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Digestivesystem

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  • 1. The Digestive System Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 1
  • 2. Digestion • Processing of food • Types – Mechanical (physical) • • • • • Chew Tear Grind Mash Mix – Chemical • Catabolic reactions • Enzymatic hydrolysis – Carbohydrate – Protein – Lipid Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 2
  • 3. Digestion • Phases – – – – – Ingestion Movement Digestion Absorption Further digestion Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 3
  • 4. Digestive System Organization • Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal) – Tube within a tube – Direct link/path between organs – Structures • • • • • • • • • • • Mouth Oral Cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Duedenum Jejenum kIleum Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 4
  • 5. Digestive System Organization • • • • Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus • Accessory structures – Not in tube path – Organs • • • • • • Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder Pancreas Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 5
  • 6. Anatomy of the Mouth and Throat Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 6
  • 7. Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 7
  • 8. Dorsal Surface of the Tongue Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 8
  • 9. The Major Salivary Glands Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 9
  • 10. Deglutition (swallowing) • Sequence – Voluntary stage • Push food to back of mouth – Pharyngeal stage • Raise – Soft palate – Larynx + hyoid – Tongue to soft palate – Esophageal stage • Contract pharyngeal muscles • Open esophagus • Start peristalsis Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 10
  • 11. Deglutition (swallowing) • Control – Nerves • Glossopharyngeal • Vagus • Accessory – Brain stem • Deglutition center – Medulla oblongata – Pons – Disorders • Dysphagia • Aphagia Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 11
  • 12. Esophagus • Usually collapsed (closed) • 3 constrictions – Aortic arch – Left primary bronchus – Diaphragm • Surrounded by – SNS plexus – Blood vessels • Functions – Secrete mucous – Transport food Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 12
  • 13. Peristalsis and Segmentation Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 13
  • 14. Esophagus • Sphincters – Upper – Lower • Abnormalities – – – – – Achalasia Atresia Hernia Barret’s esophagus Esophageal varices Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 14
  • 15. Stomach • Usually “J” shaped • Left side, anterior to the spleen • Mucous membrane – G cells – make gastrin – Goblet cells – make mucous – Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl – Chief cells – Zymogenic cells • Pepsin • Gastric lipase Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 15
  • 16. Anatomy of the Stomach Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 16
  • 17. Stomach Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy • 3 muscle layers – Oblique – Circular – Longitudinal • Regions – – – – Cardiac sphincter Fundus Antrum (pylorus) Pyloric sphincter • Vascular • Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae • Contains enzymes that work best at pH 1-2 17
  • 18. Stomach • Functions – Absorbs – Mix food – Reservoir – Start digestion of • • • • • Protein • Nucleic acids • Fats Alcohol Water Lipophilic acid B 12 – Activates some enzymes – Destroy some bacteria – Makes intrinsic factor – B 12 absorption – Destroys some bacteria Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 18
  • 19. Small Intestine • Extends from pyloric sphincter  ileocecal valve • Regions – Duodenum – Jejenum – Ileum • Movements – Segmentation – Peristalsis Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 19
  • 20. Small Intestine • Histology – – – – – – – – – Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous Paneth cells – Lysozyme Microvilli Lacteals Plica circularis Smooth muscle Lymphatic tissue – GALT Vascular Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 20
  • 21. Small Intestine • Absorbs – – – – – – Lipids 80% ingested water Electrolytes Vitamins Minerals Carbonates • • • • Monoglycerides Fatty acids Micelles Chylomicrons • Active/facilitated transport • Monosaccharides – Proteins • Di-/tripeptides • Amino acids Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 21
  • 22. Structure of the Villi in the Small Intestine Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 22
  • 23. Small Intestine • Secretes digestive enzymes – Peptidases • Amino• Di• Tri- – – – – Sucrases Maltase Lactase Saccharidases • Di• Tri- – Lipase – Nucleases Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 23
  • 24. Small Intestine • Control • Requires pancreatic enzymes & bile to complete digestion Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 24
  • 25. Large Intestine • Extends from ileocecal valve to anus • Regions – Cecum – Appendix – Colon • Ascending • Transverse • Descending – Rectum – Anal canal Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 25
  • 26. Anatomy of the Large Intestine Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 26
  • 27. Large Intestine • Histology – No villi – No permanent circular folds – Smooth muscle • Taeniae coli • Haustra – Epiploic appendages – Otherwise like rest of Gl tract Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 27
  • 28. Large Intestine • Functions – Mechanical digestion • Haustral churning • Peristalsis • Reflexes – Gastroileal – Gastrocolic – Chemical digestion – Bacterial digestion – Absorbs •More water •Vitamins –B –K – Concentrate/eliminate wastes • Ferment carbohydrates • Protein/amino acid breakdown Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 28
  • 29. Feces Formation and Defecation • Chyme dehydrated to form feces • Feces composition – – – – – Water Inorganic salts Epithelial cells Bacteria Byproducts of digestion • Control – Parasympathetic – Voluntary • Defecation – Peristalsis pushes feces into rectum – Rectal walls stretch Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 29
  • 30. Liver • Location – R. Hypochondrium – Epigastric region • 4 Lobes – – – – Left Quadrate Caudate Right • Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes – Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 30
  • 31. Liver • Functions – Makes bile • Detergent – emulsifies fats • Release promoted by: – Vagus n. – CCK – Secretin • Contains – – – – – – Water Bile salts Bile pigments Electrolytes Cholesterol Lecithin Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 31
  • 32. Liver – Detoxifies/removes • Drugs • Alcohol – Stores • • • • – – – – Gycolgen Vitamins (A, D, E, K) Fe and other minerals Cholesterol Activates vitamin D Fetal RBC production Phagocytosis Metabolizes absorbed food molecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 32
  • 33. Liver • Dual blood supply – Hepatic portal vein • Direct input from small intestine – Hepatic artery/vein • Direct links to heart Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 33
  • 34. The Duodenum and Related Organs Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 34
  • 35. The Organs and Positions in the Abdominal Cavity Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 35
  • 36. Structures of the Alimentary Canal Proprietary & Confidential of DYPDBM: Dr Sippy 36