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Communication skills Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills11
  • 2. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills22 Presentation ContentPresentation Content  CommunicationCommunication  PresentationPresentation  QuestionQuestion
  • 3. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills33
  • 4. InformationInformation communicationcommunication revolutionsrevolutions
  • 5. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills55 Information communicationInformation communication revolutionsrevolutions  Researchers have divided how communication works intoResearchers have divided how communication works into 3 revolutions.3 revolutions. The 1st Information Communication Revolution:The 1st Information Communication Revolution:  The 1st written communication began with pictographs.The 1st written communication began with pictographs.  These writings can be found on stone, which were tooThese writings can be found on stone, which were too heavy to transfer.heavy to transfer.  During this era, written communication was not mobile.During this era, written communication was not mobile.
  • 6. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills66 Information communicationInformation communication revolutionsrevolutions The 2nd Information Communication Revolution:The 2nd Information Communication Revolution:  The Gutenberg press was invented. Gutenberg printed theThe Gutenberg press was invented. Gutenberg printed the 1st bible.1st bible.  The books were able to be transferred for others across theThe books were able to be transferred for others across the world to view.world to view.  Written communication is now storable, and portable.Written communication is now storable, and portable. The 3rd Information Communication Revolution:The 3rd Information Communication Revolution:  Information can now be transferred via waves, bits, andInformation can now be transferred via waves, bits, and other electronic signals.other electronic signals.
  • 7. CommunicationCommunication
  • 8. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills88 CommunicationCommunication  The purpose of communication is to get your messageThe purpose of communication is to get your message ((thoughts and ideas )thoughts and ideas ) across to others.across to others.  This is a process that involves both the sender of theThis is a process that involves both the sender of the message and the receiver.message and the receiver.  This process leaves room for error, with messages oftenThis process leaves room for error, with messages often misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved.misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved.  This causes unnecessary confusion and counterThis causes unnecessary confusion and counter productivity, both personally and professionally.productivity, both personally and professionally.  A message is successful only when both the sender and theA message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same wayreceiver perceive it in the same way  For successful communication - Getting your messageFor successful communication - Getting your message across is of paramount importance.across is of paramount importance.
  • 9. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills99 Communication GuidelinesCommunication Guidelines  Understand what your message isUnderstand what your message is  What audience you are sending it toWhat audience you are sending it to  How it will be perceivedHow it will be perceived  The circumstances surrounding your communications,The circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and cultural context.such as situational and cultural context.
  • 10. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1010 Types of CommunicationTypes of Communication 1.1. VerbalVerbal  Communication through talking and listeningCommunication through talking and listening 2.2. Non-VerbalNon-Verbal  When one communicate to make other understand theirWhen one communicate to make other understand their felling without talking to them is called non verbalfelling without talking to them is called non verbal communicationcommunication  Non verbal communication may be in the form of writtenNon verbal communication may be in the form of written,, posture , attitude , eye contact etc.posture , attitude , eye contact etc.
  • 11. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1111 Elements of CommunicationElements of Communication  There are three major parts in human face to faceThere are three major parts in human face to face communication which arecommunication which are 1.1. Body LanguageBody Language 2.2. Voice TonalityVoice Tonality 3.3. Words.Words.
  • 12. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1212 Elements of CommunicationElements of Communication  93% (55% + 38%) of93% (55% + 38%) of communication iscommunication is nonverbalnonverbal 55% body language-55% body language- postures, gestures,postures, gestures, through facialthrough facial expression and eyeexpression and eye contactcontact 38% through tone of38% through tone of voicevoice  7% Content or the words7% Content or the words used in theused in the communication process.communication process.
  • 13. Communication asCommunication as informationinformation transmissiontransmission
  • 14. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1414 Communication modelingCommunication modeling  Communication can be seen as processes of informationCommunication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules: 1.1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols)Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols) 2.2. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations betweenPragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users)signs/expressions and their users) 3.3. Semantic (study of relationships between signs andSemantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent).symbols and what they represent).
  • 15. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1515 Communication modelingCommunication modeling contdcontd ..  Therefore, communication is a kind of social interactionTherefore, communication is a kind of social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common setwhere at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules.of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. (This rule essentially ignores auto communication,(This rule essentially ignores auto communication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries orincluding intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk).self-talk).
  • 16. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1616 Simple model of Information TransmissionSimple model of Information Transmission  In a simple model,In a simple model, information or content (e.g. a message in naturalinformation or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language)language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from a emisor / sender / encoder to a destination /from a emisor / sender / encoder to a destination / receiver / decoder.receiver / decoder. In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiverIn a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally.are linked reciprocally.
  • 17. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1717 The model- Communication majorThe model- Communication major dimensions schemedimensions scheme
  • 18. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills1818 The Model - Communication code schemeThe Model - Communication code scheme
  • 19. CommunicationCommunication ProcessProcess
  • 20. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2020 Communication processesCommunication processes  Communication processes are;Communication processes are; 1.1. SenderSender 2.2. MessageMessage 3.3. ChannelChannel 4.4. ReceiverReceiver 5.5. FeedbackFeedback 6.6. ContextContext
  • 21. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2121 Communication processesCommunication processes contd.contd.
  • 22. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2222  Thought:Thought: First, information exists in the mind of theFirst, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, orsender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings.feelings.  Encoding:Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words orNext, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.other symbols.  Decoding:Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words orlastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she cansymbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand.understand.
  • 23. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2323 SenderSender  To establish yourself as an effective communicator –To establish yourself as an effective communicator – first establish credibility - by displaying knowledge of thefirst establish credibility - by displaying knowledge of the subject, the audience and the context in which the messagesubject, the audience and the context in which the message is delivered.is delivered.  Know your audience (individuals or groups to which youKnow your audience (individuals or groups to which you are delivering your message).are delivering your message).  Failure to understand who you are communicating to willFailure to understand who you are communicating to will result in misunderstanding.result in misunderstanding.
