Marketing
Strategy

Social
Environment

er
sum
Con avior
Beh

Ps
En ych
vir olo
on gic
m al
en
t

Social Class & Influence...
Complex Model of Buyer Behavior
SOCIAL
INFLUENCES

-- Culture

SITUATIONAL
INFLUENCES

• Family
• Reference
Groups
- Socia...
Social Influences on Buyer Behavior
Culture & subculture

Family Values
Social Class

ORGANIZATIONS

REFERENCE
REFERENCE
G...
Cultural Forces
produce one’s basic attitudes, customs, and lifestyles

Social Institutions:
Political - Legal
Economic
Ed...
Core Cultural Values
Value
Progress

Material
comfort

General
Feature

Relevance to
Consumer Behavior

People can
improve...
Core Cultural Values
Value
Achievement
and success
(work ethic)
Activity
Efficiency and
practicality

General
Feature

Rel...
Core Cultural Values
Value
Individualism
(responsibility?)

Freedom
(equality)

General
Feature

Relevance to
Consumer Beh...
A Model of Values & Product Images
Cultural meaning in macro social and
physical environment
Marketing
strategies

Fashion...
Environmental Sensitivity..
is adapting to the culture-specific needs & wants
of different markets
Values

Negative
(-)

B...
Socialization Process
The process through which a person acquires the values, norms and
personal skills to function in soc...
Social Influences on the
Buying Decision Process
• Family decision-making processes
 Autonomic - equally shared decision-...
Retail stores have a social status

Product Involvement: Many consumers
value shopping activities & finding bargains.
Social Class Behavioral Traits and
Purchasing Characteristics
Upper Class (5% of Population)
Includes upper-upper, lower-u...
Social Class Behavioral Traits and
Purchasing Characteristics
Middle Class (41% of Population)
Behavioral Traits

Often in...
Social Class Behavioral Traits and
Purchasing Characteristics
Working Class (20% of Population)
Behavioral Traits

Emphasi...
Social Class Behavioral Traits and
Purchasing Characteristics
Lower Class (34% of Population)
Behavioral Traits

Buying Ch...
Reference Groups for a
College
Camera
club
Athletic
club
Classmates

Employees
at job

Spectators at
various events

Membe...
Flows of influence in social environment

The Social Norm component
influences most brand choices.
A Model of Consumer Decision Making
Information in the
environment
Interpretation
Exposure,attention,
and comprehension
Me...
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Social groups and culture final

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Social groups and culture final

