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  1. 1. Models for Management Information System Presented By: 1 Presented To: Philomen Prem Julies Sagrae Vandana Dubey Sanjeev Kumar Swapnil Rathore Mayur Gupta 16-Sep-13 Jayesh Raut
  2. 2.  A system has structure, it contains parts (or components) that are directly or indirectly related to each other.  A system has behaviour, it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs.  A set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network. 2 16-Sep-13
  3. 3. Different types of System Development process:  Detailed System Study  System Analysis  System Design  Coding  Testing  Implementation  Maintenance 3 16-Sep-13
  4. 4. SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)  SDLC is the process of developing information systems through investigation, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance.  SDLC is also known as information systems development or application development.  SDLC is a systems approach to problem solving and is made up of several phases, each comprised of multiple steps. 4 16-Sep-13
  5. 5. Multiple steps of SLDC:  The software concept - identifies and defines a need for the new system  A requirements analysis - analyzes the information needs of the end users.  The architectural design - creates a blueprint for the design with the necessary specifications for the hardware, software, people and data resources.  Coding and debugging - creates and programs the final system. 5 16-Sep-13
  6. 6. The Most Commonly used SLDC models are:  Waterfall Model  V – Shaped Model  Spiral Model  Incremental Model 6 16-Sep-13
  7. 7. Waterfall Model: The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linearsequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed fully before the next phase can begin. At the end of each phase, a review takes place to determine if the project is on the right path 7 and whether or not to continue 16-Sep-13
  8. 8. Advantages :  Simple and easy to use.  Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process.  Phases are processed and completed one at a time.  Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood. 8 Disadvantages:  Adjusting scope during the life cycle can kill a project.  No working software is produced until late during the life cycle.  High amounts of risk and uncertainty.  Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects.  Poor model for long and ongoing projects. 16-Sep-13
  9. 9. V-Shaped Model: V- model means Verification and Validation model. Just like the waterfall model The V-Shaped life cycle is a sequential path of execution of processes. Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins. Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a corresponding phase of development. 9 16-Sep-13
  10. 10. Advantages : Disadvantages:  Simple and easy to use.  Very rigid, like the  Each phase has specific waterfall model.  Little flexibility and adjusting scope is difficult and expensive.  Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early prototypes of the software are produced.  Model doesn’t provide a 16-Sep-13 clear path for problems deliverables.  Higher chance of success over the waterfall model due to the development of test plans early on during the life cycle.  Works well for small projects where 10 requirements are easily
  11. 11. Spiral Model:  The spiral model is similar to       11 the incremental model, with more emphasis placed on risk analysis. The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations . The baseline spiral, starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed. Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral. Requirements are gathered during the planning phase. In the risk analysis phase, a process is undertaken to identify risk and alternate solutions. A prototype is produced at the end of the risk analysis phase. 16-Sep-13
  12. 12. Advantages : Changing requirements can be accommodated.  Allows for extensive use of prototypes  Requirements can be captured more accurately.  Users see the system early.  Development can be divided in to smaller parts and more risky parts can be developed earlier which helps better 12 risk management. Disadvantages:  Management is more      complex. End of project may not be known early. Not suitable for small or low risk projects (expensive for small projects). Process is complex Spiral may go indefinitely. Large number of 16-Sep-13 intermediate stages
  13. 13. RAD Model:  It is a model which is Rapid Application Development model.  It is a type of incremental model.  In RAD model the components or functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects.  The developments are time boxed, delivered and then assembled into a working prototype. 13  This can quickly give the customer something to see 16-Sep-13
  14. 14. Advantages :  Reduced development     14 time. Increases reusability of components Quick initial reviews occur Encourages customer feedback Integration from very beginning solves a lot of integration issues. Disadvantages:  Depends on strong     team and individual performances for identifying business requirements. Only system that can be modularized can be built using RAD Requires highly skilled developers/designers. High dependency on modeling skills Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of modeling and 16-Sep-13 automated
  15. 15. Incremental Model…  In incremental model the whole     15 requirement is divided into various builds. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed modules. Each module passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases. A working version of software is produced during the first module, so you have working software early on during the software life cycle. Each subsequent release of the module adds function to the previous release. The process continues till the complete system is For example: Diagram of MODEL: 16-Sep-13
  16. 16. Advantages :  Generates working      16 software quickly and early during the software life cycle. More flexible – less costly to change scope and requirements. Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration. Customer can respond to each built. Lowers initial delivery cost. Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled during it’d iteration. Disadvantages:  Needs good planning and design.  Needs a clear and complete definition of the whole system before it can be broken down and built incrementally.  Total cost is higher than waterfall. 16-Sep-13
  17. 17. CONCLUSION:  SDLC practice has advantage in traditional 17 models of software development that lends itself more to a structured environment.  Instead of viewing SDLC from a strength or weakness perspective, it is far more important to take the best practices from the SDLC model and apply it to whatever may be most appropriate for the software being designed.  People in the modern computing world would use a strict waterfall model for their system development as many modern methodologies have superseded this thinking. 16-Sep-13
  18. 18. 18 16-Sep-13