  • 24. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2424 MessageMessage  Written, oral and nonverbal communications are effectedWritten, oral and nonverbal communications are effected by the sender’s tone, method of organization, validity ofby the sender’s tone, method of organization, validity of the argument, what is communicated and what is left out,the argument, what is communicated and what is left out, as well as individual style of communicating.as well as individual style of communicating.  Messages also have intellectual and emotionalMessages also have intellectual and emotional components.components.  Intellectual component is the ability to reasonIntellectual component is the ability to reason  Emotional components present motivational appeals,Emotional components present motivational appeals, ultimately changing minds and actions.ultimately changing minds and actions.
  • 25. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2525 ChannelChannel Messages are conveyed through channelsMessages are conveyed through channels  Verbal Channels - face-to-face meetings, telephone andVerbal Channels - face-to-face meetings, telephone and video conferencing;video conferencing;  Written Channels - letters, emails, memos and reports.Written Channels - letters, emails, memos and reports.  Nonverbal Channels- Body LanguageNonverbal Channels- Body Language
  • 26. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2626 ReceiverReceiver  Messages are delivered and received by the audience.Messages are delivered and received by the audience.  The audience also enters into the communication processThe audience also enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influencewith ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message and their response.their understanding of your message and their response.  To be a successful communicator, you should considerTo be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, actingthese before delivering your message, acting appropriately.appropriately.
  • 27. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2727 FeedbackFeedback FeedbackFeedback  Audience will give feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactionsAudience will give feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message.to your communicated message.  Pay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial toPay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial to ensuring the audience understood your message.ensuring the audience understood your message.
  • 28. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2828 ContextContext  Context is the situation in which your message isContext is the situation in which your message is delivereddelivered  This may include the surrounding environment orThis may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, internationalbroader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).cultures, etc.).
  • 29. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills2929 ContentContent  Content is the actual words or symbols of the messageContent is the actual words or symbols of the message which is known aswhich is known as languagelanguage - the spoken and written- the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical andwords combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense.semantic sense.  We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently,We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood.so even simple messages can be misunderstood.  And many words have different meanings to confuse theAnd many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more.issue even more.
  • 30. Barriers toBarriers to CommunicationCommunication
  • 31. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3131 Barriers to CommunicationBarriers to Communication Nothing is so simple that it cannot beNothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood.misunderstood. Freeman Teague, Jr.Freeman Teague, Jr.
  • 32. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3232 Barriers to CommunicationBarriers to Communication contdcontd .. Removing Barriers At All These Stages:Removing Barriers At All These Stages: To deliver your messages effectively, youTo deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriersmust commit to breaking down the barriers that exist in each of these stages of thethat exist in each of these stages of the communication process.communication process.
  • 33. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3333 The Importance of RemovingThe Importance of Removing Communication BarriersCommunication Barriers  Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of theCommunication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the communication processcommunication process  Communication barriers can create misunderstanding andCommunication barriers can create misunderstanding and confusion.confusion.
  • 34. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3434 Types of Communication BarriersTypes of Communication Barriers  Anything that prevents understanding of the message is aAnything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication.barrier to communication.  Many physical and psychological barriers exist:Many physical and psychological barriers exist: 1. Senders 2. Culture, background, and bias 3. Noise 4. Ourselves 5. Perception 6. Message 7. Environmental 8. Smothering 9. Stress
  • 35. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3535 Barriers in sendersBarriers in senders    Offering too much information too fast.Offering too much information too fast.  Take care of other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-Take care of other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra- busy society.busy society.  Work on to understand your audience’s culture, making sureWork on to understand your audience’s culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people ofyou can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and culturesdifferent backgrounds and cultures..
  • 36. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3636 Culture, background, and biasCulture, background, and bias  We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of theWe allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message.message.  Culture, background, and bias they allow us to use our pastCulture, background, and bias they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something newexperiences to understand something new  But when they change the meaning of the message theyBut when they change the meaning of the message they interfere with the communication process.interfere with the communication process.
  • 37. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3737 NoiseNoise  Equipment or environmental noise impedes clearEquipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication.communication.  The sender and the receiver must both be able toThe sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.
  • 38. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3838 OurselvesOurselves  Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person canFocusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict.lead to confusion and conflict.  The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effectiveThe "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective communication.communication.  Some of the factors that cause this areSome of the factors that cause this are Defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us),Defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us), Superiority (we feel we know more that the other)Superiority (we feel we know more that the other) Ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).Ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).
  • 39. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills3939 PerceptionPerception  If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, doesIf we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person.not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person.  Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen.Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen.  We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismissWe listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status.those of low status.
  • 40. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4040 MessageMessage  If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or containsIf your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstooderrors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted.and misinterpreted.  Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse theUse of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message.message.  Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather thanDistractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea.the idea.  Semantic (change of meaning) distractions occur when aSemantic (change of meaning) distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer.word is used differently than you prefer.  For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, mayFor example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.cause you to focus on the word and not the message.
  • 41. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4141 Environmental and StressEnvironmental and Stress EnvironmentalEnvironmental  Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or anyBright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction.other stimulus provides a potential distraction. StressStress  People do not see things the same way when under stress.People do not see things the same way when under stress.  What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced byWhat we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values,our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals.knowledge, experiences, and goals.
  • 42. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4242 Smothering (conceal)Smothering (conceal)  We take it for granted that the impulse to send usefulWe take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic.information is automatic. Not true!Not true!  Too often we believe that certain information has no valueToo often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts.to others or they are already aware of the facts.
