Endocrinology of reproduction

Reproductive System

28-1
Anatomy of Male
Reproductive System
• Testes
• Series of ducts
– Epididymides
– Ductus deferentia
– Urethra

• Accessory g...
Male Pelvis

28-3
Testes
• Glands
– Exocrine
– Endocrine

• Compartments divided
by septa
– Seminiferous tubules
• Empty into rete testis
• ...
Histology of Testis

28-5
Descent of Testes

28-6
Sperm Cell Development
• Spermatozoa produced
in seminiferous tubules
• Spermatogonia divide
(mitosis) to form
primary spe...
Spermatogenesis

28-8
Meiosis

28-9
Ducts
• Epididymis
– Site of sperm cell
maturation

• Ductus deferens or vas
deferens
– Passes from
epididymis into
abdomi...
Male Reproductive Structures

28-11
Penis
• Three columns of
erectile tissue that
engorge with blood
– Corpora cavernosa (2)
– Corpus spongiosum (1)

• Glans ...
Penis

28-13
Accessory Glands
• Bulbourethral glands

• Seminal vesicles
– Empty into ejaculatory
duct
– Produce about 60% of
semen

• ...
Regulation of Sex Hormone
Secretion
• Hypothalamus releases
– GnRH or LHRH which
stimulates
• LH or ICSH to produce
testos...
Puberty and Testosterone
• Puberty
– Age at which
individuals become
capable of sexual
reproduction
• Before puberty small...
Male Sexual Behavior and
Male Sex Act
• Male sexual behavior
– Testosterone required to initiate and maintain

• Male sex ...
Neural Control of Erection
• Stimulation
– Tactile or
psychological
– Parasympathetic
• Erection due to
vasodilation of bl...
Anatomy of Female
Reproductive System
• Female reproductive organs
–
–
–
–
–
–

Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Extern...
Female Pelvis

28-20
Uterus, Vagina, Uterine Tubes,
Ovaries and Supporting Ligaments

28-21
Ovary Histology

28-22
Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte

28-23
Maturation and Fertilization
of Oocyte

28-24
Follicle and Oocyte Development
• Oogenesis is the production
of a secondary oocyte in
ovaries
• Oogonia are cells from
wh...
Ovulation and Follicle Fate
• Ovulation
– Follicle swells and
ruptures, secondary
oocyte is released from
ovary
– Second m...
Uterine Tubes and Uterus
• Uterine or fallopian
tubes or oviducts
– Open directly into
peritoneal cavity to
receive oocyte...
Vagina and Perineum
• Perineum

• Vagina
– Female organ of
copulation
– Allows menstrual flow
and childbirth
– Hymen cover...
Female External Genitalia
• Vulva or pudendum or
external female genitalia
– Vestibule: Space
• Labia minora: Form
borders...
Female Perineum

28-30
Mammary Glands
• Organs of milk
production located
within mammae or
breasts
– Consist of glandular
lobes and adipose
tissu...
Puberty and Menstrual Cycle
• Menstrual Cycle

• Puberty
– Begins with menarche
or first episode of
menstrual bleeding
– B...
Menstrual Cycle

28-33
Hormone Regulation during
Menstrual Cycle

28-34
Female Sexual Behavior
and Sex Act
• Female sexual behavior
– Depends on hormones
• Androgens and steroids

– Depends on
p...
Female Fertility and Pregnancy
• Female fertility
– Sperm ejaculated into
vagina during
copulation and
transported through...
Sperm Cell Movement

28-37
Changes in Hormones During
Pregnancy

28-38
Control of Pregnancy
• Behavioral methods
– Abstinence
– Coitus interruptus
– Rhythm method

• Barrier methods
– Condom
• ...
Effects of Aging
• Male
– Decrease in size and
weight of testes
– Decrease in sperm
production
– Prostate gland enlarges
a...
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Reproductive system

