Brand brand name, brand positioning, pay off

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Brand brand name, brand positioning, pay off

  1. 1. BRANDNAME, BRANDBRANDNAME, BRAND POSITIONING, PAY OFF LINEPOSITIONING, PAY OFF LINE ANDPOWEROF BRANDANDPOWEROF BRAND IMAGERY IN COMMUNICATIONIMAGERY IN COMMUNICATION By Dr. Kailas Ghodke MBBS, MMS PhD(Perusing in Marketing) Pharma Consultant For Marketing, Branding, Promotions, Medico Marketing and Training 702 /703, 11 - A, Happy Valley, GodbandherRoad, Manpada, Thane (W) Mumbai 400610, India. Email: kailasdr@yahoo.com, kailasdr@rediffmail.com Tel. Res.: + 91 022 - 2589 57 06, 2589 04 85. Cell: 98208 315 94
  2. 2. Thinkof some majorbrands…Thinkof some majorbrands… Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 22 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  3. 3. Thinkof some majorbrands…Thinkof some majorbrands… Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 33
  4. 4. THE BRANDINGTHE BRANDING DICTIONARYDICTIONARY - FEWDEFINITION AND- FEWDEFINITION AND NOMENCLATURENOMENCLATURE Dr. KailasDr. Kailas GhodkeGhodke Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 44
  5. 5. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 55 BrandBrand  The sum of all the characteristics, tangible and intangible,The sum of all the characteristics, tangible and intangible, that make the offerunique.that make the offerunique. Brand EngagementBrand Engagement  The alignment of an organisations people and processesThe alignment of an organisations people and processes behind the brand to ensure services, products and theirbehind the brand to ensure services, products and their delivery consistently live up to the brand promise.delivery consistently live up to the brand promise. Brand EquityBrand Equity  The value of the brand in its holistic sense to its owners asThe value of the brand in its holistic sense to its owners as a corporate asset.a corporate asset.
  6. 6. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 66 Brand EssenceBrand Essence  The distillation of a brand’s intrinsic characteristics into aThe distillation of a brand’s intrinsic characteristics into a succinct core concept.succinct core concept. Brand ExtensionBrand Extension  A new product or service that is related to an existingA new product or service that is related to an existing brand, but that offers a different benefit and/orappeals to abrand, but that offers a different benefit and/orappeals to a different target segment.different target segment. Brand HarmonisationBrand Harmonisation  The synchronisation of all elements of brand identity,The synchronisation of all elements of brand identity, across a line of products or services and/or acrossacross a line of products or services and/or across geographic markets.geographic markets.
  7. 7. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 77 Brand IdentityBrand Identity  The outward manifestation of the essence of a corporate brand,The outward manifestation of the essence of a corporate brand, product brand, service brand orbranded environment.product brand, service brand orbranded environment. Brand Identity EquitiesBrand Identity Equities  The value of specific elements of identification (e.g., name,The value of specific elements of identification (e.g., name, symbol orcolours) to the brands owners.symbol orcolours) to the brands owners. Brand PositioningBrand Positioning  The specific niche in which the brand defines itself as occupyingThe specific niche in which the brand defines itself as occupying in the competitive environment. Positioning addressesin the competitive environment. Positioning addresses differentiating brand attributes, userbenefits and targetdifferentiating brand attributes, userbenefits and target segments, singly orin combination.segments, singly orin combination.
  8. 8. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 88 BrandingBranding  The process by which both a brand and brand identity areThe process by which both a brand and brand identity are developed.developed. Co-BrandCo-Brand  Use of two ormore strong brands in relation to a common offer.Use of two ormore strong brands in relation to a common offer. Typically, but not always, the brands are given equal emphasis.Typically, but not always, the brands are given equal emphasis. Examples: Chevron and McDonalds, Visa and Citibank.Examples: Chevron and McDonalds, Visa and Citibank. Corporate BrandCorporate Brand  The gestalt of the organisation, including its philosophy andThe gestalt of the organisation, including its philosophy and culture as well as its physical characteristics.culture as well as its physical characteristics.
  9. 9. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 99 Corporate ImageCorporate Image  Application of the term image to specific types of offers.Application of the term image to specific types of offers. House StyleHouse Style  The overall impression created and maintained over time byThe overall impression created and maintained over time by the consistent presentation of the brand in the prescribedthe consistent presentation of the brand in the prescribed mannerand in appropriate contexts.mannerand in appropriate contexts. ImageImage  Perceptions of the features, tangible and intangible, thatPerceptions of the features, tangible and intangible, that characterise a brand.characterise a brand.
  10. 10. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1010 Line ExtensionLine Extension  A new variation of a product orservice sharing the sameA new variation of a product orservice sharing the same essential characteristics as the parent, but offering a newessential characteristics as the parent, but offering a new benefit, such as flavour, size, package type, etc.benefit, such as flavour, size, package type, etc. LogoLogo  The terms “mark”, “logo” and “identifier” are generalThe terms “mark”, “logo” and “identifier” are general terms fora symbol orwordmark.terms fora symbol orwordmark. Parent BrandParent Brand  A strong brand that has the capacity to: 1) stand alone toA strong brand that has the capacity to: 1) stand alone to represent a core product orservice; 2) support alliedrepresent a core product orservice; 2) support allied products/services by sharing its brand identity, directly orproducts/services by sharing its brand identity, directly or through endorsementthrough endorsement
  11. 11. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1111 Positioning StatementPositioning Statement  A concise written statement of the positioning concept,A concise written statement of the positioning concept, conveying the essential features of the brand and its niche.conveying the essential features of the brand and its niche. Product BrandProduct Brand  Two meanings, both valid:Two meanings, both valid:  1) The gestalt of the brand, including its emotional and1) The gestalt of the brand, including its emotional and cultural associations as well as its physical features.cultural associations as well as its physical features.  2) The graphic system of identification as applied to a single2) The graphic system of identification as applied to a single product orservice ora family of products/services.product orservice ora family of products/services. Service BrandService Brand  A brand representing a specific service orfamily of services.A brand representing a specific service orfamily of services.
  12. 12. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1212  Sub-BrandSub-Brand  A product or service that has a persona and brand valuesA product or service that has a persona and brand values that separate it from the parent brand. A product or servicethat separate it from the parent brand. A product or service that has its own brand identity, which is proprietary and canthat has its own brand identity, which is proprietary and can be trademarked.be trademarked.  SymbolSymbol  A “symbol” is an abstract sign to represent the brand.A “symbol” is an abstract sign to represent the brand.  TypographyTypography  The typestyle specified for brand communications otherThe typestyle specified for brand communications other than the basic brand signature. Typography is often anthan the basic brand signature. Typography is often an existing font, but may also be a modified font or custom-existing font, but may also be a modified font or custom- designed font.designed font.
  13. 13. The Branding DictionaryThe Branding Dictionary contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1313 Verbal IdentityVerbal Identity  The brand name and other verbal elements (e.g., descriptorThe brand name and other verbal elements (e.g., descriptor ortag-line) of the brand signature.ortag-line) of the brand signature. Visual IdentityVisual Identity  The symbol, colours, formats and other visual elements ofThe symbol, colours, formats and other visual elements of the brand signature.the brand signature. WordmarkWordmark  A “wordmark” is the stylised treatment of the brand nameA “wordmark” is the stylised treatment of the brand name and serves the same functional purpose as a symbol.and serves the same functional purpose as a symbol.
