Cns final ppt


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Cns final ppt

  1. 1. APPLIED ANATOMY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Presented by- Prasad Bhadlikar Julies Sagare Abhishek ayarekar Vandana Dubey Sumit Mohite Khandu Chaudhari
  2. 2. WHAT IS A STROKE?  Brain tissue is damaged from a sudden loss of blood flow, resulting in a loss of neurological function  Causes:  Blockage (blood clot) occurring inside a blood vessel  Blood vessel leaks blood due to rupture
  3. 3. TYPES OF STROKES  Ischemic Stroke (85%)  Hemorrhagic Stroke (15%)
  4. 4.  Stroke affects people of  All Ages  All Ethnic Groups  All Backgrounds  Most strokes are preventable, take steps NOW to reduce having a stroke! STROKE DOES NOT DISCRIMINATE
  5. 5. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF STROKE  Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body  Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding  Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes  Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination  Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
  6. 6. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE  Family History of Stroke?  Physical activity…less than a total of 30 minutes on most days?  Man over age of 45, OR a woman over 55 years of age?  Risk factors you can control:  DIET - How we eat, do we follow our diet?  EXERCISE - Do we exercise or get some physical activity?  MEDICATIONS - Taking medications correctly  SMOKING - Stop smoking
  7. 7. ONCE YOU ARE AT THE HOSPITAL  Diagnostic Testing  CT or MRI of the brain  EKG  Carotid Ultrasound  Echocardiogram
  8. 8. EKG – may show atrial fibrillationCHEST X-RAY
  9. 9. CAROTID ULTRASOUND – will show if there is stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessel)
  10. 10. ECHOCARDIOGRAM – detects if any thrombus (blood clot) within the heart chambers Any labs may be ordered, Lipid Profile (checking your cholesterol level) is done on all patients. BLOOD WORK - LABS
  11. 11. MEDICATIONS  Aspirin  Aggrenox  Plavix  Blood pressure medication if appropriate  Cholesterol lowering medicines if needed
  12. 12. WHAT IS ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE  Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) or simply Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, terminal disease was first described by a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.  Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception.  Many scientists believe that Alzheimer's disease results from an increase in the production or accumulation of a specific protein (beta-amyloid protein) in the brain that leads to nerve cell death.
  13. 13. STAGES OF ALZZHEIMER’S DISEAASE 1)Earle Stage 2) Mild to Moderate Stage 3)Severe Stage
  14. 14. DIAGNOSIS  Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed clinically from the patient history, collateral history from relatives, and clinical observations, based on the presence of characteristic neurological and neuropsychological features and the absence of alternative conditions.  Advanced medical imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and with single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to help exclude other cerebral pathology or subtypes of dementia.  The diagnosis can be confirmed with very high accuracy post-mortem when brain material is available and can be examined histologically.
  15. 15. CAUSES OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASES  Scientists don’t yet fully understand what causes AD, but it is clear that it develops because of a complex series of events that take place in the brain over a long period of time. It is likely that the causes include genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.  Some drug therapies propose that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.  Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid leading to generalized neuroinflammation.  Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a build-up of proteins in the brain. Though this cannot be measured in a living person, extensive autopsy studies have revealed this phenomenon. The build-up manifests in two ways:  Plaques– deposits of the protein beta-amyloid that accumulate in the spaces between nerve cells  Tangles – deposits of the protein tau that accumulate inside of nerve cells
  16. 16. TREATMENT  Although there is currently no way to cure Alzheimer's disease or stop its progression, researchers are making encouraging advances in Alzheimer's treatment, including medications and non-drug approaches to improve symptom management. Cholinesterase inhibitors increase the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, which plays a key role in memory and learning. This kind of drug postpones the worsening of symptoms for 6 to 12 months in about half of the people who take it. Cholinesterase inhibitors most commonly prescribed for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease include Aricept (donezepil HCL), Exelon (rivastigmine), and Razadyne (galantamine).
  17. 17. TREATMENT  Aricept Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD Donepezil • Loses its effect over time • Used for mild, moderate and severe AD • Does not prevent or cure AD  Celexa Citalopram Used to reduce depression and anxiety • May take 4 to 6 weeks to work • Sometimes used to help people get to sleep  Depakote Used to treat severe aggression Sodium Valproate • Also used to treat depression and anxiety  Exelon Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD Rivastigmine • Loses its effect over time • Used for mild to moderate AD • Can get in pill form or as a skin patch • Does not prevent or cure AD
  18. 18. CONT...  Namenda Used to delay or slow the symptoms of AD Memantine • Loses its effect over time • Used for moderate to severe AD • Sometimes given with Aricept®, Exelon® • Does not prevent or cure AD  Razadyne Used to prevent or slow the symptoms of AD Galantamine • Loses its effect over time • Used for mild to moderate AD • Can get in pill form or as a skin patch • Does not prevent or cure AD  Zoloft Used to reduce depression and anxiety Sertraline • May take 4 to 6 weeks to work • Sometimes used to help people get to sleep  Trileptal Used to treat severe aggression Oxcarbazepine • Also used to treat depression and anxiety  Tegretol Used to treat severe aggression Carbamazepine • Also used to treat depression and anxiety  Remeron Used to reduce depression and anxiety Mirtazepine • May take 4 to 6 weeks to work • Sometimes used to help people get to sleep
  19. 19. AMNESIA  A medical condition wherein a person may suffer from unusual forgetfulness which may cause memory loss is known as amnesia. It may result into:  Unable to learn or remember new events  Unable to recall memories of the past  At times involves both  It may either come slowly or suddenly. It may either be temporary or permanent. However, often the reason behind memory loss is loss of concentration due to depression, which may not be called amnesia. Hence, a proper diagnosis is required in case of amnesia.
