Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of your lungs.
primarily by inflammation
of the alveoli in the lungs
(alveoli are microscopic sacs
in the lungs that absorb
TYPES OF PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia affects your lungs in two
According to areas involved :
Lobar pneumonia : affects a
section (lobe) of a lung.
affects patches throughout both lungs.
(Bronchitis and Pneumonia occur together)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
High fever, Shaking Chills
Shortness of breath (Dyspnoea)
Increased breathing rate
Chest pain when you breathe deeply or cough
Dusky or purplish skin colour (cyanosis) from poorly
Fatigue and muscle aches
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea
Cough, particularly cough productive of sputum
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Streptococcus pneumoniae: Rust-colored sputum
Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, and pneumococcal species: May
produce green sputum
Klebsiella species pneumonia: Red currant-jelly sputum
Anaerobic infections: Often produce foul-smelling or bad-
Newborns and infants may not show any sign of the infection.
Or they may vomit, have a fever and cough, appear restless or
tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and
Older people who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden
changes in mental awareness.
Bacteria : Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella
pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus
aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes,
Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and
Haemophilus influenzae , Pneumocystis jiroveci .
Viruses : Influenza virus, Adenoviruses, Rhinovirus
Mycoplasmas : They are not classified as to whether they are
bacteria or viruses, but they have traits of both.
Other infectious agents, such as fungi : Pneumocystis carini
Who gets Pneumonia?
Recent viral respiratory infection—a cold, laryngitis, influenza
Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke, dementia, Parkinson's
disease, or other neurological conditions)
Chronic lung disease such as COPD, bronchietasis or cystic
Other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis,
Living in a nursing facility
Impaired consciousness (loss of brain function due to
dementia, stroke, or other neurologic conditions)
Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia)
Build up of fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall
Shock and respiratory failure
• Most people can be treated at home.
• If pneumonia becomes so severe that treatment is in the hospital,
you may receive fluids and antibiotics in your veins, oxygen therapy,
and possibly breathing treatments.
• Viral Pneumonia: Anti-virals like Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir
• Bacterial pneumonia: Patients with mild pneumonia who are
otherwise healthy are treated with oral macrolide antibiotics
(azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin).
• Patients with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, or emphysema, kidney disease, or
diabetes are often given more powerful and/or higher dose
1. Penicillin: common penicillins used to treat pneumonia-
• There is a risk of a type of jaundice if you take amoxicillin-
clavulanate. (affects liver function)
• Often prescribed. Interference with other medicines.
• Stomach cramps and can damage liver if taken for long time.
Common macrolides used are-
Erythromycin (Erymax, Erythrocin).
3. Ceftaroline, a cephalosporin, is newly approved for the treatment
against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MRSA) and
multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
• Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
• Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
• Gemifloxacin (Factive)
• Side effects include-
Nervous system, mental, and heart problems
Sensitivity to light
Pregnant women should not take these medications.
MANAGEMENT OF PNEUMONIA
Practice good hygiene.
Stay rested and fit.
Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness.
Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS,
diabetes mellitus, and malnutrition) can decrease the risk of
Get a Pneumonia Vaccination.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar):
For children less than 2 years of age or between two and four years
with certain medical conditions.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Adults who are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal
pneumonia, such as the elderly, diabetics, those with chronic heart,
lung, or kidney disease, alcoholics, smokers, and those without a