  14. 14. Market Share of Top CompaniesMarket Share of Top Companies Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1414 MAT MAR'08 MAT MAR'09 Grand Total 32,113.5 35,367.5 10.1 1 CIPLA 1,683.1 1,882.0 11.8 2 RANBAXY 1,599.0 1,767.0 10.5 3 GLAXOSMITHKLINE 1,512.8 1,524.5 0.8 4 PIRAMAL HEALTHCARE 1,210.6 1,421.1 17.4 5 ZYDUS CADILA 1,191.8 1,269.1 6.5 6 SUN PHARMA 1,064.3 1,222.5 14.9 7 ALKEM 1,021.7 1,101.2 7.8 8 LUPIN LABS 851.6 966.6 13.5 9 MANKIND 708.7 903.3 27.5 10 ARISTO PHARMA 724.4 859.5 18.6 11 ABBOTT 735.5 806.1 9.6 12 PFIZER 728.5 782.6 7.4 13 DR REDDYS LABS 749.0 768.6 2.6 14 EMCURE 659.2 744.1 12.9 15 WOCKHARDT 636.3 733.2 15.2 16 SANOFI AVENTIS 654.5 727.9 11.2 17 TORRENT PHARMA 658.0 704.6 7.1 18 INTAS 607.5 657.9 8.3 19 ALEMBIC 608.0 638.4 5.0 20 NOVARTIS 596.5 617.6 3.5 21 FDC 557.0 614.1 10.2 22 MICRO LABS 538.2 603.1 12.1 23 MACLEODS PHARMA 493.5 594.1 20.4 24 U S V 459.9 571.8 24.3 25 UNICHEM 499.3 512.3 2.6 26 GLENMARK PHARMA 434.9 511.1 17.5 27 IPCA LABS 404.5 508.0 25.6 28 CADILA PHARMA 355.0 344.3 -3.0 29 FRANCO INDIAN 274.7 321.0 16.8 30 ELDER PHARMA 291.2 310.4 6.6 VALUE IN CR. VAL GRTH (MAT) COMPANYRANK Source: March - 2009 ORG IMS
  15. 15. Supertherapeutic segmentsSupertherapeutic segments Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1515 MAT MAR'08 MAT MAR'09 1 Anti-infectives 5,726.7 6,287.4 9.8 2 CARDIAC 3,487.9 3,947.3 13.2 3 Gastro Intestinal 3,542.4 3,832.3 8.2 4 Respiratory 2,881.5 3,107.3 7.8 5 Pain / Analgesics 2,826.7 3,081.7 9.0 6 Vitamins / Minerals / Nutrients 2,619.9 2,758.2 5.3 7 Gynaec. 1,809.0 2,035.8 12.5 8 Derma 1,748.0 1,933.3 10.6 9 Neuro / CNS 1,746.3 1,927.1 10.4 10 Anti Diabetic 1,601.8 1,861.8 16.2 11 Others 666.4 795.8 19.4 12 Hormones 546.7 630.3 15.3 13 Ophthal / Otologicals 546.1 568.7 4.1 14 Hepatoprotectives 322.9 376.9 16.7 15 Blood Related 304.1 336.2 10.6 16 Sex stimulants / Rejuvenators 271.1 326.4 20.4 17 Anti-TB 316.7 297.9 -5.9 18 VACCINES 270.6 278.9 3.1 19 Anti malarials 215.8 273.3 26.6 20 Anti-Parasitic 222.1 232.0 4.5 21 Stomatologicals 184.1 201.5 9.5 22 Parenteral 142.0 155.6 9.6 23 HIV 114.5 121.7 6.3 24 Grand Total 32,113.5 35,367.5 10.1 SUPER GROUP SR. NO. Val Crs VAL GRTH (MAT) Source: March - 2009 ORG IMS
  16. 16. MajorGroup wise DataMajorGroup wise Data Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1616 GROUPWISE DATA GROUP MAT MAR'08 MAT MAR'09 1 J01D CEPHALOSPORINS 2,469.1 2,744.0 11.1 2 M01A ANTIRHEUMATIC NONSTR. 1,518.2 1,634.1 7.6 3 A02B ANTIPEPTIC ULCERANTS 1,282.7 1,410.4 10.0 5 J01C AMPICILLIN/AMOXYCILLIN 1,056.0 1,149.0 8.8 6 R05B COUGH PREPARATIONS 1,056.4 1,123.5 6.4 7 J01L QUINOLONES 911.2 930.7 2.1 8 B03A HAEMATINICS-IRON+COMB 677.9 785.7 15.9 13 J01K ALL OTHER ANTIBIOTICS 436.8 539.0 23.4 15 R06A ANTIHISTAMINES-SYSTEMIC 480.7 492.7 2.5 18 N02B NON-NARCOTICS-ANTIPYER. 423.4 452.4 6.9 26 A12A CALCIUM PREP. 322.6 345.8 7.2 27 A02A ANTACID-ANTIFLATULENTS 327.9 341.5 4.2 28 R05A COLD PREPARATIONS 302.9 329.2 8.7 29 A11F VIT.B12 AND METABOLITES 311.8 329.0 5.5 30 A11A MULTIVIT.WITH MINERALS 300.4 308.2 2.6 38 A03C ANTISPASM.ANTICHOL. COMB. 241.7 267.2 10.6 39 A04C ANTIEMET.-ANTINAUS SOL. 244.9 260.0 6.2 40 V06B PROTEIN & NEUTR. SUPPL. 239.6 248.2 3.6 42 A11I ANTIOXIDANTS 248.3 242.1 -2.5 46 A09A DIGESTIVES INC.ENZYMES 213.7 228.3 6.8 47 A07G OFLOXACIN COMB. 202.9 209.9 3.5 48 A01A STOMATOLOGICALS 184.1 201.5 9.5 49 V03D DRUGS FOR SEXUAL DISORDER 169.7 197.9 16.6 54 M03B MUSCLE RELAXANTS SYSTEMIC 156.1 165.9 6.3 55 A13A TONICS 151.4 164.4 8.6 59 D06A TOP.ANTIBIOTICS PLAIN 137.5 149.8 9.0 60 B03C OTHER ANTI-ANAEMIC PREP. 115.2 144.6 25.6 81 S01A ANTIINFECTIVES 118.8 114.3 -3.8 83 A07L ORAL ELECTROLYTES 107.3 112.1 4.5 101 P01A AMOEBICIDES 75.2 77.3 2.9 102 A03B ANTISPASM.ANTICHOL. PLAIN 67.9 76.3 12.5 126 A04B G.I.PROKINETIC 50.7 49.0 -3.2 240 Grand Total 32,113.5 35,367.5 10.1 RANK Val Crs VAL GRTH (MAT) Source: March - 2009 ORG IMS
  17. 17. Top BrandsTop Brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1717 MAT MAR'08 MAT MAR'09 1 COREX 144.4 166.6 15.4 2 VOVERAN 140.9 148.9 5.7 3 PHENSEDYL COUGH 95.7 143.0 49.4 4 HUMAN MIXTARD30/70 119.6 124.1 3.8 5 LIV-52 113.8 123.1 8.2 6 TAXIM 113.9 118.7 4.2 7 AUGMENTIN 108.5 115.3 6.3 8 ZIFI 101.2 115.2 13.8 9 DEXORANGE 93.5 113.7 21.6 10 MOX 96.0 110.2 14.8 11 BECOSULES 98.8 106.2 7.4 12 MONOCEF 85.5 104.8 22.5 13 REVITAL 72.4 99.4 37.3 14 TAXIM-O 85.0 94.1 10.7 15 ASTHALIN 92.2 93.9 1.8 16 CARDACE 77.3 90.4 16.9 17 CALPOL 72.6 83.2 14.6 18 SEROFLO 78.2 83.1 6.3 19 BETADINE 72.1 82.9 14.9 20 SPASMO-PROXYVON 66.1 82.6 24.9 21 COMBIFLAM 86.8 82.6 -4.9 22 SPORIDEX 78.5 82.5 5.1 23 NISE 82.2 80.2 -2.4 24 CIFRAN 83.9 80.2 -4.5 25 ZINETAC 72.7 79.9 9.9 26 DIGENE 73.6 77.8 5.7 27 AZITHRAL 59.2 77.3 30.4 28 STORVAS 64.1 76.4 19.2 29 OMEZ 72.8 74.7 2.6 30 NOVAMOX 70.5 72.9 3.5 RANK BRANDS Val Crs VAL GRTH (MAT) Source: March - 2009 ORG IMS
  18. 18. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Dr. KailasDr. Kailas GhodkeGhodke Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  19. 19. IntroductionIntroduction Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 1919  Words have the power to inspire, to motivate and trigger aWords have the power to inspire, to motivate and trigger a call to action.call to action.  Brands have come to be recognized, as powerful wealthBrands have come to be recognized, as powerful wealth creators and vehicles of value by the pharmaceuticalcreators and vehicles of value by the pharmaceutical industry.industry.  The first public act of branding, is the brand name whichThe first public act of branding, is the brand name which has a unique role to play.has a unique role to play.
  20. 20. IntroductionIntroduction contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 2020  BecauseBecause  Ultimately, Brand name is the only element of the brandUltimately, Brand name is the only element of the brand that will endure throughout its lifecycle.that will endure throughout its lifecycle.  While the variables of packaging, promotions andWhile the variables of packaging, promotions and positioning are all subject to change, the brand name willpositioning are all subject to change, the brand name will remain constant and therefore frequently acts as theremain constant and therefore frequently acts as the focus forthe brand.focus forthe brand.
  21. 21. IntroductionIntroduction contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 2121  Today, prescription (Rx) brand names areToday, prescription (Rx) brand names are  exchanged almost as common currencyexchanged almost as common currency  debated by the mediadebated by the media  commented on by patients and caregivers over internetcommented on by patients and caregivers over internet chat rooms and message boardschat rooms and message boards  even requested by the patients to general practitioners’even requested by the patients to general practitioners’ (GPs), consultant and surgeons.(GPs), consultant and surgeons.
  22. 22. IntroductionIntroduction contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 2222  Over the past 10 -15 years, we have seen a paradigm shift inOver the past 10 -15 years, we have seen a paradigm shift in the extent to which the medical lexicon has become part ofthe extent to which the medical lexicon has become part of a public vocabulary.a public vocabulary.  Botox, Prozac and Viagra are now listed in the OxfordBotox, Prozac and Viagra are now listed in the Oxford English Dictionary.English Dictionary.  ‘‘Health’ and ‘health-related issues’ are one of the mostHealth’ and ‘health-related issues’ are one of the most widely searched subjects on the internet.widely searched subjects on the internet.
