  WWI  • Self-­‐Determination-­‐  the  freedom  of  a  people  to  decide  under  what  form  of   government  they  wish  to  live  • League  of  Nations-­‐  international  association  formed  after  WWI  with  the  goal  of   keeping  peace  among  nations  • Bolsheviks-­‐  group  of  revolutionary  Russian  Marxists  who  took  control  of  Russia’s   government  in  November  1917  • Lenin-­‐  leader  of  the  Bolsheviks  • Rasputin-­‐  “holy  man”  who  have  orders  to  Czarina  Alexandra  • Provisional  Government-­‐  temporary  government  • Soviet-­‐  one  of  the  local  representative  councils  formed  in  Russia  after  the   downfall  of  Czar  Nicholas  II  • Joseph  Stalin-­‐  ran  to  become  head  of  communist  party  of  Lenin  became  ill;  had   total  command  by  1928  &  exiled  Trotsky  in  1929  • Totalitarianism-­‐  government  control  over  every  aspect  of  public  &  private  life  • Collective  Farm-­‐  large  government  controlled  farm  formed  by  combining  many   small  farms  • Great  Purge-­‐  campaign  of  terror  in  USSR  during  the  1930s,  where  Stalin  sought   to  eliminate  all  Communist  party  members  &  other  citizens  who  threatened  his   power  • Mao  Zedong-­‐  founder  of  Chinese  Communist  Party    • Gandhi-­‐  led  India  to  freedom  from  the  British,  in  a  peaceful  protest  • Civil  Disobedience-­‐  deliberate  &  public  refusal  to  obey  a  law  considered  unjust  • Theory  of  Relativity-­‐  Einstein’s  ideas  about  the  interrelationships  between  time   and  space  &  between  energy  and  matter.    • Existentialism-­‐  philosophy  based  on  the  idea  that  people  give  meaning  to  their   lives  through  their  choices  and  actions  • Surrealism-­‐  20th  century  artistic  movement  focusing  on  the  workings  of  the   unconscious  mind  • Weimar  Republic-­‐  republic  established  in  Germany  in  1919,  ending  in  1933  • Great  Depression-­‐  severe  economic  slump  that  followed  the  collapse  of  the  US   stock  market  in  1929.    • New  Deal-­‐  Roosevelt’s  economic  reform  program  designed  to  solve  the  problems   created  by  the  great  depression  • Fascism-­‐  political  movement  promoting  an  extreme  form  of  nationalism,  denial   of  individual  rights,  &  dictatorial  one  party  rule  •  Mussolini-­‐  newspaper  editor  &  politician  who  founded  the  Fascist  Party  in  1919   and  promised  to  revive  Italy’s  economy  • Hitler-­‐  political  leader  who  took  over  the  Nazi  party  • Nazism-­‐  fascist  policies  of  the  Nazi  party,  based  on  totalitarianism,  belief  in  racial   superiority,  and  state  control  of  industry  
  5. 5. • Mein  Kampf-­‐  “My  Struggle”  written  by  Hitler  during  imprisonment  from  1923-­‐24,   where  he  set  forth  his  beliefs  and  goals  for  Germany  • Lebensraum-­‐  “living  space”;  additional  territory  which  Germany  needed   (according  to  Hitler),  because  of  overcrowding    • Appeasement-­‐  making  of  concessions  to  an  aggressor  in  order  to  avoid  war  • Axis  Powers-­‐  WWII  nations  of  Germany,  Italy,  &  Japan  who  formed  an  alliance  in   1936  • Isolationism-­‐  policy  on  avoiding  political  or  military  involvement  with  other   countries  • Third  Reich-­‐  Third  German  Empire,  established  by  Hitler  in  the  ‘30s  • Munich  Conference-­‐  1938  meeting  od  representatives  from  Britain,  France,  Italy,   &  Germany    • Nonaggression  Pact-­‐  agreement  in  which  nations  promise  not  to  attack  one   another  • Battle  of  Britain-­‐  series  of  battles  between  German  &  British  air  forces,  fought   over  Britain  in  1940  &  ‘41  • Blitzkrieg-­‐  “lighting  war”;  form  of  warfare,  where  surprise  attacks  with  fast   moving  airplanes  are  followed  by  massive  attacks  with  infantry  forces  • Atlantic  Charter-­‐  declaration  of  principles  issued  in  August  1941  by  British  prime   minister  Winston  Churchill  &  US  president  Franklin  Roosevelt,  where  the  Allied   peace  plan  at  the  end  of  WWII  was  based  • Pearl  Harbor-­‐  US  