  1. 1. Marketing Strategy Social Environment er sum Con avior Beh Ps En ych vir olo on gic m al en t Social Class & Influence of cultures
  2. 2. Complex Model of Buyer Behavior SOCIAL INFLUENCES -- Culture SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES • Family • Reference Groups - Social Classes • Roles PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES (Complex Mental Processes) Consumer Decision Process Your marketing mix stimulates the “Black Box’s” Influence on product decisions
  3. 3. Social Influences on Buyer Behavior Culture & subculture Family Values Social Class ORGANIZATIONS REFERENCE REFERENCE GROUPS GROUPS Roles MEDIA (Complex Mental Processes) Consumer Behaviors Your marketing mix stimulates the “Black Box’s” Influence on product decisions
  4. 4. Cultural Forces produce one’s basic attitudes, customs, and lifestyles Social Institutions: Political - Legal Economic Educational Social Values: Religious Roles Morality Norms Family Roles Psychological sources Situational sources Cultural Forces Decision making Work Ethic Materialism Culture – shared social values, norms & roles ... “a handed down way of life”
  5. 5. Core Cultural Values Value Progress Material comfort General Feature Relevance to Consumer Behavior People can improve themselves; tomorrow should be better Stimulates desire for new products that fulfill unsatisfied needs; New product acceptance that claim to be “new” or “improved” “The good life” Fosters acceptance of convenience and luxury products that make life more enjoyable
  6. 6. Core Cultural Values Value Achievement and success (work ethic) Activity Efficiency and practicality General Feature Relevance to Consumer Behavior Success flows from hard work Acts as a justification for acquisition of goods Keeping busy is healthy & natural Stimulates interest in products that save time and enhance leisuretime Admiration of things that solve problems (e.g., save time and effort) Stimulates purchase of products that function well and save time (“You deserve it”)
  7. 7. Core Cultural Values Value Individualism (responsibility?) Freedom (equality) General Feature Relevance to Consumer Behavior Being one’s self (e.g., self-reliance, self-interest, and self-esteem (Self-fulfillment) Stimulates acceptance of customized or unique products that enable a person to “express his or her own personality” Freedom of choice Fosters interest in wide product lines and differentiated products
  8. 8. A Model of Values & Product Images Cultural meaning in macro social and physical environment Marketing strategies Fashion systems Institutions Educ – Gov’t Cultural meaning in products and services Time-Space Rituals – Symbols - Gestures Colors Cultural values & norms in consumers Social interactions Intentional actions
  9. 9. Environmental Sensitivity.. is adapting to the culture-specific needs & wants of different markets Values Negative (-) Beliefs Positive (+)
  10. 10. Socialization Process The process through which a person acquires the values, norms and personal skills to function in society as a consumer. Family: Parents -- Children (relationship(s)) verbal discussions actual behaviors Religion Social Influences: Peers - Community - Media
  11. 11. Social Influences on the Buying Decision Process • Family decision-making processes  Autonomic - equally shared decision-making  Husband-dominant -husband makes decisions  Wife-dominant—wife makes decisions Syncratic—decisions made jointly
  12. 12. Retail stores have a social status Product Involvement: Many consumers value shopping activities & finding bargains.
  13. 13. Social Class Behavioral Traits and Purchasing Characteristics Upper Class (5% of Population) Includes upper-upper, lower-upper, upper-middle Behavioral Traits Income varies among the groups but goals are the same brands Various lifestyles: conventional, intellectual, etc. Neighborhood and prestigious schooling important Buying Characteristics Prize quality merchandise Favor prestigious Products purchased reflect good taste, Invest in art, Spend money on travel, theater, books, tennis, golf, Source: Adapted with permission from Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research, Dec. 1983, pp. 265-80, with data from J. Paul Peter and Jerry C. Olson, Consumer Behavior: Marketing Strategy Perspective (Homewood, Ill.; Irwin, 1987), p. 433 and swimming clubs.
  14. 14. Social Class Behavioral Traits and Purchasing Characteristics Middle Class (41% of Population) Behavioral Traits Often in management Considered white collar Buying Characteristics Like fashionable items Consult experts via Prize good schools books, articles, etc., Desire an attractive home before purchasing in a nice, well-maintained Spend for experiences neighborhood considered worthwhile Often emulate the upper class for their children . . (e.g., ski trips,college Enjoy travel and physical activity education, Often very involved in children’s Tour packages, school and sports activities weekend tours Source: Adapted with permission from Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research, Dec. 1983, pp. 265-80, with data from J. Paul Peter and Jerry C. Olson, Consumer Behavior: Marketing Strategy Perspective (Homewood, Ill.; Irwin, 1987), p. 433
  15. 15. Social Class Behavioral Traits and Purchasing Characteristics Working Class (20% of Population) Behavioral Traits Emphasis on family, especially for economic and emotional support (e.g., job opportunity tips, help in times of trouble) Blue collar Earn good incomes Enjoy mechanical items and equiprecreational activities Enjoy leisure time after working hard Buying Characteristics Buy vehicles & equipment related to recreation,camping and selected sports Strong sense of value Shop for best bargains at offprice and discount stores Purchase automotive ment for making repairs Enjoy local travel, recreational parks Source: Adapted with permission from Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research, Dec. 1983, pp. 265-80, with data from J. Paul Peter and Jerry C. Olson, Consumer Behavior: Marketing Strategy Perspective (Homewood, Ill.; Irwin, 1987), p. 433
  16. 16. Social Class Behavioral Traits and Purchasing Characteristics Lower Class (34% of Population) Behavioral Traits Buying Characteristics most products purchased include individuals on are for survival Ability to convert good Can discards into useable welfare and the homeless items. Often have strong religious beliefs May be forced to live in less desirable neighborhoods In spite of their problems, often goodhearted toward others Enjoy everyday activities when possible Source: Adapted with permission from Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research, Dec. 1983, pp. 265-80, with data from J. Paul Peter and Jerry C. Olson, Consumer Behavior: Marketing Strategy Perspective (Homewood, Ill.; Irwin, 1987), p. 433
  17. 17. Reference Groups for a College Camera club Athletic club Classmates Employees at job Spectators at various events Membership groups Friends Family Dorm or roommates Reference groups Successful young businesspeople Professional athletes and entertainers
  18. 18. Flows of influence in social environment The Social Norm component influences most brand choices.
  19. 19. A Model of Consumer Decision Making Information in the environment Interpretation Exposure,attention, and comprehension Memory Product knowledge and involvement Knowledge, meanings and beliefs Integration Attitudes and intentions Behavior Consumer decision making

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