Pneumonia final ppt 24.09.12
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    Pneumonia final ppt 24.09.12 Pneumonia final ppt 24.09.12 Presentation Transcript

    • PNEUMONIA PREPARED & PRESENTED BY: GROUP NO.1 Ms. Vandana Dubey Ms. Priti Tawde Mr. Narendra Daundkar Mr. Khandu Chaudhari UNDER GUIDANCE OF: Ms. Sheetal Mam
    • PNEUMONIA • OUTLINES  Introduction  Signs and Symptoms  Etiology  Diagnosis  Complications  Treatment  General Management
    • PNEUMONIA  Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of your lungs.  Characterized primarily by inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs (alveoli are microscopic sacs in the lungs that absorb oxygen).
    • TYPES OF PNEUMONIA Pneumonia affects your lungs in two Ways . According to areas involved :  Lobar pneumonia : affects a section (lobe) of a lung.  Bronchial pneumonia (Bronchopneumonia) : affects patches throughout both lungs.
    • LOBAR PNEUMONIA
    • BRONCHOPNEUMONIA (Bronchitis and Pneumonia occur together)
    • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  High fever, Shaking Chills  Shortness of breath (Dyspnoea)  Increased breathing rate  Chest pain when you breathe deeply or cough  Dusky or purplish skin colour (cyanosis) from poorly oxygenated blood  Fatigue and muscle aches  Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea  Cough, particularly cough productive of sputum
    • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Streptococcus pneumoniae: Rust-colored sputum Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, and pneumococcal species: May produce green sputum Klebsiella species pneumonia: Red currant-jelly sputum Anaerobic infections: Often produce foul-smelling or bad- tasting sputum  Newborns and infants may not show any sign of the infection. Or they may vomit, have a fever and cough, appear restless or tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and eating.  Older people who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness.
    • ETIOLOGY  Bacteria : Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae , Pneumocystis jiroveci .  Viruses : Influenza virus, Adenoviruses, Rhinovirus  Mycoplasmas : They are not classified as to whether they are bacteria or viruses, but they have traits of both.  Other infectious agents, such as fungi : Pneumocystis carini  Various Chemicals
    • Who gets Pneumonia?  Cigarette smoking  Recent viral respiratory infection—a cold, laryngitis, influenza etc.  Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or other neurological conditions)  Chronic lung disease such as COPD, bronchietasis or cystic fibrosis  Other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or diabetes  Living in a nursing facility  Impaired consciousness (loss of brain function due to dementia, stroke, or other neurologic conditions)
    • DIAGNOSIS  Chest X-rays  Blood tests  Sputum test  Bronchoscopy  Pulse oximetry
    • COMPLICATIONS  Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia)  Lung abscess.  Build up of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusion).  Difficulty breathing.  Shock and respiratory failure  Septic arthritis  Endocarditis
    • TREATMENT • Most people can be treated at home. • If pneumonia becomes so severe that treatment is in the hospital, you may receive fluids and antibiotics in your veins, oxygen therapy, and possibly breathing treatments. • Viral Pneumonia: Anti-virals like Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) • Bacterial pneumonia: Patients with mild pneumonia who are otherwise healthy are treated with oral macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin). • Patients with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or emphysema, kidney disease, or diabetes are often given more powerful and/or higher dose antibiotics.
    • ANTIBIOTICS 1. Penicillin: common penicillins used to treat pneumonia-  Amoxicillin (Amoxil)  Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin)  Ampicillin (Rimacillin)  Benzylpenicillin (Crystapen)  Piperacillin-tazobactam (Tazocin)  Ticarcillin-clavulanate (Timentin). • There is a risk of a type of jaundice if you take amoxicillin- clavulanate. (affects liver function)
    • Contd.. 2. Macrolides: • Often prescribed. Interference with other medicines. • Stomach cramps and can damage liver if taken for long time. Common macrolides used are-  Azithromycin (Zithromax)  Clarithromycin (Klaricid)  Erythromycin (Erymax, Erythrocin). 3. Ceftaroline, a cephalosporin, is newly approved for the treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Fluoroquinolones • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) • Levofloxacin (Levaquin) • Gemifloxacin (Factive) • Side effects include-  Nervous system, mental, and heart problems  Sensitivity to light  Pregnant women should not take these medications.
    • MANAGEMENT OF PNEUMONIA  Don't smoke.  Practice good hygiene.  Stay rested and fit.  Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness.  Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and malnutrition) can decrease the risk of pneumonia.  Get a Pneumonia Vaccination.
    • VACCINATION Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar): For children less than 2 years of age or between two and four years with certain medical conditions. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax) : Adults who are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia, such as the elderly, diabetics, those with chronic heart, lung, or kidney disease, alcoholics, smokers, and those without a spleen.