  • 43. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4343 BarriersBarriers  These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, theThese barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters,message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters, and is then heard by the receiver.and is then heard by the receiver.  These filters muffle the message.These filters muffle the message.  To overcome these filters is through active listening andTo overcome these filters is through active listening and feedback.feedback.
  • 44. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4444 How to avoid Barriers?How to avoid Barriers? To overcome these filters – barriers is throughTo overcome these filters – barriers is through 1.1. Active listeningActive listening 2.2. Feedback.Feedback.
  • 45. Active ListeningActive Listening
  • 46. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4646 Hearing V/S ListeningHearing V/S Listening Is Hearing and listening are the same thing?Is Hearing and listening are the same thing? AnswerAnswer A BigA Big ““NO”NO”
  • 47. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4747 Active ListeningActive Listening  Hearing and listening are not the same thing.Hearing and listening are not the same thing. HearingHearing  It is the act of perceiving sound.It is the act of perceiving sound.  It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of auralIt is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli.stimuli. ListeningListening  It is a selective activity which involves the reception andIt is a selective activity which involves the reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli.the interpretation of aural stimuli.  It involves decoding the sound into meaning.It involves decoding the sound into meaning.
  • 48. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4848 ListeningListening  Listening is divided into two main categories:Listening is divided into two main categories: 1.1. PassivePassive 2.2. Active.Active. Passive listeningPassive listening  It is little more that hearing.It is little more that hearing.  It occurs when the receiver of the message has littleIt occurs when the receiver of the message has little motivation to listen carefully, such as when listening tomotivation to listen carefully, such as when listening to music, story telling, television, or when being polite.music, story telling, television, or when being polite.
  • 49. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills4949 ListeningListening  People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (WPM), butPeople speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (WPM), but they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 WPM.they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 WPM.  Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easySince only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go intoto go into mind driftmind drift - thinking about other things while- thinking about other things while listening to someone.listening to someone.
  • 50. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5050 Active listeningActive listening  The cure for this isThe cure for this is active listeningactive listening - which involves listening- which involves listening with a purpose.with a purpose.  It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understandIt may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how anotherothers, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc.person feels, show support, etc.  It requires that the listener attends to the words and theIt requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of the sender for understanding.feelings of the sender for understanding.  It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking.It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking.  It requires the receiver to hear the various messages,It requires the receiver to hear the various messages, understand the meaning, and then verify the meaning byunderstand the meaning, and then verify the meaning by offering feedback.offering feedback.
  • 51. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5151 Traits of active listenersTraits of active listeners 1.1. Spend more time listening than talking.Spend more time listening than talking. 2.2. Do not finish the sentences of others.Do not finish the sentences of others. 3.3. Do not answer questions with questions.Do not answer questions with questions. 4.4. Control biases.Control biases. 5.5. Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their ownNever daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk.thoughts when others talk. 6.6. Let the other speakers talk. Do not dominate theLet the other speakers talk. Do not dominate the conversations.conversations.
  • 52. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5252 Traits of active listenersTraits of active listeners 7.7. Plan responses after the others have finished speaking,Plan responses after the others have finished speaking, NOT while they are speaking.NOT while they are speaking. 8.8. Provide feedback, but do not interrupt constantly.Provide feedback, but do not interrupt constantly. 9.9. Analyze by looking at all the relevant factors and askingAnalyze by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. Walk others through byopen-ended questions. Walk others through by summarizing.summarizing. 10.10. Keep conversations on what others say, NOT on whatKeep conversations on what others say, NOT on what interests them.interests them. 11.11. Take brief notes. This forces them to concentrate on whatTake brief notes. This forces them to concentrate on what is being said.is being said.
  • 53. FeedbackFeedback
  • 54. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5454 FeedbackFeedback When you know something, say what you know.When you know something, say what you know. When you don't know something, say that youWhen you don't know something, say that you don't know.don't know. That is knowledge.That is knowledge. Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)
  • 55. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5555 Purpose of feedbackPurpose of feedback  The purpose of feedback is to alter messages so theThe purpose of feedback is to alter messages so the intention of the original communicator is understood by theintention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator.second communicator.  It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to anotherIt includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message.person's message.
  • 56. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5656 How to give Feedback?How to give Feedback?  Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing theProviding feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender.words of the sender.  Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words,Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words, rather than repeating their words.rather than repeating their words.  Your words should be saying, "This is what I understand yourYour words should be saying, "This is what I understand your feelings to be, am I correct?"feelings to be, am I correct?"  It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbalIt not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal ones.ones.
  • 57. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5757 How to give Feedback?How to give Feedback? ContdContd ..  Nonverbal responses like.Nonverbal responses like. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to showNodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreementagreement Dipping your eyebrows shows you don't quiteDipping your eyebrows shows you don't quite understand the meaning of their last phraseunderstand the meaning of their last phrase Sucking air in deeply and blowing it hard shows thatSucking air in deeply and blowing it hard shows that you are also exasperated (frustrated) with the situation.you are also exasperated (frustrated) with the situation.
  • 58. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5858 Carl Rogers categories of feedbackCarl Rogers categories of feedback  Carl Rogers listed five main categories of feedbackCarl Rogers listed five main categories of feedback  They are listed in the order in which they occur mostThey are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations.frequently in daily conversations.  We make judgments more often than we try to understand:We make judgments more often than we try to understand: 1.1. Evaluative:Evaluative:  Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, orMaking a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the other person's statement.appropriateness of the other person's statement. 2.2. Interpretive:Interpretive:  Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person'sParaphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person's statement means.statement means.
  • 59. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills5959 Carl Rogers categories of feedbackCarl Rogers categories of feedback contd.contd. 3.3. Supportive:Supportive:  Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator.Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator. 4.4. Probing:Probing:  Attempting to gain additional information, continue theAttempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point.discussion, or clarify a point. 5.5. Understanding:Understanding:  Attempting to discover completely what the otherAttempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by her statements.communicator means by her statements.