  20. 20. TYPES  The common forms or types of amnesia are:  Retrograde amnesia: Here, the patient will fail to recollect the memories that occurred before the onset of amnesia  Anterograde amnesia: The patient suffering from this form of amnesia will be unable to remember memories that occurred after the onset of amnesia.  Lacunar amnesia: In this type of amnesia, the patient is unable to remember or recollect a particular event.  Emotional or hysterical amnesia: It is a temporary condition caused due to psychological trauma.  Korsakoff amnesia: Memory loss due to chronic alcoholism  Posthypnotic amnesia: It mainly causes after a hypnosis session, when a person is unable to remember the events happened during the session.  Transient global amnesia: It is a spontaneous memory lost which can last for few minutes or even hours.
  21. 21. SINGS AND SYMPTOMS  The various signs and symptoms of amnesia are:  The person may suffer from neurological problems like uncoordinated movements seizures, tremors etc.  Confusion about events and disorientation of time and place are common signs.  False recollections, invented events or memories misplace in time too, are commonly seen among people who suffer from amnesia.
  22. 22. CAUSES The causes of amnesia are:  Damage to those areas of the brain that are vital for brain functioning or processing.  Stroke  Lack of sufficient amount of oxygen reaching to the brain  Lack of proper nutrition  Tumours in the brain, especially in those parts which control the memory  Seizures  Epilepsy, when not treated on time
  23. 23. CONTINUED....  Intake of alcohol for a long time, which may cause deficiency of vitamin B1 – thiamine  Electro-convulsive therapy, which is used to treat mental illnesses too causes amnesia. Here, the electric current passed through the brain can damage the memories.  Severe trauma, damage to the brain or head injury can cause partial amnesia or partial memory loss.  Certain medications  Depression, schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder
  24. 24. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT  Diagnosis: A comprehensive test is required to diagnose amnesia. First and foremost, your detailed medical history will be required by the doctor. Later, he may refer you to get physical and cognitive examination done. The tests may include checking reflexes, sensory functions, memory evaluation, MRI and CT scan.  Treatment: Amnesia is a condition that cannot be fully cured. However, if the patient has forgotten a lot of things, he/she can start learning from the beginning, especially if he is in the occupational sector. He/she can use devices that can help remember events easily for instance: records in the diaries, note-pads, mobiles or laptops. There are hardly any medications that can cure amnesia, and enhance your memory.
  25. 25. ALCOHOL - SAFE DRINKING Australian Standards 2 standard drinks per day 2 alcohol-free days per week No more than 4 standard drinks on a single occasion  Even less for older adults (Ref: 2010
  26. 26. ALCOHOL RELATED BRAIN INJURY NEUROANATOMY Alzheimer’s Australia (2008)
  27. 27. ABI = ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY Any injury to the brain that occurs after birth. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Contact sports, work, assault, road accidents Stroke or Cerebral Haemorrhage: Disruption of the blood supply to the brain Alcohol and Drug Abuse: ARBI/ARBD = Alcohol related brain injury/disease/disorder Hypoxia: Disruption of the oxygen supply to the brain (> 3 minutes) Brain Tumour & Infectious Disease: Brain tissue can be damaged through cancer, meningitis and encephalitis. Degenerative Neurological Conditions: Unlike other forms of ABI, these conditions do not stabilize or improve with time. e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis.