  23. 23. IntroductionIntroduction contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 2323  In the context of the industry’s changing dynamics, in thisIn the context of the industry’s changing dynamics, in this presentation will set outpresentation will set out  the role and importance of a name in brand communicationsthe role and importance of a name in brand communications  establishing the value of a name across the lifecycle of a brand,establishing the value of a name across the lifecycle of a brand, frompre-launch to post-patent.frompre-launch to post-patent.  Recounting a brief history of pharma naming – it will examineRecounting a brief history of pharma naming – it will examine how the role of the name has evolved in the context of thehow the role of the name has evolved in the context of the changing dynamics of the industry and how the development ofchanging dynamics of the industry and how the development of a name has come to be regarded as a strategic component of aa name has come to be regarded as a strategic component of a brand’s identity and value.brand’s identity and value.
  24. 24. 1) BRAND1) BRAND
  25. 25. Origin of “Brand” the WordOrigin of “Brand” the Word Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 2525 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  26. 26. Origin of “Brand” the WordOrigin of “Brand” the Word Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 2626  ‘‘Brand’ originates from the Old NorseBrand’ originates from the Old Norse brandr, meaning ‘tobrandr, meaning ‘to burn’, fromtheburn’, fromthe ‘branding’ of livestock- a markof distinction‘branding’ of livestock- a markof distinction and differentiation, a sign of quality and trust.and differentiation, a sign of quality and trust.  Over time, that trustmark has been established as aOver time, that trustmark has been established as a relationship, one which by securing preference and loyaltyrelationship, one which by securing preference and loyalty sustains future earnings.sustains future earnings.
  27. 27. What is Brand?What is Brand? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 2727 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  28. 28. What is a brand?What is a brand?  A brand isA brand is notnot rankingranking  It is about theIt is about the approachapproach and not about beingand not about being excellentexcellent  A brand is aboutA brand is about cultureculture andand mindsetmindset of theof the organizationorganization  It is about identities, aspirations and differentiationIt is about identities, aspirations and differentiation  It isIt is notnot fiction ormanufacturedfiction ormanufactured Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 2828 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  29. 29. What is a brand?What is a brand? Yourbrand is the singularidea orYourbrand is the singularidea or guiding concept that you want toguiding concept that you want to own in the hearts and minds of yourown in the hearts and minds of your target audiencestarget audiences Educational Marketing Group, Inc, 2005Educational Marketing Group, Inc, 2005 Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 2929 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  30. 30. American Marketing AssociationAmerican Marketing Association Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3030  A Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design orA Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or combination of them intended to identify the goods andcombination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller orgroup of sellers and to differentiateservices of one seller orgroup of sellers and to differentiate themfromthose of competitorsthemfromthose of competitors
  31. 31. KotlerKotler Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3131  A Brand is a product, but one that adds otherdimensions toA Brand is a product, but one that adds otherdimensions to differentiate it in some way fromotherproducts designeddifferentiate it in some way fromotherproducts designed to satisfy the same needsto satisfy the same needs  Rational and Tangible dimensionsRational and Tangible dimensions  Symbolic and Intangible dimensionsSymbolic and Intangible dimensions
  32. 32. WikipediaWikipedia Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3232  A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing anA brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer; more specifically, it refers to theeconomic producer; more specifically, it refers to the concrete symbols such as a name, logo, slogan, and designconcrete symbols such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme.scheme.  Brand recognition and other reactions are created by theBrand recognition and other reactions are created by the accumulation of experiences with the specific product oraccumulation of experiences with the specific product or service, both directly relating to its use, and through theservice, both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary.
  33. 33. WikipediaWikipedia contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3333  A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the informationA brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to a company, product orservice.connected to a company, product orservice.  A brand serves to create associations and expectationsA brand serves to create associations and expectations among products made by a producer.among products made by a producer.  A brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, colorA brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols, sound which may be developed toschemes, symbols, sound which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality.represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality.
  34. 34. What is a brand?What is a brand? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3434  Ultimately, a brand is something that resides in the mindsUltimately, a brand is something that resides in the minds of customersof customers  Rooted in reality but reflecting perceptions andRooted in reality but reflecting perceptions and idiosyncrasies of customers.idiosyncrasies of customers.  The brand, and "branding" and brand equity have becomeThe brand, and "branding" and brand equity have become increasingly important components of culture and theincreasingly important components of culture and the economy, now being described as "cultural accessories andeconomy, now being described as "cultural accessories and personal philosophies".personal philosophies".
  35. 35. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeMarketingMarketing 3535 What is a brand?What is a brand?  A business toolA business tool  A relationshipA relationship  A belief systemA belief system  A class of goods identified by name as the product of a singleA class of goods identified by name as the product of a single firmormanufacturer”firmormanufacturer”  A customer-facing entity designed to be understandable,A customer-facing entity designed to be understandable, appealing and enduringappealing and enduring
  36. 36. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeMarketingMarketing 3636 Brand isBrand is  Features (What yourproduct/service is)Features (What yourproduct/service is)  Benefits (Needs and wants that yourproduct/service meets)Benefits (Needs and wants that yourproduct/service meets)  Values (What the customerassociates with the product)Values (What the customerassociates with the product) Brands enable customers to instinctively make purchasingBrands enable customers to instinctively make purchasing decisionsdecisions
  37. 37. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeMarketingMarketing 3737 Brand Experience and Brand ImageBrand Experience and Brand Image  There are two aspect of brandThere are two aspect of brand 1.1. The experiential aspectThe experiential aspect consists of the sumof all points ofconsists of the sumof all points of contact with the brand and is known as thecontact with the brand and is known as the brand experiencebrand experience.. 2.2. The psychological aspectThe psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the, sometimes referred to as the brandbrand imageimage, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectationspeople and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product orservice.associated with a product orservice.
  38. 38. Brand equityBrand equity Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3838  Brand equity measures the total value of the brand to the brandBrand equity measures the total value of the brand to the brand owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise.owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise.  The term brand name is often used interchangeably with "brand",The term brand name is often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote writtenalthough it is more correctly used to specifically denote written orspoken linguistic elements of a brand.orspoken linguistic elements of a brand.  In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, ifIn this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as thethe brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products orservices.commercial source of products orservices.  A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relationA brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademarkregistration.to a brand name through trademarkregistration.
  39. 39. Brand energyBrand energy Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 3939  Brand energy is a conceptBrand energy is a concept  that links togetherthe ideas that the brand is experientialthat links togetherthe ideas that the brand is experiential  that it is not just about the experiences ofthat it is not just about the experiences of customers/potential customers but all stakeholders andcustomers/potential customers but all stakeholders and the idea that businesses are essentially more aboutthe idea that businesses are essentially more about creating value through creating meaningful experiencescreating value through creating meaningful experiences than generating profit.than generating profit.
  40. 40. Brand energyBrand energy Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 4040  Brand energy has been defined as:Brand energy has been defined as:  ‘‘The energy that flows throughout the system that linksThe energy that flows throughout the system that links businesses and all their stakeholders and which isbusinesses and all their stakeholders and which is manifested in the way these stakeholders think, feel andmanifested in the way these stakeholders think, feel and behave towards the business and its products orservices’behave towards the business and its products orservices’
  41. 41. Brand monopolyBrand monopoly Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 4141  In economic terms the "brand" is, in effect, a device toIn economic terms the "brand" is, in effect, a device to create a "monopoly“ or at least some form of "imperfectcreate a "monopoly“ or at least some form of "imperfect competition“ so that the brand owner can obtain some ofcompetition“ so that the brand owner can obtain some of the benefits which accrue to a monopoly, especially pricethe benefits which accrue to a monopoly, especially price competition.competition.  There is also a legal dimension - brand names andThere is also a legal dimension - brand names and trademarks should be protected by all means available.trademarks should be protected by all means available.  The monopoly may also be extended, or even created, byThe monopoly may also be extended, or even created, by patent, copyright, trade secret (e.g. secret recipe), andpatent, copyright, trade secret (e.g. secret recipe), and other intellectual property regimes (e.g.: Plant Varietiesother intellectual property regimes (e.g.: Plant Varieties Act, Design Act).Act, Design Act).  Retailers' "own label"brands can be just as also powerful.Retailers' "own label"brands can be just as also powerful.