  • 60. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6060 Imagine how much better daily communicationsImagine how much better daily communications would be if listeners tried to understand first,would be if listeners tried to understand first, before they tried to evaluate what someone isbefore they tried to evaluate what someone is saying.saying.
  • 61. NonverbalNonverbal Behaviors ofBehaviors of CommunicationCommunication
  • 62. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6262 Non verbal communicationNon verbal communication  It is the information that is communicated without usingIt is the information that is communicated without using words.words.  To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbalTo deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonalbehaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication:communication: 1. Written 2. Posture, body orientation, appearance, hairstyle, clothes, color choice 3. Gestures 4. Eye contact , Shaking hands, your breathing 5. Expression - in your eyes , Facial Expressions and smile 6. Vocal, Voice, tone and confidence 7. Proximity - How close you stand to others- personal space 8. How you listen 9. The way you move, the way you stand, the way you touch 10.Attitude 11.Silence.
  • 63. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6363   The Importance of NVCThe Importance of NVC  It’s not always just what you say matters but also how youIt’s not always just what you say matters but also how you “say” it“say” it  Always take care of Nonverbal cues , they are very powerfulAlways take care of Nonverbal cues , they are very powerful  E.g.. of NonE.g.. of Non-verbal cues are gestures, eye contact, facial-verbal cues are gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, posture, gestures space even clothing andexpressions, posture, gestures space even clothing and personal space.personal space.  Be mindful of your own nonverbal cues, as well as theBe mindful of your own nonverbal cues, as well as the nonverbal cues of those around you.nonverbal cues of those around you.  Keep your messages short and concise. This meansKeep your messages short and concise. This means preparing in advance whenever possible.preparing in advance whenever possible.
  • 64. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6464 Types Of NVCTypes Of NVC 1.1. ParalanguageParalanguage - The vocal cues that accompany spoken- The vocal cues that accompany spoken language The way we say wordslanguage The way we say words 2.2. KinesicsKinesics - Body Movements- Body Movements 3.3. OcculesicsOcculesics - Eye behavior- Eye behavior 4.4. Appearance /ArtifactsAppearance /Artifacts.- Attractiveness.- Attractiveness
  • 65. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6565 Types Of NVCTypes Of NVC contdcontd ..    5.5. Proxemics-Proxemics- TheThe NVCNVC of space and distanceof space and distance 6.6. Haptics-Haptics- TheThe NVCNVC study of touchstudy of touch 7.7. Olfactics-Olfactics- TheThe NVCNVC study of smell.study of smell. 8.8. Chronomics-Chronomics- TheThe NVCNVC study of timestudy of time 9.9. Facial Expressions-Facial Expressions- We have 80 muscles in our faceWe have 80 muscles in our face that can create more than 7,000 facial expressionsthat can create more than 7,000 facial expressions
  • 66. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6666 G. W. PORTER CATEGORIES ANDG. W. PORTER CATEGORIES AND FEATURES OF COMMUNICATIONFEATURES OF COMMUNICATION
  • 67. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6767 G. W. Porter Categories ofG. W. Porter Categories of CommunicationsCommunications  Categories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbalCategories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:communication into four broad categories: 1.1. Physical.Physical.  This is the personal type of communication.This is the personal type of communication.  It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch,It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.sense of smell, and body motions. 2.2. Aesthetic.Aesthetic.  This is the type of communication that takes place throughThis is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing,creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.painting and sculpturing.
  • 68. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6868 G. W. Porter Categories of CommunicationsG. W. Porter Categories of Communications contdcontd .. 3.3. Signs.Signs.  This is the mechanical type of communication, whichThis is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns,includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.and sirens. 4.4. Symbolic.Symbolic.  This is the type of communication that makes use ofThis is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols.religious, status, or ego-building symbols.
  • 69. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills6969 G. W. Porter Features ofG. W. Porter Features of CommunicationsCommunications A) Static Features 1. Distance 2. Orientation 3. Posture 4. Physical Contact B) Dynamic Features 1. Facial Expressions 2. Gestures 3. Looking
  • 70. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7070 Eye contact / LookingEye contact / Looking  A major feature of social communication is eye contact.A major feature of social communication is eye contact.  This helps to regulate the flow of communication.This helps to regulate the flow of communication.  It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, orIt can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion.aversion.  It signals interest in others and increases the speaker'sIt signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility.credibility.  People who make eye contact open the flow ofPeople who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, andcommunication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility.credibility.  The frequency of contact suggest either interest or boredom.The frequency of contact suggest either interest or boredom.
  • 71. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7171 Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions  A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all conveyA smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information.information.  Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking.friendliness, warmth, and liking.  So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as moreSo, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable.likable, friendly, warm and approachable.  Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably.Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably.  They will be more comfortable around you and will want toThey will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more.listen more.  Facial expressions continually change during interactionFacial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient.and are monitored constantly by the recipient.  There is evidence that the meaning of these expressionsThere is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.may be similar across cultures.
  • 72. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7272 GesturesGestures  If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived asIf you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff.boring and stiff.  One of the most frequently observed, but least understood,One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement.cues is a hand movement.  While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universalWhile some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned andmeanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.idiosyncratic.  A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention,A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitatesmakes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding.understanding.
  • 73. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7373 PosturePosture  Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing.Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing.  These are not the elements of posture that conveyThese are not the elements of posture that convey messages.messages.  You communicate numerous messages by the way you talkYou communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move.and move. Are we slouched or erect ?Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ?Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ?  Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degreeSuch postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange.of relaxation in the communication exchange.