naval  base,  which  was  attacked  on  December  7th,  1941,  by   Japanese  soldiers  • Aryan-­‐  (to  the  Nazis)  the  Germanic  people  who  formed  the  “master  race”    • Holocaust-­‐  mass  slaughter  of  Jews  &  other  civilians,  carried  out  by  the  Nazi   government  of  Germany,  before  &  during  WWII  • Kristallnacht-­‐  “Night  of  the  Broken  Glass”;  night  of  November  9th,  1938  on  which   Nazi  storm  troopers  attacked  Jewish  homes,  businesses,  &  synagogues   throughout  Germany    • Ghettos-­‐  city  neighborhoods  in  which  European  Jews  were  forced  to  live  • Final  Solution-­‐  Hitler’s  program  of  systematically  killing  the  entire  Jewish  people  • Genocide-­‐  the  systematic  killing  of  an  entire  people  •  Eisenhower-­‐  American  general  who  led  the  allied  force  of  over  100,000  in   Operation  Torch    • Battle  of  Stalingrad-­‐  1942/43  battle  of  WWII,  in  which  German  forces  were   defeated  in  an  attempt  to  capture  the  city  of  Stalingrad  in  the  Soviet  Union  • D-­‐Day-­‐  June  6th,  1944;  day  on  which  the  Allies  began  their  invasion  of  the   European  mainland  during  WWII  • Kamikaze-­‐  WWII  Japanese  suicide  pilots  trained  to  sink  Allied  ships  by  crashing   bomb  filled  planes  into  them  • Nuremburg  Trials-­‐  series  of  court  proceedings  held  in  Nuremburg,  Germany  after   WWII,  where  Nazi  leaders  were  tried  for  aggression,  violations  on  the  rules  of   war,  &  crimes  against  humanity  
  6. 6. • Marshall  Plan-­‐  US  program  of  economic  aid  to  European  countries  to  help  them   rebuild  after  WWII  • United  Nations-­‐  international  peacekeeping  organization  founded  in  1945  to   provide  security  to  the  nations  of  the  world  • Iron  Curtain-­‐  during  the  Cold  War,  the  boundary  separating  the  Communist   nations  of  Europe  from  the  mostly  democratic  nations  of  Western  Europe  • Containment-­‐  US  foreign  policy  adopted  by  President  Truman  in  the  late  1940s,   where  the  US  tried  to  stop  the  spread  of  communism  by  creating  alliances  &   helping  weak  countries  to  resist  Soviet  advances  •  Truman  Doctrine-­‐  announce  by  President  Truman  in  ’47,  a  US  policy  of  giving   economic  &  military  aid  to  free  nations  threatened  by  internal  or  external   opponents    • Cold  War-­‐  state  of  diplomatic  hostility  between  the  US  &  the  USSR  in  the   decades  following  WWII  • NATO-­‐  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization;  a  defensive  military  alliance  formed  in   1949  by  10  western  European  nations,  USA,  &  Canada  • Warsaw  Pact-­‐  military  alliance  formed  in  1955  by  the  Soviet  Union  &  7  eastern   European  countries  • Brinkmanship-­‐  policy  of  threatening  to  go  to  war  in  response  to  any  enemy   aggression  • 38th  Parallel-­‐  the  line  at  which  Korea  gets  separated  into  north  &  south;  38   degrees  north  latitude    • Douglas  MacArthur-­‐  US  general  who  led  15  nations  to  stop  the  invasion  of  Korea  • Ho  Chi  Minh-­‐  Vietnamese  nationalist  who  created  the  Indochinese  Communist   Party  &  led  revolts  against  France  • Domino  Theory-­‐  idea  that  if  a  nation  falls  under  Communist  control,  nearby   nations  will  also  fall  under  Communist  control    • Fidel  Castro-­‐  young  lawyer  who  led  the  Cuban  Revolution  and  became  a  dictator   and  replaced  the  US  with  the  USSR  for  economic  &  military  aid  • Nikita  Khrushchev-­‐  dominant  leader  of  USSR  after  the  death  of  Stalin  who   started  destalinization    • Destalinization-­‐  purging  the  country  of  Stalin’s  memory  • Détente-­‐  policy  of  reducing  Cold  War  tensions  that  was  adopted  by  the  US   during  Nixon’s  presidency    • S.A.L.T.-­‐  “  Strategic  Arms  Limitations  Talks”;  series  of  meeting  in  the  ‘70s  where   leaders  of  the  US  &  USSR  agreed  to  limit  their  nations’  stocks  of  nuclear  weapons    

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