  42. 42. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery4242
  43. 43. Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 4343 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  44. 44. ““Buildings age &Buildings age & become dilapidated.become dilapidated. Machines wearout.Machines wearout. Cars rust.Cars rust. But what lives on areBut what lives on are Brands”Brands”  SirHectorLaingSirHectorLaing Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 4444 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  45. 45. ““Brand value is the extraBrand value is the extra worth engendered inworth engendered in customers, whosecustomers, whose loyalty is made moreloyalty is made more secure.”secure.”  The Economist (Dec.,1988)The Economist (Dec.,1988) Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 4545 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  46. 46. TheircontinuousTheircontinuous usage goes beyondusage goes beyond rational features.rational features. Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 4646 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  47. 47. What you show is moreWhat you show is more important than what youimportant than what you say.say. One Brand.One Brand. One VoiceOne Voice  David OgilvyDavid Ogilvy Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 4747 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  48. 48. Brands are part of a strategyBrands are part of a strategy aimed at differentiating supply.aimed at differentiating supply. Companies do so by consistentlyCompanies do so by consistently and repeatedly providing an idealand repeatedly providing an ideal combination of attributes -- bothcombination of attributes -- both tangible and intangible, practicaltangible and intangible, practical and symbolic, visible andand symbolic, visible and invisible.invisible. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 4848  Strategic Brand Management : New Approaches toStrategic Brand Management : New Approaches to Creating & Evaluating Brand Equity – Jean – NoelCreating & Evaluating Brand Equity – Jean – Noel erererer Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands?
  49. 49. Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 4949  Brands where originally created in order to be able toBrands where originally created in order to be able to differentiate what we offer from what the competitordifferentiate what we offer from what the competitor offers.offers.  We branded it to avoid confusion and help people toWe branded it to avoid confusion and help people to remember, identify the manufacture and aid the choice ofremember, identify the manufacture and aid the choice of purchase
  50. 50. Why Build Brands?Why Build Brands? Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5050  Brands are important to companies because strongerBrands are important to companies because stronger brands are able to command and sustain higher marginsbrands are able to command and sustain higher margins than weakerbrands.  than weakerbrands.    Brand strength is judged by many measures, includingBrand strength is judged by many measures, including ‘substitution’, the likelihood that the customer will‘substitution’, the likelihood that the customer will purchase another brand if their brand is not available, pricepurchase another brand if their brand is not available, price premium, awareness, etc.premium, awareness, etc.
  51. 51. Branding policiesBranding policies Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 5151 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  52. 52. Branding policiesBranding policies Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5252  There are a numberof possible policies.There are a numberof possible policies. 1.1. Company nameCompany name 2.2. Individual brandingIndividual branding 3.3. Derived brandsDerived brands
  53. 53. 1) Company name1) Company name Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5353  Especially in the industrial sector, it is just the company'sEspecially in the industrial sector, it is just the company's name which is promoted. E.g. L& L, Reliance, Raymond,name which is promoted. E.g. L& L, Reliance, Raymond, Microsoft etc.Microsoft etc.  In this case a very strong brand name (or company name)In this case a very strong brand name (or company name) is made the vehicle for a range of products (for example,is made the vehicle for a range of products (for example, Mercedes) or even a range of subsidiary brands (such asMercedes) or even a range of subsidiary brands (such as Cadbury Dairy Milk, Cadbury Éclairs).Cadbury Dairy Milk, Cadbury Éclairs).
  54. 54. 2) Individual branding2) Individual branding Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5454  Each brand has a separate nameEach brand has a separate name  E.g. Seven-Up orNivea, Lux, Corex, Crocin, Liv 52,E.g. Seven-Up orNivea, Lux, Corex, Crocin, Liv 52, ViagraViagra  Which may even compete against otherbrands from theWhich may even compete against otherbrands from the same companysame company  E.g. Persil, Surf and Rin are all owned by HindustanE.g. Persil, Surf and Rin are all owned by Hindustan Unleveror- Maruti Range - Zen, 800, Esteem, Alto,Unleveror- Maruti Range - Zen, 800, Esteem, Alto, Various pain management and anti infective (Taxim andVarious pain management and anti infective (Taxim and Taxim – O).Taxim – O).
  55. 55. 3) Derived brands3) Derived brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5555  In this case the supplierof a key component, used by aIn this case the supplierof a key component, used by a numberof suppliers of the end-product, may wish tonumberof suppliers of the end-product, may wish to guarantee its own position by promoting that component asguarantee its own position by promoting that component as a brand in its own right.a brand in its own right.  The most frequently quoted example is Intel (in the PCThe most frequently quoted example is Intel (in the PC market, with the slogan 'Intel Inside).market, with the slogan 'Intel Inside).
  56. 56. Brand developmentBrand development Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 5656 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  57. 57. Brand developmentBrand development Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5757  In terms of existing products, brands may be developed in aIn terms of existing products, brands may be developed in a numberof ways:numberof ways: 1.1. Brand extensionBrand extension 2.2. Multi-brandsMulti-brands 3.3. Small business brandsSmall business brands 4.4. Own brands and genericsOwn brands and generics
  58. 58. Brand extensionBrand extension Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5858  The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle forThe existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products; for example, many Tobacconew or modified products; for example, many Tobacco Cigarettes, Alcohol Beverage, Confectionaries, fashion andCigarettes, Alcohol Beverage, Confectionaries, fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances, shoesdesigner companies extended brands into fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-)and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-) glasses, furniture, hotels, etc.glasses, furniture, hotels, etc.  E.g. Britannia Biscuit and Cakes, Tata Salt, MacDonald'sE.g. Britannia Biscuit and Cakes, Tata Salt, MacDonald's whisky and Mineral water, Kingfisher Airlines and Alcoholwhisky and Mineral water, Kingfisher Airlines and Alcohol beverage, Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene.beverage, Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene.
  59. 59. Difference between brand extension and lineDifference between brand extension and line extension.extension. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 5959  E.g. of line extensionE.g. of line extension 1.1. When Coca-Cola launched "Diet Coke" and "Cherry Coke"When Coca-Cola launched "Diet Coke" and "Cherry Coke" they stayed within the originating product category: non-they stayed within the originating product category: non- alcoholic carbonated beverages.alcoholic carbonated beverages. 2.2. Detol hand wash, Detol soap within the same category ofDetol hand wash, Detol soap within the same category of antiseptic hand and body wash.antiseptic hand and body wash. 3.3. Pharma Brand - Antibiotic- Taxim and Taxim – O, Antacid -Pharma Brand - Antibiotic- Taxim and Taxim – O, Antacid - Gelusil Liquid and Tablets.Gelusil Liquid and Tablets.
  60. 60. Multi-brandsMulti-brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6060  In a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands aIn a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a supplier can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands insupplier can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands in apparent competition with its own existing strong brand (andapparent competition with its own existing strong brand (and often with identical product characteristics)often with identical product characteristics)  This is simply to soak up some of the share of the market whichThis is simply to soak up some of the share of the market which will in any case go to minorbrands.will in any case go to minorbrands.  The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a marketThe rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will give a greater overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even ifwill give a greater overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if much of the share of these new brands is taken from the existingmuch of the share of these new brands is taken from the existing one).one).  It is also done in orderto pre-empt others entering the market.It is also done in orderto pre-empt others entering the market.
  61. 61. Multi-brandsMulti-brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6161  Individual brand names naturally allow greaterflexibility byIndividual brand names naturally allow greaterflexibility by permitting a variety of different products, of differingpermitting a variety of different products, of differing quality, to be sold without confusing the consumer'squality, to be sold without confusing the consumer's perception ordiluting higherquality products.perception ordiluting higherquality products.  Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy,Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy, running as many as ten detergent brands in the US marketrunning as many as ten detergent brands in the US market and also in India.and also in India.  This also increases the total number of "facings" it receivesThis also increases the total number of "facings" it receives on supermarket shelves.on supermarket shelves.  Another e.g. Mahendra have wide range of Jeeps (MUV)Another e.g. Mahendra have wide range of Jeeps (MUV) Bolero, Commander, Scorpio, ZyloBolero, Commander, Scorpio, Zylo  In the hotel business, Marriott uses the name Fairfield InnsIn the hotel business, Marriott uses the name Fairfield Inns for its budget chain (and Ramada uses Rodeway for its ownfor its budget chain (and Ramada uses Rodeway for its own cheaperhotels).cheaperhotels).
  62. 62. Cannibalization in Multi-brandsCannibalization in Multi-brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6262  Cannibalization is a particular problem of a "multibrand"Cannibalization is a particular problem of a "multibrand" approachapproach  The new brand takes business away from an established oneThe new brand takes business away from an established one which the organization also owns.which the organization also owns.  This may be acceptable (indeed to be expected) if there is aThis may be acceptable (indeed to be expected) if there is a net gain overall.net gain overall.  Alternatively, it may be the price the organization is willingAlternatively, it may be the price the organization is willing to pay forshifting its position in the market.to pay forshifting its position in the market.