  • 74. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7474 PosturePosture contdcontd ..  Standing erect and leaning forward communicates you areStanding erect and leaning forward communicates you are approachable, receptive and friendly.approachable, receptive and friendly.  Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listenerInterpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other.face each other.
  • 75. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7575 Body OrientationBody Orientation  People may present themselves in various ways:People may present themselves in various ways: Face-to-faceFace-to-face Side-to-sideSide-to-side Or Even back-to-back.Or Even back-to-back.  For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by- side while competitors frequently face one another.side while competitors frequently face one another.  Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor orSpeaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.
  • 76. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7676 Proximity / DistanceProximity / Distance  The distance one stands from another frequently conveys aThe distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message.non-verbal message.  Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interactionCultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others.with others.  In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others itIn some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.  You should look for signals of discomfort caused byYou should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's space.invading the other person's space.  Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gazeSome of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion (dislike).aversion (dislike).
  • 77. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7777 Physical ContactPhysical Contact  Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, orShaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages.patting on the back all convey messages.  They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lackThey reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.of) attraction.
  • 78. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7878 VocalVocal  Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when youSpeaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as:include such vocal elements as: 1.1. ToneTone 2.2. PitchPitch 3.3. RhythmRhythm 4.4. Timbre (resonance , Quality)Timbre (resonance , Quality) 5.5. LoudnessLoudness 6.6. Inflection (modulation).Inflection (modulation).  For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these sixFor maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice.elements of your voice.  One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that theyOne of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice.speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring andListeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull.dull.
  • 79. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills7979
  • 80. Body LanguageBody Language
  • 81. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8181 Body languageBody language  It is a term for communication using body movements orIt is a term for communication using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbalgestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language or other communication.language or other communication.  It accounts for over 90% of a conversation!It accounts for over 90% of a conversation!  It can be used to help conduct an interview, give aIt can be used to help conduct an interview, give a presentation or make that important sale: a conversationpresentation or make that important sale: a conversation stretches so much further than speech.stretches so much further than speech.  Body language is the reason why selling face-to-face has aBody language is the reason why selling face-to-face has a huge advantage over selling by phone.huge advantage over selling by phone.
  • 82. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8282 Body languageBody language  It forms part of the category of paralanguage, whichIt forms part of the category of paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are notdescribes all forms of human communication that are not verbal language.verbal language.  This includes the most subtle of movements that manyThis includes the most subtle of movements that many people are not aware of, including winking and slightpeople are not aware of, including winking and slight movement of the eyebrows.movement of the eyebrows.  In addition body language can also incorporate the use ofIn addition body language can also incorporate the use of facial expressions.facial expressions.
  • 83. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8383 Body LanguageBody Language
  • 84. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8484
  • 85. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8585 Body language (hand gestures) of US Marine Corps General Michael W. Hagee
  • 86. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8686 Examples Of Body LanguageExamples Of Body Language Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation 1 Brisk, erect walk Confidence 2 Standing with hands on hips Readiness, aggression 3 Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Boredom 4 Sitting, legs apart Open, relaxed 5 Arms crossed on chest Defensiveness Person is putting barrier between themselves and others 6 Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched Dejection 7 Hand to cheek Evaluation, thinking 8 Touching, slightly rubbing nose Rejection, doubt, lying 9 Rubbing the eye Doubt, disbelief 10 Hands clasped behind back Anger, frustration, apprehension
  • 87. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8787
  • 88. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8888 Examples Of Body LanguageExamples Of Body Language contdcontd .. Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation 11 Locked ankles Apprehension 12 Head resting in hand, tilting at one side, eyes downcast Boredom 13 Rubbing hands Anticipation 14 Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Confidence, superiority 15 Open palm Sincerity, openness, innocence 16 Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed Negative evaluation 17 Tapping or drumming fingersImpatience 18 Steepling fingers Authoritative 19 Patting/fondling hair Lack of self-confidence; insecurity 20 Tilted head Interest 21 Stroking chin Trying to make a decision
  • 89. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills8989 Examples Of Body LanguageExamples Of Body Language contdcontd .. Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation 22 Looking down, face turned away Disbelief 23 Biting nails Insecurity, nervousness 24 Pulling or tugging at ear Indecision 25 Leaning forward Intrested 26 Leaning away from the speaker. Expressing opposition 27 Consistent eye contact Thinking positively 28 Lack of eye contact indicate negativity. 29 Looking at you but is making the arms-across-chest signal The eye contact indicates something is bothering, and he wants to talk about it. 30 averted gaze, touching the ear or scratching the chin. Disbelief 31 Female crosses her legs towards a male she is interested in. Sexual desire
  • 90. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9090
  • 91. Speaking TooSpeaking Too QuicklyQuickly
  • 92. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9292 A lot of us speak quickly when we are on theA lot of us speak quickly when we are on the Phone or with our customers / clients.Phone or with our customers / clients. Sometimes itSometimes it is a habit or we are in a hurryis a habit or we are in a hurry WhateverWhatever the case, it is a habit that can cost us business.the case, it is a habit that can cost us business.
  • 93. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9393 Problems with speaking quickly .Problems with speaking quickly .  When you speak quickly, it affects other vocal issues.When you speak quickly, it affects other vocal issues.  Speed affects the clarity of words.Speed affects the clarity of words. The lips, teeth and tongue can’t get into the right positionThe lips, teeth and tongue can’t get into the right position in your mouth.in your mouth.  Customers expect to hear the words as they learned them.Customers expect to hear the words as they learned them. If you are slipping over syllables or eliminating them allIf you are slipping over syllables or eliminating them all together, customers start focusing on what you just said,together, customers start focusing on what you just said, versus what you are currently saying.versus what you are currently saying. They feel like they are translating a foreign language.They feel like they are translating a foreign language.  It affects comprehension.It affects comprehension. Especially a person whose mother tongue is not English,Especially a person whose mother tongue is not English, it may be difficult for them to make any sense out of whatit may be difficult for them to make any sense out of what you are saying.you are saying.
