Mis10 ch06 ppt

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Mis10 ch06 ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management 7.1 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Management Information Systems OBJECTIVES • Describe basic file organization concepts and the problems of managing data resources in a traditional file environment • Describe how a database management system organizes information and compare the principal database models • Apply important database design principles 7.2 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  3. 3. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT File Organization Terms and Concepts • Bit: Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1) • Byte: Group of bits that represents a single character • Field: Group of words or a complete number • Record: Group of related fields • File: Group of records of same type 7.3 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  4. 4. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT File Organization Terms and Concepts (Continued) • Database: Group of related files • Entity: Person, place, thing, event about which information is maintained • Attribute: Description of a particular entity • Key field: Identifier field used to retrieve, update, sort a record 7.4 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  5. 5. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT The Data Hierarchy 7.5 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  6. 6. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Entities and Attributes 7.6 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  7. 7. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Problems with the Traditional File Environment Data Redundancy and Inconsistency: • Data redundancy: The presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than one place or location • Data inconsistency: The same attribute may have different values. 7.7 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  8. 8. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Problems with the Traditional File Environment (Continued) Program-data dependence: • The coupling of data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files such that changes in programs require changes to the data Lack of flexibility: • A traditional file system can deliver routine scheduled reports after extensive programming efforts, but it cannot deliver ad-hoc reports or respond to unanticipated information requirements in a timely fashion. 7.8 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  9. 9. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Problems with the Traditional File Environment (Continued) Poor security: • Because there is little control or management of data, management will have no knowledge of who is accessing or even making changes to the organization’s data. Lack of data sharing and availability: 7.9 • Information cannot flow freely across different functional areas or different parts of the organization. Users find different values of the same piece of information in two different systems, and hence they may not use these systems because they cannot trust the accuracy of the data. © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  10. 10. Management Information Systems ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Traditional File Processing 7.10 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  11. 11. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Database Management System (DBMS) • Software for creating and maintaining databases • Permits firms to rationally manage data for the entire firm • Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files • Separates logical and design views of data • Solves many problems of the traditional data file approach 7.11 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  12. 12. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT The Contemporary Database Environment 7.12 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  13. 13. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Components of DBMS: • Data definition language: Specifies content and structure of database and defines each data element • Data manipulation language: Used to process data in a database • Data dictionary: Stores definitions of data elements and data characteristics two types : passive and active 7.13 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  14. 14. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Sample Data Dictionary Report 7.14 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  15. 15. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Types of Databases: • Relational DBMS • Hierarchical and network DBMS • Object-oriented databases 7.15 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  16. 16. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Relational DBMS: • Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations • Relates data across tables based on common data element • Examples: DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server 7.16 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  17. 17. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT The Relational Data Model 7.17 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  18. 18. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database: • Select: Creates subset of rows that meet specific criteria • Join: Combines relational tables to provide users with information • Project: Enables users to create new tables containing only relevant information 7.18 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  19. 19. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT The Three Basic Operations of a Relational DBMS 7.19 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  20. 20. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Hierarchical DBMS: • Organizes data in a tree-like structure • Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships • Prevalent in large legacy systems 7.20 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  21. 21. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT A Hierarchical Database for a Human Resources System 7.21 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  22. 22. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Network DBMS: • Depicts data logically as many-to-many relationships 7.22 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  23. 23. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT The Network Data Model 7.23 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  24. 24. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Disadvantages: • Outdated • Less flexible compared to RDBMS • Lack support for ad-hoc and English languagelike queries • All paths for accessing data must be specified in advance. 7.24 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  25. 25. Management Information Systems THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Object-Oriented Databases: • Object-oriented DBMS: Stores data and procedures as objects that can be retrieved and shared automatically • Handling graphics-based or multimedia applications • slower than RDBMS for processing large transactions • Object-relational DBMS: Provides capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS 7.25 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  26. 26. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Designing Databases: • Conceptual design: Abstract model of database from a business perspective • Physical design: Detailed description of business information needs .How the database is actually arranged on direct-access storage devices 7.26 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  27. 27. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Designing Databases: (Continued) • Entity-relationship diagram: Methodology for documenting databases illustrating relationships between database entities • Normalization: Process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data 7.27 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  28. 28. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Unnormalized Relation for ORDER 7.28 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  29. 29. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Normalized Tables Created from ORDER 7.29 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  30. 30. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Entity-Relationship Diagram 7.30 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  31. 31. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT An Entity-Relationship Diagram 7.31 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  32. 32. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Distributing Databases how the data are to be distributed Two ways, 1. Centralized database 2. Distributed database 7.32 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  33. 33. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Centralized database: • Used by single central processor or multiple processors in client/server network • There are advantages and disadvantages to having all corporate data in one location. • Security is higher in central environments, risks lower. 7.33 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  34. 34. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Distributed database: • Databases can be decentralized either by partitioning or by replicating • Partitioned database: Database is divided into segments or regions. For example, a customer database can be divided into Eastern customers and Western customers, and two separate databases maintained in the two regions. 7.34 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  35. 35. Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT • Duplicated database: The database is completely duplicated at two or more locations. The separate databases are synchronized in off hours on a batch basis. • Regardless of which method is chosen, data administrators and business managers need to understand how the data in different databases will be coordinated and how business processes might be effected by the decentralization. 7.35 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  36. 36. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Distributed Databases 7.36 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  37. 37. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Distributed Databases Advantages -Reduces the vulnerability of a single, massive central database Disadvantages -However it depends on high-quality telecommunications which themselves are vulnerable. -Local database can sometimes depart. -Security problem by widely distributing access to sensitive data 7.37 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  38. 38. Management Information Systems CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Ensuring Data Quality: • The quality of decision making in a firm is directly related to the quality of data in its databases. • Data Quality Audit: Structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system • Data Cleansing: Consists of activities for detecting and correcting data in a database or file that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant 7.38 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  39. 39. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Multidimensional Data Analysis Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): • Multidimensional data analysis – Slicing and Dicing • Supports manipulation and analysis of large volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspectives • Multidimensional analysis enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions • Each aspect of information- products,cost,region or time period represents a different dimensions 7.39 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  40. 40. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Multidimensional Data Model 7.40 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  41. 41. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS 7.41 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  42. 42. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Slicing 7.42 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  43. 43. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Dicing 7.43 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  44. 44. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data Mining Data warehouse: • Supports reporting and query tools • Stores current and historical data • Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making 7.44 • Data are standardised and consolidated in a single place © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  45. 45. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data Mining Data warehouse: • The data originate in many core operational systems & external sources including web site transactions. • The data from these diverse applications are copied into the data warehouse database often as neededhourly,daily,weekly • Data are available to everyone but can not be altered 7.45 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  46. 46. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Components of a Data Warehouse 7.46 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  47. 47. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Data mart: • Subset of data warehouse • Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users • Typically focus on a single subject • Eg:A company might develop a marketing & sales data marts to deal with customer information 7.47 • However,complexity,cost & management problems will arise if an organization creates too many data marts © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  48. 48. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Data mining: • Tools for analysing large pools of data • There are many mining applications • Uses variety of techniques to find hidden patterns & relationship in large pools of data & infer rules from them that can be used to predict future behaviour & guide decision making. • “Data image” - Data mining technique can combine information from many diverse sources to create a detailed Data image. 7.48 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  49. 49. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Benefits of Data Warehouses: • Improved and easy accessibility to information • Ability to model and remodel the data • Enable decision makers to access data without affecting the performance of the underlying operational system • It can be accessed using web technology also. 7.49 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  50. 50. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Databases and the Web The Web and Hypermedia database: • Organizes data as network of nodes • Links nodes in pattern specified by user • Supports text, graphic, sound, video, and executable programs 7.50 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  51. 51. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS A Hypermedia Database 7.51 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  52. 52. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Databases and the Web Database server: • Computer in a client/server environment runs a DBMS to process SQL statements and perform database management tasks. Application server: • Software handling all application operations 7.52 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  53. 53. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Databases and the Web Advantage in using the web to access an organization's internal database Web browser software is extremely easy to use. Requires less training for the user. The web interface requires no changes to the internal database 7.53 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  54. 54. Management Information Systems DATABASE TRENDS Linking Internal Databases to the Web 7.54 © 2006 by Prentice Hall
  55. 55. Management Information Systems MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, AND SOLUTIONS Management Challenges: • Need cooperation in developing corporate-wide data administration • Cost/benefit considerations Bringing about significant change in the database environment of a firm can be very expensive and time consuming. 7.55 © 2006 by Prentice Hall

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