  63. 63. Small business brandsSmall business brands Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6363  Branding a small business is essentially the same thing as aBranding a small business is essentially the same thing as a larger corporation, the only differences being that smalllarger corporation, the only differences being that small businesses usually have a smaller market and have less reachbusinesses usually have a smaller market and have less reach than largerbrands.than largerbrands.  There are many examples of small businesses that becameThere are many examples of small businesses that became very successful due to branding.very successful due to branding.  D mart is one company that used almost no advertisingD mart is one company that used almost no advertising and over a period developed such a strong brand that theand over a period developed such a strong brand that the company went fromone shop to hundreds.company went fromone shop to hundreds.  Mankind within 5-6 years has reflected in top 15 pharmaMankind within 5-6 years has reflected in top 15 pharma companies.companies.
  64. 64. Own brands and genericsOwn brands and generics Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6464  With the emergence of strong retailers the "own brand", theWith the emergence of strong retailers the "own brand", the retailer's own branded product (or service), also emerged asretailer's own branded product (or service), also emerged as a majorfactorin the marketplace.a majorfactorin the marketplace.  Where the retailer has a particularly strong identity (suchWhere the retailer has a particularly strong identity (such as Marks & Spencer , Pantaloon in clothing) this "ownas Marks & Spencer , Pantaloon in clothing) this "own brand" may compete against the strongest brand leaders,brand" may compete against the strongest brand leaders, and may dominate those markets which are not otherwiseand may dominate those markets which are not otherwise strongly branded.strongly branded.
  65. 65. Own brands and genericsOwn brands and generics Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6565  At the same time, probably as an outgrowth ofAt the same time, probably as an outgrowth of consumerism, "generic" (that is, effectively unbrandedconsumerism, "generic" (that is, effectively unbranded goods) have also emerged.goods) have also emerged.  These made a positive virtue of saving the cost of almost allThese made a positive virtue of saving the cost of almost all marketing activities; emphasizing the lack of advertisingmarketing activities; emphasizing the lack of advertising and, especially, the plain packaging (which was, however,and, especially, the plain packaging (which was, however, often simply a vehicle fora different kind of image).often simply a vehicle fora different kind of image).  E.g.- Dmart, Big BazaarE.g.- Dmart, Big Bazaar
  66. 66. Brand CharacteristicBrand Characteristic Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 6666 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  67. 67. Brand CharacteristicBrand Characteristic Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6767  A strong brand should fulfill three basic objectives;A strong brand should fulfill three basic objectives; 1.1. InformationInformation 2.2. DifferentiationDifferentiation 3.3. SeductionSeduction
  68. 68. InformationInformation Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6868  Brand should tell us something about the product offeredBrand should tell us something about the product offered that is intelligible and decipherable:that is intelligible and decipherable: Ihavetounderstandtheproposalof basic valueorwhat theIhavetounderstandtheproposalof basic valueorwhat the product offeredconsist ofproduct offeredconsist of
  69. 69. DifferentiationsDifferentiations Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 6969  Brand tells should be perceived as a different by theBrand tells should be perceived as a different by the purchaserorin otherwordspurchaserorin otherwords I understand what you are telling me and I thinkthat it isI understand what you are telling me and I thinkthat it is something that the others haven't told mesomething that the others haven't told me
  70. 70. SeductionSeduction Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7070  Seduction because this is the raison d'être of any brandSeduction because this is the raison d'être of any brand  The first two are in service of the third: in the end theThe first two are in service of the third: in the end the brand has to tell us something that we considerto bebrand has to tell us something that we considerto be interesting and that ends up seducing usinteresting and that ends up seducing us  And seduction is something very subtle.And seduction is something very subtle.
  71. 71. Brand CharacteristicBrand Characteristic Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7171  There are currently numerous brands has that have reachThere are currently numerous brands has that have reach the first stage.the first stage.  They have succeeded in getting us to recognized their logosThey have succeeded in getting us to recognized their logos and we see theiradvertisementsand we see theiradvertisements  They have succeeded in getting us know more or less whatThey have succeeded in getting us know more or less what they offerbut they have not seduced us.they offerbut they have not seduced us.  They are in our mind and we see them on going to shop , butThey are in our mind and we see them on going to shop , but we when it comes to buying we do not feel that irresistible,we when it comes to buying we do not feel that irresistible, emotional attraction that derives us to clearly opt for one ofemotional attraction that derives us to clearly opt for one of the them.the them.
  72. 72. Types of brandTypes of brand Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 7272 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  73. 73. Types of brandTypes of brand Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7373 1.1. ProductProduct 2.2. ServiceService 3.3. OrganizationOrganization 4.4. PersonPerson 5.5. EventEvent 6.6. GeographyGeography
  74. 74. 1) Product1) Product Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7474  The most common brand is that associated with a tangibleThe most common brand is that associated with a tangible product, such as a carordrink. product, such as a carordrink.   This can be very specific or may indicate a range ofThis can be very specific or may indicate a range of products.products.  In any case, there is always a unifying element that is theIn any case, there is always a unifying element that is the 'brand' being referred to in the given case.'brand' being referred to in the given case.
  75. 75. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7575  Types of product brandsTypes of product brands 1.1. Individual product /Individual product / individual brandingindividual branding 2.2. Product range /Product range /FamilyFamily brandingbranding 3.3. PremiumbrandPremiumbrand 4.4. Economy brandEconomy brand 5.5. Fighting brandFighting brand 1.1. Co-brandingCo-branding 2.2. Corporate brandingCorporate branding 3.3. Brand leveragingBrand leveraging 4.4. Private branding, storePrivate branding, store brand, orprivate labelbrand, orprivate label 5.5. Brand licensingBrand licensing
  76. 76. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7676 Individual product /Individual product /individual brandingindividual branding  When all a company's products are given different brandWhen all a company's products are given different brand names, this is referred to asnames, this is referred to as individual brandingindividual branding..  Product brands can be very specific, indicating a singleProduct brands can be very specific, indicating a single product, such as classic Coca-Cola.product, such as classic Coca-Cola.  It can also include particular physical forms, such as Coca-It can also include particular physical forms, such as Coca- cola in a traditional bottle ora can.cola in a traditional bottle ora can.
  77. 77. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7777 Product range /Product range /Family brandingFamily branding  When one brand name is used for several related products,When one brand name is used for several related products, this is referred to asthis is referred to as family brandingfamily branding  Product brands associated with a range, such as theProduct brands associated with a range, such as the Mercedes S-class cars orall varieties of Colgate toothpaste.Mercedes S-class cars orall varieties of Colgate toothpaste.
  78. 78. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7878  AA premium brandpremium brand typically costs more than other productstypically costs more than other products in the category.in the category.  AnAn economy brandeconomy brand' is a brand targeted to a high price' is a brand targeted to a high price elasticity market segment.elasticity market segment.  AA fighting brandfighting brand is a brand created specifically to counter ais a brand created specifically to counter a competitive threat.competitive threat.  When two or more brands work together to market theirWhen two or more brands work together to market their products, this is referred to asproducts, this is referred to as co-brandingco-branding..
  79. 79. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 7979  When a company's name is used as a product brand name,When a company's name is used as a product brand name, this is referred to asthis is referred to as corporate brandingcorporate branding..  When a company uses the brand equity associated with anWhen a company uses the brand equity associated with an existing brand name to introduce a new product or productexisting brand name to introduce a new product or product line, this is referred to asline, this is referred to as brand leveragingbrand leveraging..
  80. 80. 1) Product1) Product contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8080  When large retailers buy products in bulk fromWhen large retailers buy products in bulk from manufacturers and put their own brand name on them, thismanufacturers and put their own brand name on them, this is calledis called private brandingprivate branding,, store brandstore brand, or, or private labelprivate label.. Private brands can be differentiated from manufacturers'Private brands can be differentiated from manufacturers' brands (also referred to as national brands).brands (also referred to as national brands).  When a company sells the rights to use a brand name toWhen a company sells the rights to use a brand name to another company for use on a non-competing product or inanother company for use on a non-competing product or in another geographical area, this is referred to asanother geographical area, this is referred to as brandbrand licensinglicensing..
  81. 81. 2) Service2) Service Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8181  As companies move from manufacturing products to deliveringAs companies move from manufacturing products to delivering complete solutions and intangible services, the brand is about thecomplete solutions and intangible services, the brand is about the 'service'.'service'.  Service brands are about what is done, when it is done, who doesService brands are about what is done, when it is done, who does it, etc. E.g. Apolo Hospital , Fortis Hospital, Tata Consultancyit, etc. E.g. Apolo Hospital , Fortis Hospital, Tata Consultancy etc.etc.  It is much more variable than products brands, where variationIt is much more variable than products brands, where variation can be eliminated on the production line.can be eliminated on the production line.
  82. 82. 2) Service2) Service Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8282  Even in companies such as McDonald's where the serviceEven in companies such as McDonald's where the service has been standardized down to the eye contact and smile,has been standardized down to the eye contact and smile, variation still occurs.variation still occurs.  Consistency can be a problem in service:Consistency can be a problem in service: we expect somewe expect some variation, and the same smile every time can turn into anvariation, and the same smile every time can turn into an annoyance as we feel we are being manipulated.annoyance as we feel we are being manipulated.  Service brands need a lot more understanding than productService brands need a lot more understanding than product brands.brands.