  • 94. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9494 Problems with speaking quickly .Problems with speaking quickly . ContdContd ..  Affects the tone of your voice.Affects the tone of your voice. It is impossible to sound friendly, sincere or empatheticIt is impossible to sound friendly, sincere or empathetic without pausing.without pausing. Voice became monotone.Voice became monotone. If the voice is a monotone, the customer concludes youIf the voice is a monotone, the customer concludes you are disinterested.are disinterested. • Who wants to do business with someone who isWho wants to do business with someone who is disinterested?disinterested?
  • 95. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9595 Ways to slow downWays to slow down 1.1. First, get into the mind set that when you are at work; putFirst, get into the mind set that when you are at work; put cash on voice, the voice that earns you a living.cash on voice, the voice that earns you a living.  Actors, Show host, Radio jokey they all speak a lot slowerActors, Show host, Radio jokey they all speak a lot slower on television than they do when they are with friends andon television than they do when they are with friends and family.family.  They know that if they speak quickly, viewers will beThey know that if they speak quickly, viewers will be complaining, and they will lose their jobs.complaining, and they will lose their jobs.
  • 96. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9696 Ways to slow downWays to slow down contdcontd .. 2.2. Secondly - Artist learn is the value of pausing.Secondly - Artist learn is the value of pausing.  In fact, they pause a lot.In fact, they pause a lot.  They pause not only at the end of sentences and clauses,They pause not only at the end of sentences and clauses, but whenever they want to emphasize a point or idea.but whenever they want to emphasize a point or idea.  More you pause, the more the listeners understand.More you pause, the more the listeners understand.
  • 97. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9797 Ways to slow downWays to slow down contdcontd ..  To get comfortable pausing, use your voice mail system toTo get comfortable pausing, use your voice mail system to give you feedback.give you feedback. When you send internal voice mail messages, pressWhen you send internal voice mail messages, press “review” before you press “send.” If you hear yourself“review” before you press “send.” If you hear yourself speaking quickly, redo the message until you arespeaking quickly, redo the message until you are satisfied.satisfied.  Get feedback from family members and friends .Get feedback from family members and friends . Ask them to tell you to pause more or to remind you thatAsk them to tell you to pause more or to remind you that you are mumbling.you are mumbling.
  • 98. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9898 Ways to slow downWays to slow down contdcontd .. 3.3. Thirdly slow down yourselfThirdly slow down yourself  Fast talkers also mumble (murmur / speak unclearly).Fast talkers also mumble (murmur / speak unclearly).  Read out loud to your child (if you have one or ..).Read out loud to your child (if you have one or ..).  Children demand that you really get into the story.Children demand that you really get into the story.  They will tell you to slow down because they want to enjoyThey will tell you to slow down because they want to enjoy the story.the story.  As you drive down the street, use your car as a laboratory.As you drive down the street, use your car as a laboratory. Say out loud what you are seeing and over - enunciateSay out loud what you are seeing and over - enunciate (Pronounce) each word.(Pronounce) each word. No one will hear you.No one will hear you. Over - enunciating will get you used to saying everyOver - enunciating will get you used to saying every syllable in the word.syllable in the word.
  • 99. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills9999 Ways to slow downWays to slow down contdcontd ..  While speaking quickly is a habit, it is not a habit that helpsWhile speaking quickly is a habit, it is not a habit that helps you to develop relationships with your customers.you to develop relationships with your customers.  The more you pause, the more they feel you care. The lessThe more you pause, the more they feel you care. The less likely they are to become upset.likely they are to become upset.  A one or two second pause can make a huge difference.A one or two second pause can make a huge difference.  Put on your “cash” voice and see what a difference it willPut on your “cash” voice and see what a difference it will make.make.
  • 100. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills100100 It is not what you knowIt is not what you know but how you communicate itbut how you communicate it that makes a difference.that makes a difference.
  • 101. Speaking HintsSpeaking Hints
  • 102. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills102102 Speak comfortable words!Speak comfortable words! William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare
  • 103. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills103103 Speaking HintsSpeaking Hints 1.1. When speaking or trying to explain something, ask theWhen speaking or trying to explain something, ask the listeners if they are following you.listeners if they are following you. 2.2. Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or askEnsure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask questions.questions. 3.3. Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - considerTry to put yourself in the other person's shoes - consider the feelings of the receiver.the feelings of the receiver. 4.4. Be clear about what you say.Be clear about what you say.
  • 104. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills104104 Speaking HintsSpeaking Hints 5.5. Look at the receiver.Look at the receiver. 6.6. Make sure your words match your tone and body languageMake sure your words match your tone and body language (Nonverbal Behaviors).(Nonverbal Behaviors). 7.7. Vary your tone and pace.Vary your tone and pace. 8.8. Do not be vague, but on the other hand, do not complicateDo not be vague, but on the other hand, do not complicate what you are saying with too much detail.what you are saying with too much detail. 9.9. Do not ignore signs of confusion.Do not ignore signs of confusion.
  • 105. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills105105 Enhancing your communicationsEnhancing your communications  Eye contact is an important step in sending and receivingEye contact is an important step in sending and receiving messages.messages.  Eye contact can be a signal of interest, a signal ofEye contact can be a signal of interest, a signal of recognition, even a sign of honesty and credibility.recognition, even a sign of honesty and credibility.  Closely linked to eye contact are facial expressions, whichClosely linked to eye contact are facial expressions, which can reflect attitudes and emotions.can reflect attitudes and emotions.  Posture can also be used to more effectively communicatePosture can also be used to more effectively communicate your message.your message.  Clothing is important. By dressing for your job, you showClothing is important. By dressing for your job, you show respect for the values and conventions of your organization.respect for the values and conventions of your organization.