  28. 28. ALCOHOL RELATED BRAIN INJURY (ARBI) SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS ARBD – ALCOHOL RELATED BRAIN DAMAGE  Cerebellar atrophy – poor balance & gait  Peripheral neuropathy – poor mobility & dexterity  Hepatic encephalopathy – chronic liver disease toxins leading to progressive memory loss, disorientation, tremors & dementia.  Frontal lobe impairments – behavioural changes; eg. disinhibition, aggression, irritability or impulsivity, “Impulse Control Disorder ”  Wernicke’s encephalopathy - acute neurological disorder due to thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency  Korsakoff’s dementia – severely impaired mentation (Ref:
  29. 29. Overall: studies show that alcoholics have shrunken brains
  30. 30. EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION Long-term drinkers experience difficulties with:  Attention and concentration  Planning, organisation, problem solving  Complex, abstract and flexible thinking  Initiative  Emotional and behavioural change  Self awareness and insight
  31. 31. MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN ARBI  Primarily caused by thiamine deficiency  It can occur at any stage of ARBI  Due to haemorrhage in midline structures in the brain  “Amnestic Syndrome”  Can range from mild (benign forgetting, short term memory) to profound (disorientation and confusion). In response they frequently :  Fall back to long-term learned behaviours and responses  Fill the memory gaps with poorly constructed, made up scenarios  Engage in cyclic conversations, thoughts and actions
  32. 32. COMMON TYPES OF CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR IN ARBI  Perseveration (repetitive or cyclic behaviours)  Verbal Aggression  Physical Aggression  Sexually Inappropriate  Lack of motivation  Withdrawal & Social Isolation  Antisocial  Suspicion & Paranoia  Confusion & Confabulation  High Risk Behaviours  Ongoing Intoxication
  33. 33. ASSESSMENT FOR ARBI  Where ABI is suspected, evaluation includes:  History  Physical examination  Neurological examination  Neuropsychological examination  Neuroimaging  Structural  Functional  Best evaluation involves weighing all of the above
  34. 34. UNDER DIAGNOSIS Alcohol abuse and ARBI is grossly under-diagnosed among the older population. • Alcohol problems may not be identified as the awareness of ARBI is low among frontline workers in health and social care. • Older people rarely access specialist alcohol services. • Inaccuracy or inappropriateness of generic assessment/evaluation tools • Symptoms masked by dementia or other age- related conditions • The social stigma attached to ARBI; eg. hidden by relatives Mc Cabe, L (2005)
  35. 35. Older Person Living with an ARBI Prevention New Vs Long -Term Homeless Coordinated Service Delivery Establish Specialised Care Services Research Prevention Service Improvement Cultural Education & Training Policy Recognition, Support & Funding
  36. 36. SUMMARY  Excessive & prolonged alcohol consumption can lead to changes to structure and function of multiple body organs and systems leading to premature ageing.  Brain changes in ARBI lead to:  Reduced behaviour control including drinking  A range of cognitive problems, including memory and executive skills  Changes to physical functions  Personality changes  Unstable mood 36
  37. 37. EPILEPSY • Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. • It is a paroxysmal behavioral spell generally caused by an excessive disorderly discharge of cortical nerve cells of brain and can range from clinically undetectable (electrographic seizures) to convulsions
  38. 38. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • long term risk of recurrent seizures • tongue may be bitten CAUSES • Brain injury to the fetus during pregnency • Birth trauma – lack of oxygen • Head trauma – e,g. car accident • Brain tumor & stroke • Infection e.g. meningitis
  39. 39. TREATMENT  surgery or medication.  If epilepsy seizures are due to a tumor, abnormal blood vessels, or bleeding in the brain, surgery to treat these disorders may make the seizures stop.  Medication to prevent seizures, called anticonvulsants, may reduce the number of future seizures.
  40. 40. MEDICATION Currently there are 20 medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the use of treatment of epileptic seizures : carbamazepine (common US brand name Tegretol), clorazepate (Tranxene), clonazepam (Klonopin), ethosuximide (Zarontin), felbamate (Felbatol),fosphenytoin (Cerebyx), gabapentin (Neurontin), lacosamide (Vimpat), lamotrigine (Lamictal), l evetiracetam (Keppra), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), phenobarbital (Luminal), phenytoin (Dilantin), pregabalin (Lyrica), primidone (Mysoline), tiagabine (Gabitril), topiramate (Topamax), valproate ), valproic acid (Depakene), and zonisamide (Zonegran). Most of these appeared after 1990
  41. 41. PARKINSON’S DISEASE  Parkinson’s diseases affects the way you move. It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in brain  The Nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of brain that controls movement. It lets muscles move smoothly and do what you want.  The pathology of the disease is characterized by the accumulation of a protein called alpha- synuclein into inclusions called Lewy bodies in neurons, and from insufficient formation and activity of dopamine produced in certain neurons within parts of the midbrain
  42. 42. SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE The main symptoms are  Tremor, it means shaking or trembling. Tremor affects hands, arms, or legs  Stiff muscles  Slow movement  Problems with balance or walking diagnosis and treatment Common symptoms are  Changes in memory, concentration  Visual hallucinations  Depression  Sleep disturbance  Muffled speech
  43. 43. PARKINSON’S DISEASE DIAGNOSIS The neurologic examination  In that doctor takes a medical history and perform physical examination the Doctor asks the patient and the family members or friends about symptom and observe the patient asking him or her to walk around the room, sit down Stand up, and so on. Diagnostic tests  The MRI and CAT scan of the brain produce remarkable anatomic pictures.  The MRI and CAT scan of the brain of people with Parkinson’s disease appear Normal.  Hence with the help of symptoms and neurological findings they match finding with Parkinson’s disease this diagnosis called as clinical diagnosis.
  44. 44. TREATMENT OF PARKINSON’S Medication  Carbidopa- levodopa (parcopa )  Dopamine agonists  MAO B inhibitors  Catechol O- methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors  Amantadine Surgical procedures  Deep brain stimulation