  83. 83. 3) Organization3) Organization Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8383  Organizations are brands, whether it is a company thatOrganizations are brands, whether it is a company that delivers products and services orsome othergroup.delivers products and services orsome othergroup.  TATA, Mercedes, and the US Senate are all definedTATA, Mercedes, and the US Senate are all defined organizations and each have qualities associated with themorganizations and each have qualities associated with them that constitute the brand.that constitute the brand.  In once sense, the brand of the organization is created asIn once sense, the brand of the organization is created as the sumof its products and services.the sumof its products and services.
  84. 84. 4) Person4) Person Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8484  The person brand is focused on one or a few individuals,The person brand is focused on one or a few individuals, where the branding is associated with personality.where the branding is associated with personality. IndividualIndividual  A pure individual brand is based on one person, such asA pure individual brand is based on one person, such as celebrity actor(Amitab Bachan) orsinger.celebrity actor(Amitab Bachan) orsinger.  The brand can be their natural person or a carefully craftedThe brand can be their natural person or a carefully crafted projection (Vodafone – Jujube).projection (Vodafone – Jujube).  Politicians work had to project a brand that is attractive toPoliticians work had to project a brand that is attractive to theirelectorate.theirelectorate.  In a similar way, rock stars who want to appear cool alsoIn a similar way, rock stars who want to appear cool also are playing to a stereotype.are playing to a stereotype.
  85. 85. 4) Person4) Person Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8585 GroupGroup  It is a the brand of a group of individual.It is a the brand of a group of individual.  A small group and the individuals are known, the groupA small group and the individuals are known, the group brand and the individual brand overlap, for example thebrand and the individual brand overlap, for example the brand of a pop group and the brand of its known membersbrand of a pop group and the brand of its known members are strongly connected .are strongly connected .  Organizations can also be linked closely with the brand ofOrganizations can also be linked closely with the brand of an individual, for example J R Tata is closely linked withan individual, for example J R Tata is closely linked with TATA similarly Ambani with Reliance.TATA similarly Ambani with Reliance.
  86. 86. 5) Event5) Event Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8686  Events have brands too, whether they are rock concerts,Events have brands too, whether they are rock concerts, the Olympics, Mumbai Marathon, Film fare Award, Missthe Olympics, Mumbai Marathon, Film fare Award, Miss Universe , a space-rocket launch ora town-hall dance.Universe , a space-rocket launch ora town-hall dance.  Event brands are strongly connected with the experience ofEvent brands are strongly connected with the experience of the people attending, for example with musical pleasure orthe people attending, for example with musical pleasure or amazement at human feats.amazement at human feats.  Product, service and other brands realize the power ofProduct, service and other brands realize the power of event brands and seek to have their brands associated withevent brands and seek to have their brands associated with the event brands.the event brands.  Thus sponsorship of events is now big business as oneThus sponsorship of events is now big business as one brand tries to get leverage from the essence of the event,brand tries to get leverage from the essence of the event, such as excitement and dangerof carracing.such as excitement and dangerof carracing.
  87. 87. 6) Geography6) Geography Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8787  Areas of the world also have essential qualities that are seen asAreas of the world also have essential qualities that are seen as characterizations, and hence also have brand.characterizations, and hence also have brand.  These areas can range fromcountries to state to cities to streetsThese areas can range fromcountries to state to cities to streets and buildings.and buildings.  Those who govern orrepresent these geographies will workhardThose who govern orrepresent these geographies will workhard to develop the brand.to develop the brand.  Cities (Chicago and Mumbai), forexample, may have de-factoCities (Chicago and Mumbai), forexample, may have de-facto brands of being dangerous orsafe, cultural orbland, which willbrands of being dangerous orsafe, cultural orbland, which will be used by potential tourists in theirdecisions to visit and bybe used by potential tourists in theirdecisions to visit and by companies in theirdecisions on where to set up places ofcompanies in theirdecisions on where to set up places of employment.employment.
  88. 88. Brand ManagementBrand Management Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 8888 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  89. 89. The Branding ProcessThe Branding Process Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 8989  StrategicStrategic  ParticipativeParticipative  Descriptive: Who are you now?Descriptive: Who are you now?  Brand promise and componentsBrand promise and components  Creative development and executionCreative development and execution
  90. 90. Brand managementBrand management Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9090  Brand management is the application of marketingBrand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product, product line, orbrand.techniques to a specific product, product line, orbrand.  It seeks to increase the product'sIt seeks to increase the product's perceived valueperceived value to theto the customercustomer and thereby increase brand franchise and brandand thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity.equity.  Marketers see a brand as an implied promise, the standardMarketers see a brand as an implied promise, the standard quality level which people expect from a brand.quality level which people expect from a brand.  This may increase sales by making a comparison withThis may increase sales by making a comparison with competing products more favorable.competing products more favorable.  It also enable the manufacturer to charge more for theIt also enable the manufacturer to charge more for the product.product.  The value of the brand is determined by the amount ofThe value of the brand is determined by the amount of profit it generates forthe manufacturer.profit it generates forthe manufacturer.
  91. 91. Brand Management ApproachBrand Management Approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9191  To get a product or service to the right person or company,To get a product or service to the right person or company, a marketer would firstly segment the market, then target aa marketer would firstly segment the market, then target a single segment or series of segments, and finally positionsingle segment or series of segments, and finally position within the segmentwithin the segment Market SegmentationMarket Segmentation  Segmentation is essentially the identification of subsets ofSegmentation is essentially the identification of subsets of buyers within a market who share similar needs and whobuyers within a market who share similar needs and who demonstrate similarbuyerbehavior.demonstrate similarbuyerbehavior.  The buyers have their own sets of needs and behavior.The buyers have their own sets of needs and behavior. Segmentation aims to match groups of purchasers with theSegmentation aims to match groups of purchasers with the same set of needs and buyer behavior. Such a group issame set of needs and buyer behavior. Such a group is known as a 'segment'.known as a 'segment'.
  92. 92. Brand Management ApproachBrand Management Approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9292  Think of your market as an orange, with a series ofThink of your market as an orange, with a series of connected but distinctive segments, each with their ownconnected but distinctive segments, each with their own profile.profile.  Howeverthe more general bases include:Howeverthe more general bases include:  By geography - such as where in the world was theBy geography - such as where in the world was the product bought.product bought.  By psychographics - such as lifestyle orbeliefs.By psychographics - such as lifestyle orbeliefs.  By socio-cultural factors - such as class.By socio-cultural factors - such as class.  By demography - such as age, sex, and so on.By demography - such as age, sex, and so on.
  93. 93. Brand Management ApproachBrand Management Approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9393 Target AudienceTarget Audience  After the market has been separated into its segments, theAfter the market has been separated into its segments, the marketer will select a segment or series of segments andmarketer will select a segment or series of segments and 'target' it/them'target' it/them  The attitudinal and demographic, Psychographic,The attitudinal and demographic, Psychographic, Technographic description of the core prospect orTechnographic description of the core prospect or customer to whom the brand is intended to appeal, or tocustomer to whom the brand is intended to appeal, or to whom the marketing plan is directed.  whom the marketing plan is directed.  
  94. 94. Brand Management ApproachBrand Management Approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9494 Brand PositioningBrand Positioning  Identifying and clarifying competitive threats andIdentifying and clarifying competitive threats and actionable opportunities to guide product development andactionable opportunities to guide product development and enhance the impact of integrated brand marketingenhance the impact of integrated brand marketing programsprograms
  95. 95. Brand Management ApproachBrand Management Approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9595 Marketing ProgramDevelopment and EvaluationMarketing ProgramDevelopment and Evaluation  Maximizing the business-building performance of marketingMaximizing the business-building performance of marketing program elements including distribution, packaging,program elements including distribution, packaging, product design, and pricingproduct design, and pricing Marketing Communications, Brand Promotions andMarketing Communications, Brand Promotions and Advertising ManagementAdvertising Management  Planning, evaluating, and refining media and messagePlanning, evaluating, and refining media and message strategies to strengthen brand communications campaignstrategies to strengthen brand communications campaign performanceperformance Brand Health and Brand Equity AssessmentBrand Health and Brand Equity Assessment  Monitoring the crucial components of brand health toMonitoring the crucial components of brand health to provide direction for more effective management of overallprovide direction for more effective management of overall brand equitybrand equity
  96. 96. Brand management isBrand management is Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9696 1.1. The total approachThe total approach 2.2. Creating the promiseCreating the promise 3.3. Making the promiseMaking the promise 4.4. Keeping the promiseKeeping the promise 5.5. A brand is a promiseA brand is a promise 6.6. A brand is an associated imageA brand is an associated image 7.7. Everything and everyone is a brandEverything and everyone is a brand
  97. 97. 1) The total approach1) The total approach Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9797  Brand management starts with understanding what 'brand'Brand management starts with understanding what 'brand' really means.really means.  This starts with the leaders of the company who defineThis starts with the leaders of the company who define the brand and control its management.the brand and control its management.  It also reaches all the way down the company andIt also reaches all the way down the company and especially to the people who interface with customers orespecially to the people who interface with customers or who create the products which customers use.who create the products which customers use.