  • 106. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills106106 Enhancing your communicationsEnhancing your communications contdcontd ..  Do not invade personal space byDo not invade personal space by getting too close and do not confusegetting too close and do not confuse communications by trying to exchangecommunications by trying to exchange messages from too far away.messages from too far away.  Be aware of your gestures, tone ofBe aware of your gestures, tone of voice, movement and facialvoice, movement and facial expressions.expressions.
  • 107. How to Detect LiesHow to Detect Lies
  • 108. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills108108 How to Detect LiesHow to Detect Lies  The techniques of How to Detect Lies is often used byThe techniques of How to Detect Lies is often used by police, and security experts.police, and security experts.  This knowledge is also useful for managers, employers,This knowledge is also useful for managers, employers, and for anyone to use in everyday situations where tellingand for anyone to use in everyday situations where telling the truth from a lie can help prevent you from being athe truth from a lie can help prevent you from being a victim of fraud/scams and other deceptions.victim of fraud/scams and other deceptions.
  • 109. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills109109 WarningWarning Sometimes Ignorance is bliss;Sometimes Ignorance is bliss; after gaining this knowledge,after gaining this knowledge, you may be hurtyou may be hurt when it is obvious that someone is lying to you.when it is obvious that someone is lying to you.
  • 110. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills110110 Signs of Deception (Dishonesty)Signs of Deception (Dishonesty) 1.1. Body Language of LiesBody Language of Lies 2.2. Emotional Gestures & ContradictionEmotional Gestures & Contradiction 3.3. Interactions and ReactionsInteractions and Reactions 4.4. Verbal Context and ContentVerbal Context and Content 5.5. Other signs of a lieOther signs of a lie
  • 111. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills111111 1) Body Language of Lies1) Body Language of Lies 1.1. Physical expressionPhysical expression  Physical expression will be limited and stiff, with few armPhysical expression will be limited and stiff, with few arm and hand movements.and hand movements.  Hand, arm and leg movement are toward their own body theHand, arm and leg movement are toward their own body the liar takes up less space.liar takes up less space. 2.2. Eye contact.Eye contact.  A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact.A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact. 3.3. Movement of HandsMovement of Hands  Hands touching their face, throat & mouth.Hands touching their face, throat & mouth.  Touching or scratching the nose or behind their ear.Touching or scratching the nose or behind their ear.  Not likely to touch his chest/heart with an open hand.Not likely to touch his chest/heart with an open hand.
  • 112. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills112112
  • 113. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills113113
  • 114. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills114114 2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction 1.1. Timing and duration of emotional gestures and emotionsTiming and duration of emotional gestures and emotions are off a normal pace.are off a normal pace.  The display of emotion is delayed, stays longer it wouldThe display of emotion is delayed, stays longer it would naturally, then stops suddenly.naturally, then stops suddenly. 2.2. Timing is off between emotions gestures/expressions andTiming is off between emotions gestures/expressions and words.words.  Example: Someone says "I love it!" when receiving a gift,Example: Someone says "I love it!" when receiving a gift, and then smile after making that statement, rather then atand then smile after making that statement, rather then at the same time the statement is made.the same time the statement is made.
  • 115. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills115115 2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction contdcontd .. 3.3. Gestures/expressionsGestures/expressions don’t match the verbal statement,don’t match the verbal statement, such as frowning when saying “I love you.”such as frowning when saying “I love you.” 4.4. ExpressionsExpressions are limited to mouth movements whenare limited to mouth movements when someone is faking emotions like happy, surprised, sad,someone is faking emotions like happy, surprised, sad, awe (fear) instead of the whole face.awe (fear) instead of the whole face.  For example; when someone smiles naturally their wholeFor example; when someone smiles naturally their whole face is involved: jaw/cheek movement, eyes and foreheadface is involved: jaw/cheek movement, eyes and forehead push down, etc.push down, etc.
  • 116. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills116116 3) Interactions and Reactions3) Interactions and Reactions  A guilty person gets defensive. An innocent person willA guilty person gets defensive. An innocent person will often go on the offensive.often go on the offensive.  A liar is uncomfortable facing his questioner/accuser andA liar is uncomfortable facing his questioner/accuser and may turn his head or body away.may turn his head or body away.  A liar might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup,A liar might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup, etc.) between themselves and you.etc.) between themselves and you.
  • 117. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills117117 4) Verbal Context and Content4) Verbal Context and Content i.i. A liar will use your words to make answer a question.A liar will use your words to make answer a question.  When asked, “Did you eat the last cookie?”When asked, “Did you eat the last cookie?”  The liar answers, “No, I did not eat the last cookie.”The liar answers, “No, I did not eat the last cookie.” ii.ii. A statement with a contraction (short) is more likely to beA statement with a contraction (short) is more likely to be truthful: “ I didn't do it” instead of “I did not do it”truthful: “ I didn't do it” instead of “I did not do it” iii.iii. Liars sometimes avoid "lying" by not making directLiars sometimes avoid "lying" by not making direct statements.statements.  They imply answers instead of denying somethingThey imply answers instead of denying something directly.directly. iv.iv. The guilty person may speak more than natural, addingThe guilty person may speak more than natural, adding unnecessary details to convince you... they are notunnecessary details to convince you... they are not comfortable with silence or pauses in the conversation.comfortable with silence or pauses in the conversation.