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Reproductive system

  1. 1. Endocrinology of reproduction Reproductive System 28-1
  2. 2. Anatomy of Male Reproductive System • Testes • Series of ducts – Epididymides – Ductus deferentia – Urethra • Accessory glands – Seminal vesicles – Prostate gland – Bulbourethral glands • Supporting structures – Scrotum • 2 chambered sac that contains testes • Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature – Penis • Perineum – Diamond-shaped areas between thighs 28-2
  3. 3. Male Pelvis 28-3
  4. 4. Testes • Glands – Exocrine – Endocrine • Compartments divided by septa – Seminiferous tubules • Empty into rete testis • Empties into efferent ductules – Interstitial or Leydig cells • Descent – Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum • Cryptorchidism – Failure of of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum – Prevents normal sperm development 28-4
  5. 5. Histology of Testis 28-5
  6. 6. Descent of Testes 28-6
  7. 7. Sperm Cell Development • Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules • Spermatogonia divide (mitosis) to form primary spermatocytes • Primary spermatocytes (first division of meiosis) divide to form secondary spermatocytes • Secondary spermatocytes (second division of meiosis) divide to form spermatids • Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum • Sertoli cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood-testis barrier and produce hormones 28-7
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis 28-8
  9. 9. Meiosis 28-9
  10. 10. Ducts • Epididymis – Site of sperm cell maturation • Ductus deferens or vas deferens – Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity • Ejaculatory duct – Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle • Urethra – Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis – Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids – 3 parts • Prostatic urethra • Membranous urethra • Spongy or penile urethra 28-10
  11. 11. Male Reproductive Structures 28-11
  12. 12. Penis • Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood – Corpora cavernosa (2) – Corpus spongiosum (1) • Glans penis – Prepuce or foreskin covers • Circumcision: Surgical removal • External urethra orifice 28-12
  13. 13. Penis 28-13
  14. 14. Accessory Glands • Bulbourethral glands • Seminal vesicles – Empty into ejaculatory duct – Produce about 60% of semen • Prostate gland – Produces about 30% of semen – Contribute about 5% to semen • Secretions – Semen • Composite of sperm cells and secretions – Emission • Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra – Ejaculation • Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra 28-14
  15. 15. Regulation of Sex Hormone Secretion • Hypothalamus releases – GnRH or LHRH which stimulates • LH or ICSH to produce testosterone • FSH to stimulate sperm cell formation • Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary 28-15
  16. 16. Puberty and Testosterone • Puberty – Age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction • Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release • During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release, resulting in increased FSH,LH, and testosterone • Testosterone – Produced by interstitial cells, adrenal cortex and sustentacular cells – Causes development of male sex organs in embryo, stimulates descent of testes, causes enlargement of genitals and necessary for sperm cell formation 28-16
  17. 17. Male Sexual Behavior and Male Sex Act • Male sexual behavior – Testosterone required to initiate and maintain • Male sex act – Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation – Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution 28-17
  18. 18. Neural Control of Erection • Stimulation – Tactile or psychological – Parasympathetic • Erection due to vasodilation of blood vessels – Sympathetic • Causes erection, emission, ejaculation • Erectile Dysfunction 28-18
  19. 19. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System • Female reproductive organs – – – – – – Ovaries Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina External genital organs Mammary glands 28-19
  20. 20. Female Pelvis 28-20
  21. 21. Uterus, Vagina, Uterine Tubes, Ovaries and Supporting Ligaments 28-21
  22. 22. Ovary Histology 28-22
  23. 23. Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte 28-23
  24. 24. Maturation and Fertilization of Oocyte 28-24
  25. 25. Follicle and Oocyte Development • Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries • Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop • Primary oocytes are surround by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle • Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyte enlarges and cells change • Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or graafian follicle – Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate • Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division to produce secondary oocyte and a polar body • Secondary oocyte begins second meiotic division, which stops in metaphase II 28-25
  26. 26. Ovulation and Follicle Fate • Ovulation – Follicle swells and ruptures, secondary oocyte is released from ovary – Second meiotic division completed when secondary oocyte unites with sperm cell to form zygote • Fate of the follicle – Graafian follicle become corpus luteum – If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists – If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans 28-26
  27. 27. Uterine Tubes and Uterus • Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts – Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary – Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus • Uterus – Parts: Body, isthmus, cervix – Composed of 3 layers • Perimetrium: Serous membrane • Myometrium: Smooth muscle • Endometrium: Mucous membrane 28-27
  28. 28. Vagina and Perineum • Perineum • Vagina – Female organ of copulation – Allows menstrual flow and childbirth – Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice – Divided into two triangles • Urogenital: Contains the external genitalia • Anal triangle • Clinical perineum – Region between vagina and anus – Episiotomy: Incision to prevent tearing during childbirth 28-28
  29. 29. Female External Genitalia • Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia – Vestibule: Space • Labia minora: Form borders on sides • Clitoris: Erectile structure – Corpora cavernosa – Corpora spongiosa – Labia majora • Unite to form mons pubis 28-29
  30. 30. Female Perineum 28-30
  31. 31. Mammary Glands • Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts – Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue – Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts 28-31
  32. 32. Puberty and Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual Cycle • Puberty – Begins with menarche or first episode of menstrual bleeding – Begins when GnRH levels increase – About 28 days long – Phases • • • • Menses Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menses – Amenorrhea: Absence of a menstrual cycle – Menopause: Cessation of menstrual cycles 28-32
  33. 33. Menstrual Cycle 28-33
  34. 34. Hormone Regulation during Menstrual Cycle 28-34
  35. 35. Female Sexual Behavior and Sex Act • Female sexual behavior – Depends on hormones • Androgens and steroids – Depends on psychological factors • Female sex act – Parasympathetic stimulation • Blood engorgement in clitoris and around vaginal opening • Erect nipples • Mucouslike fluid extruded into vagina and through wall – Orgasm not necessary for fertilization to occur 28-35
  36. 36. Female Fertility and Pregnancy • Female fertility – Sperm ejaculated into vagina during copulation and transported through cervix and uterine tubes to ampulla – Sperm cells undergo capacitation • Pregnancy – Oocyte can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation – Sperm cells can be viable for up to 6 days in female tract – Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation occurs anywhere other than uterine cavity 28-36
  37. 37. Sperm Cell Movement 28-37
  38. 38. Changes in Hormones During Pregnancy 28-38
  39. 39. Control of Pregnancy • Behavioral methods – Abstinence – Coitus interruptus – Rhythm method • Barrier methods – Condom • Male and female – Diaphragm – Cervical cap – Spermicidal agents • Lactation • Chemical methods – Oral contraceptives – Injections as DepoProvera – Implants – Morning-after pills • Surgical methods – Vasectomy – Tubal ligation – Abortions 28-39
  40. 40. Effects of Aging • Male – Decrease in size and weight of testes – Decrease in sperm production – Prostate gland enlarges and increase in cancer – Impotence is agerelated – Decrease in sexual activity • Female – Menopause – Decrease in size of uterus and vaginal wall thins – Age related increase in breast, uterine, ovarian cancer 28-40

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