  98. 98. 2) Creating the promise2) Creating the promise Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9898  Creating the promise means defining the brand.Creating the promise means defining the brand.  A good brand promise is memorable and desirable.A good brand promise is memorable and desirable.  It cannot be effective if nobody remembers it, and is noIt cannot be effective if nobody remembers it, and is no good eitherif nobody wants it!good eitherif nobody wants it!  A good brand promise evokes feelings, because feelingsA good brand promise evokes feelings, because feelings drive actions.drive actions.  Volvo offers feelings of safety. Disneyland offers feelingsVolvo offers feelings of safety. Disneyland offers feelings of excitement.of excitement.
  99. 99. 2) Creating the promise2) Creating the promise contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 9999  The promise must be unique and identified with you alone.The promise must be unique and identified with you alone.  Within an industry, promises can be very close.Within an industry, promises can be very close.  But if you want success, you must dig out the veryBut if you want success, you must dig out the very specific territory of your promise and know clearly how itspecific territory of your promise and know clearly how it is different fromthe promises of otherfirms.is different fromthe promises of otherfirms.
  100. 100. 2) Creating the promise2) Creating the promise contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 100100  The right promise is not just something you make up on aThe right promise is not just something you make up on a Friday afternoon.Friday afternoon.  It comes through a deep understanding of yourIt comes through a deep understanding of your  MarketplaceMarketplace  yourcustomers.yourcustomers.  capabilities and motivations of the people.capabilities and motivations of the people.
  101. 101. 3) Making the promise3) Making the promise Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 101101  Once you have created the promise, the next step is toOnce you have created the promise, the next step is to inject it into the minds ofinject it into the minds of  yourcustomersyourcustomers  yourstaffyourstaff  everyone who is related to the brand.everyone who is related to the brand.  This is done through marketing which includesThis is done through marketing which includes  advertising and PRadvertising and PR  is about positioning the company and its products in theis about positioning the company and its products in the minds of customers and against yourcompetitors.minds of customers and against yourcompetitors.
  102. 102. 4) Keeping the promise4) Keeping the promise Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 102102  Creating and making the right promise is one thing, butCreating and making the right promise is one thing, but then you have to keep it.then you have to keep it.  Creating a promise you cannot consistently keep, year afterCreating a promise you cannot consistently keep, year after year, is plain suicide.year, is plain suicide.  The brand may still exist, but now the promise will be ofThe brand may still exist, but now the promise will be of slipshod products and inconsistent delivery.slipshod products and inconsistent delivery.
  103. 103. 4) Keeping the promise4) Keeping the promise contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 103103  Keeping promises meansKeeping promises means  managing capability.managing capability.  consistent processes that are capable of delivering whatconsistent processes that are capable of delivering what is required.is required.  technology and systems which are reliable and usable.technology and systems which are reliable and usable.  motivated people who are willing and able to deliver themotivated people who are willing and able to deliver the goods.goods.
  104. 104. 5) A brand is a promise5) A brand is a promise Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 104104  First and foremost, a brand is a promise.First and foremost, a brand is a promise.  It says 'you know the name, you can trust the promise'.It says 'you know the name, you can trust the promise'.  As all promises, it is trusted only as far as those promisesAs all promises, it is trusted only as far as those promises are met.are met.  Trust is a critical first step and brands aim to accelerateTrust is a critical first step and brands aim to accelerate that step by leveraging the implied promise of the brand.that step by leveraging the implied promise of the brand.
  105. 105. 6) A brand is an associated image6) A brand is an associated image Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 105105  Most brands have a logo which acts as a short-cut toMost brands have a logo which acts as a short-cut to remind us of the brand promise.remind us of the brand promise.  The logo uses color, shape, letters and images to create aThe logo uses color, shape, letters and images to create a distinctive image that is designed both to catch our eye anddistinctive image that is designed both to catch our eye and to guide ourthoughts in the right direction.to guide ourthoughts in the right direction.  The brand may also be associated with tunes, celebrities,The brand may also be associated with tunes, celebrities, catchphrases and so on.catchphrases and so on.  All parts of the brand image works as a psychologicalAll parts of the brand image works as a psychological trigger or stimulus that causes an association to all othertrigger or stimulus that causes an association to all other thoughts we have about the brand.thoughts we have about the brand.
  106. 106. 7) Everything and everyone is a brand7) Everything and everyone is a brand Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 106106  If you get down to the detail, everything is a brand.If you get down to the detail, everything is a brand.  Because we build our understanding of the world byBecause we build our understanding of the world by creating associations about everything.creating associations about everything.  A tree has an implied promise of beauty and shade.A tree has an implied promise of beauty and shade.  Even words are brands. When I say 'speed', you willEven words are brands. When I say 'speed', you will conjure up images of fast cars, etc.conjure up images of fast cars, etc.
  107. 107. 7) Everything and everyone is a brand7) Everything and everyone is a brand contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 107107  People are brands, too.People are brands, too.  When people see you, or even hear your name,  they willWhen people see you, or even hear your name,  they will recall the image they have of you, (which is somethingrecall the image they have of you, (which is something you can actively manage or'let happen').you can actively manage or'let happen').  In a company where people are visible to customers, suchIn a company where people are visible to customers, such as a  service business, the people are very much a partas a  service business, the people are very much a part the brand.the brand.
  108. 108. Essence, Brand EssenceEssence, Brand Essence Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 108108 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  109. 109. Essence, Brand EssenceEssence, Brand Essence Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 109109  The termThe term essenceessence describes the fundamental, timelessdescribes the fundamental, timeless elements ascribed to a brand.elements ascribed to a brand.  It is the abstraction that audiences take away afterIt is the abstraction that audiences take away after experiencing the brand.experiencing the brand.  The essence is stated in one word and is true of the brandThe essence is stated in one word and is true of the brand as well as sub brands.as well as sub brands.  It elicits an emotional benefit and has been consistentlyIt elicits an emotional benefit and has been consistently present since the beginning of the brand.present since the beginning of the brand.
  110. 110. Essence, Brand EssenceEssence, Brand Essence contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 110110  Characteristics of Brand Essence:Characteristics of Brand Essence: 1.1. Is it simply stated fromthe customer’s point of view?Is it simply stated fromthe customer’s point of view? 2.2. Is it one word, orat most, a short phrase?Is it one word, orat most, a short phrase? 3.3. Is it honest and authentic?Is it honest and authentic? 4.4. Is it true of the brand as well as sub-brands?Is it true of the brand as well as sub-brands? 5.5. Is it relevant across geography?Is it relevant across geography? 6.6. Does it enable growth?Does it enable growth? 7.7. Is it potentially ownable?Is it potentially ownable? 8.8. Does it tap into a higher-orderemotional benefit?Does it tap into a higher-orderemotional benefit? 9.9. Has it been present fromthe beginning of the franchise?Has it been present fromthe beginning of the franchise?
  111. 111. Brand Communication and BrandBrand Communication and Brand ManagementManagement Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 111111 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  112. 112. Brand Communication and BrandBrand Communication and Brand ManagementManagement Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 112112  We should not confused communication with brandWe should not confused communication with brand creation ormanagement.creation ormanagement.  The objective of communication isThe objective of communication is  to achieve renown for what to say in our communicationto achieve renown for what to say in our communication plan.plan.  In short what meanings, values and personalities areIn short what meanings, values and personalities are important and distinguishing.important and distinguishing.  The objective of brand managementThe objective of brand management  is to maintain the consistency and strength of the brandis to maintain the consistency and strength of the brand so that it can be adequately exploited.so that it can be adequately exploited.  This should be the workof a good brand managerThis should be the workof a good brand manager
  113. 113. BRANDNAMEBRANDNAME
  114. 114. "What's in a name?""What's in a name?"  When he asked the questionWhen he asked the question "What's in a name?""What's in a name?"  Shakespeare obviously didn'tShakespeare obviously didn't have brand names in mind.have brand names in mind.
  115. 115. Brand NameBrand Name Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 115115  Words are the cornerstone of how weWords are the cornerstone of how we communicate.communicate.  So, in seeking to maximize theSo, in seeking to maximize the opportunity for a brand, why notopportunity for a brand, why not develop names and language arounddevelop names and language around the brand more creatively, preciselythe brand more creatively, precisely and effectively?and effectively?
  116. 116. Brand NameBrand Name contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 116116  Would a Viagra pill by any otherWould a Viagra pill by any other name still rake in $1.7 billion aname still rake in $1.7 billion a year?year?  Maybe. But drug companiesMaybe. But drug companies these days aren't taking thethese days aren't taking the chance.chance.