  • 118. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills118118 4) Verbal Context and Content4) Verbal Context and Content v.v. A liar may leave out pronouns and speak in a monotonousA liar may leave out pronouns and speak in a monotonous tone.tone.  When a truthful statement is made the pronoun isWhen a truthful statement is made the pronoun is emphasized as much or more than the rest of the words inemphasized as much or more than the rest of the words in a statement.a statement. vi.vi. Words may be garbled and spoken softly, and syntax andWords may be garbled and spoken softly, and syntax and grammar may be off.grammar may be off.  In other words, his sentences will likely be muddled ratherIn other words, his sentences will likely be muddled rather than emphasized.than emphasized.
  • 119. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills119119 5) Other signs of a lie5) Other signs of a lie  If you believe someone is lying, then change subject of aIf you believe someone is lying, then change subject of a conversation quickly, a liar follows along willingly andconversation quickly, a liar follows along willingly and becomes more relaxed.becomes more relaxed.  The guilty wants the subject changed; an innocent personThe guilty wants the subject changed; an innocent person may be confused by the sudden change in topics and willmay be confused by the sudden change in topics and will want to back to the previous subject.want to back to the previous subject.
  • 120. WorkshopWorkshop
  • 121. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills121121 Can you guess the nonverbal body languageCan you guess the nonverbal body language the faces below are communicating?the faces below are communicating?
  • 122. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills122122 AnswerAnswer
  • 123. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills123123
  • 124. CommunicationCommunication StrategiesStrategies
  • 125. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills125125 Communication Strategies - CareCommunication Strategies - Care  SOLER (Egan, 1986) is a technique used by care workers.SOLER (Egan, 1986) is a technique used by care workers.  It helps the clients or patients to trust the care-giver and toIt helps the clients or patients to trust the care-giver and to feel safe and helps in effective communication.feel safe and helps in effective communication.  SOLER is:SOLER is:  S – Sit squarely in relation to the patientS – Sit squarely in relation to the patient  O – Open positionO – Open position  L – Lean slightly towards the patientL – Lean slightly towards the patient  E – Eye contactE – Eye contact  R – RelaxR – Relax
  • 126. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills126126 Oral presentationsOral presentations Sr. No. Skills Criteria 1 Select and organise information • Relevance of information • Amount appropriate to the time available • Brief introduction • Argument is well organised, using markers • Short conclusion or link (if in group) 2 Project confidence and enthusiasm • Strong stance, calm appearance, eye contact • Minimal reference to notes 3 Use audio-visuals effectively • Clear speech • Steady pace • Some modulation • Appropriate emphasis • Explain or define new terms • Avoid jargon and long sentences 4 Use audio-visuals effectively • Over Head Transparencies (OHTs) not crowded • Equipment used with ease • Information selected that assists the audience 5 Respond to the audience • Counter arguments explained • Own argument summarised • Active listening and focused response
  • 127. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills127127 Short answersShort answers Sr. No. Skills Criteria 1 Analyse the question • The question is answered 2 Select relevant information • The content is all relevant to the question 3 Think critically and analytically • The answer shows understanding of how key aspects relate • Information is questioned 4 Begin with a proposition • The proposition shows understanding of the question and indicates the points to be covered • The final sentence summarises 5 Present an argument• The argument is logical and concise
  • 128. PresentationPresentation PlanningPlanning
  • 129. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills129129 1) Presentation1) Presentation  Does your introduction grab participant’s attention andDoes your introduction grab participant’s attention and explain your objectives?explain your objectives?  Do you follow this by clearly defining the points of theDo you follow this by clearly defining the points of the presentation?presentation?  Are these main points in logical sequence?Are these main points in logical sequence?  Do these flow well?Do these flow well?  Do the main points need support from visual aids?Do the main points need support from visual aids?  Does your closing summarize the presentation clearly andDoes your closing summarize the presentation clearly and concisely?concisely?  Is the conclusion strong?Is the conclusion strong?  Have your tied the conclusion to the introduction?Have your tied the conclusion to the introduction?  Did you demand sale?Did you demand sale?
  • 130. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills130130 2)2) DeliveryDelivery  Are you knowledgeable about the product covered in yourAre you knowledgeable about the product covered in your presentation?presentation?  Do you have your promotional inputs in order?Do you have your promotional inputs in order?  Where and how will you present (indoors, outdoors,Where and how will you present (indoors, outdoors, standing, sitting, etc.)?standing, sitting, etc.)?  Have you checked and practice your visual aids,Have you checked and practice your visual aids, brochurebrochure and other promotional inputs?and other promotional inputs?
  • 131. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills131131 3) Appearance3) Appearance  Make sure you are dressed and groomed appropriately andMake sure you are dressed and groomed appropriately and in keeping with the audience’s expectations.in keeping with the audience’s expectations.  Practice your speech standing (or sitting, if applicable),Practice your speech standing (or sitting, if applicable), paying close attention to your body language, even yourpaying close attention to your body language, even your posture, both of which will be assessed by the audience.posture, both of which will be assessed by the audience.
  • 132. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills132132 4) Visual Aids4) Visual Aids  Are the visual aids easy to read and easy to understand?Are the visual aids easy to read and easy to understand?  Did you understand the Visual aid?Did you understand the Visual aid?  Are they are in proper condition?Are they are in proper condition?  Can doctor see them easily while you are detailing them?Can doctor see them easily while you are detailing them?
  • 133. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills133133 Basic structure of a sales presentationBasic structure of a sales presentation  OpeningOpening  Get attentionGet attention  Create interest and sustain it (Joke , Graph, Picture etc.)Create interest and sustain it (Joke , Graph, Picture etc.)  Present benefitsPresent benefits  DemonstrateDemonstrate  FeedbackFeedback  Handle objectionHandle objection  CloseClose
  • 134. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills134134
  • 135. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills135135
  • 136. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills136136
  • 137. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke Communication SkillsCommunication Skills137137