  117. 117. Brand NameBrand Name contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 117117  Gone are the days when the brand namesGone are the days when the brand names were decided on gut feel.were decided on gut feel.  Today there are well defined processes toToday there are well defined processes to do it scientifically.do it scientifically.  Who says a brand name should be just aWho says a brand name should be just a noun.noun.  In today's competitive world, it has to beIn today's competitive world, it has to be transformed into an action word, a wordtransformed into an action word, a word that demands action fromconsumers.that demands action fromconsumers. Instantly!Instantly!
  118. 118. Brand NameBrand Name contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 118118  In an industry faced with the harsh realities of a limitedIn an industry faced with the harsh realities of a limited patent life, we should not forget that a brand namepatent life, we should not forget that a brand name can lastcan last forever.forever.  Providingatrademarkis used, it canbeProvidingatrademarkis used, it canbe renewedrenewed adinfinitumadinfinitum – anameis thereforeavital andvaluableintellectual property– anameis thereforeavital andvaluableintellectual property asset.asset.
  119. 119. If yourcompany was aIf yourcompany was a “person”:“person”: Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 119119  What would theirpersonality beWhat would theirpersonality be like?like?  What person(s) and object(`s)What person(s) and object(`s) would epitomise the brand?would epitomise the brand?  What behaviourwould theirWhat behaviourwould their personality and identitypersonality and identity promise?promise?Flexible/rule bound, fast moving/steady paced, etc.Flexible/rule bound, fast moving/steady paced, etc.
  120. 120. A good brand name shouldA good brand name should Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 120120  be legally protectablebe legally protectable  be easy to pronouncesbe easy to pronounces  be easy to rememberbe easy to remember  be easy to recognizebe easy to recognize  attract attentionattract attention  suggest product benefits (e.g.:suggest product benefits (e.g.: Easy-OffEasy-Off) orsuggest usage) orsuggest usage  suggest the company orproductsuggest the company orproduct imageimage  distinguish the product'sdistinguish the product's positioningpositioning relative to therelative to the competition.competition.
  121. 121. The value of a good nameThe value of a good name Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 121121 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  122. 122. The value of a good nameThe value of a good name Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 122122  The battle for brand-stand out is hard won and definingThe battle for brand-stand out is hard won and defining that crucial ‘white space’, around which to develop thethat crucial ‘white space’, around which to develop the beginnings of the relationship is key.beginnings of the relationship is key.  The strongest brands are built on foundations which areThe strongest brands are built on foundations which are credible, differentiated and sustainable, for the lifetime ofcredible, differentiated and sustainable, for the lifetime of the brand.the brand.
  123. 123. CredibilityCredibility Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 123123  Laying the foundations of a brand needs to start withLaying the foundations of a brand needs to start with  a clarity of values - of what a brand stands for,a clarity of values - of what a brand stands for,  a clarity of vision – of where a brand is going,a clarity of vision – of where a brand is going,  a clarity of mission – of how it is going to get there.a clarity of mission – of how it is going to get there.  In determining that crucial window of brand opportunity, itIn determining that crucial window of brand opportunity, it is vital to ensure, from the outset, a brand proposition thatis vital to ensure, from the outset, a brand proposition that will be relevant and credible across all target audiences.will be relevant and credible across all target audiences.
  124. 124. DifferentiationDifferentiation Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 124124  Therapy areas are more crowded, the pharma brandscape isTherapy areas are more crowded, the pharma brandscape is more cluttered than ever before, and with degrees ofmore cluttered than ever before, and with degrees of differentiation between products diminished, a brand needsdifferentiation between products diminished, a brand needs to workharderand to shout louderin orderto be noticed.to workharderand to shout louderin orderto be noticed.  Differentiation is the name of the game and a distinctiveDifferentiation is the name of the game and a distinctive name will play its part in enabling stand-out from thename will play its part in enabling stand-out from the competition.competition.
  125. 125. SustainabilitySustainability Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 125125  Where might a brand ultimately be going?Where might a brand ultimately be going?  The foundations that we establish for a brand from theThe foundations that we establish for a brand from the outset should be sufficiently flexible, both tooutset should be sufficiently flexible, both to accommodate changes in the market and for the post-accommodate changes in the market and for the post- patent life of the brand.patent life of the brand.  The criterion of sustainability extends to ‘future-proofing’ aThe criterion of sustainability extends to ‘future-proofing’ a name forthe long-term brand opportunity.name forthe long-term brand opportunity.
  126. 126. SustainabilitySustainability contdcontd.. Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 126126  From Amazon to Virgin, the ‘stretchability’ of brand namesFrom Amazon to Virgin, the ‘stretchability’ of brand names has long been attested to in otherindustries.has long been attested to in otherindustries.  While pharmaceutical brands are under somewhat differentWhile pharmaceutical brands are under somewhat different constraints, the issue of stretch is not to beconstraints, the issue of stretch is not to be underestimated.underestimated.  E.g. the number of biologics which have the potential toE.g. the number of biologics which have the potential to target more than one condition.target more than one condition.  Need forlonger-lasting brandsNeed forlonger-lasting brands  need forthe equity of an established Rx brand name to beneed forthe equity of an established Rx brand name to be leveraged within the over-the counter (OTC)leveraged within the over-the counter (OTC)
  127. 127. An art and a scienceAn art and a science Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas Ghodke 127127 Brand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery
  128. 128. An art and a scienceAn art and a science Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 128128  For many decades, naming a drug was considerably lessFor many decades, naming a drug was considerably less complex than today.complex than today.  With fewer drugs on the market, trademark classes wereWith fewer drugs on the market, trademark classes were less crowded and there was greater opportunity forless crowded and there was greater opportunity for ‘newness’ in a name.‘newness’ in a name.  As the doctors were the core focus of pharma companies’As the doctors were the core focus of pharma companies’ naming efforts, brand monikers became predictable, withnaming efforts, brand monikers became predictable, with many brands in a given category sounding like everyone else.many brands in a given category sounding like everyone else.
  129. 129. An art and a scienceAn art and a science Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 129129  Names spoke largely to the science - referencing theNames spoke largely to the science - referencing the generic and/orto the specificity of a drug’s indication.generic and/orto the specificity of a drug’s indication.  In normal scenario and which was also apparent for someIn normal scenario and which was also apparent for some time that the preferences for names is beginning withtime that the preferences for names is beginning with alphabet ‘A’ because this will put the drug listings in a morealphabet ‘A’ because this will put the drug listings in a more prominent position.prominent position.  But as competition grew, companies looked to new ways toBut as competition grew, companies looked to new ways to signal something new and different in theirbrand name.signal something new and different in theirbrand name.
  130. 130. An art and a scienceAn art and a science Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 130130  The ‘shockof the new’ came in the formof brand namesThe ‘shockof the new’ came in the formof brand names beginning at the otherend of the alphabet i.e. “Z”.beginning at the otherend of the alphabet i.e. “Z”.  Approximately there are 13,500 brands names reflected inApproximately there are 13,500 brands names reflected in ORG IMS (2003) and the total numberof brand namesORG IMS (2003) and the total numberof brand names starting with “Z” alphabet is approximately 400.starting with “Z” alphabet is approximately 400.
  131. 131. Few brand names beginning with ZFew brand names beginning with Z Dr. Kailas GhodkeDr. Kailas GhodkeBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, ImageryBrand Name, Positioning, Pay off line, Imagery 131131 Sr. No. Brand Company Sr. No. Brand Company 1 Z CLOX AUROBINDO 21 ZOCON-T FDC LIMITED 2 ZENBEX-T ABBOTT 22 ZYTAZ ZYDUS-CADILA 3 ZENCLOR MANKIND 23 Z MOX AUROBINDO 4 ZENFLOX MANKIND 24 ZYTEE RAPTAKOS BRETT 5 ZENFLOX EYE MANKIND 25 ZYTHAM ZYDUS-CADILA 6 ZENFLOX D EYE MANKIND 26 ZYTONIN ZYDUS-CADILA 7 ZENFLOX-OZ MANKIND 27 ZANLOP RANBAXY 8 ZENIM UNIVERSAL MEDICARE 28 ZANOCIN RANBAXY 9 ZENIM D 29 ZANOCIN-TZ RANBAXY 10 ZENIM MR 30 ZANOVID MICRO LABS 11 ZEPTOL SUN PHARMA 31 ZAP INTAS 12 Z CLOX AUROBINDO 32 ZAPACID WIN MEDICARE 13 ZO FDC LIMITED 33 ZAPIZ INTAS 14 ZO EYE FDC LIMITED 34 Z MOX AUROBINDO 15 ZO PHOST KHANDELWAL 35 ZASO CADILA PHARMA 16 ZO T FDC LIMITED 36 Z MOX L AUROBINDO PHARMA 17 ZOCEF ALKEM 37 Z PLUS 18 ZOCON FDC LIMITED 38 Z PLUS L 19 ZOCON EYE FDC LIMITED 39 ZEN INTAS 20 ZOCON AS FDC LIMITED 40 ZENAX DR.REDDY'S

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