Biochemistry

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Biochemistry

  1. 1. BIOCHEMISTRY SEMESTER III ANNA JACOB
  2. 2. WHAT IS BIOCHEMISTRY??!
  3. 3. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
  4. 4.  There are a vast number of different biomolecules many are complex and large molecules (?) that are composed of similar repeating subunits (?). Each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types.
  5. 5.  Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.  The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrine system has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.
  6. 6. HISTORY OF BIOCHEMISTRY
  7. 7. Monomers and Polymers  Monomers and polymers are a structural basis in which the four main macromolecules or biopolymers, (Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) of biochemistry are based on.  Monomers are smaller micromolecules that are put together to make macromolecules.  Polymers are those macromolecules that are created when monomers are synthesized together. When they are synthesized, the two molecules undergo a process called dehydration synthesis.
  8. 8. CARBOHYDRATES  A molecule of sucrose (glucose + fructose), a disaccharide.  Carbohydrates have monomers called monosaccharides. Some of these monosaccharides include glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), and deoxyribose (C5H10O4). When two monosaccharides undergo dehydration synthesis, water is produced, as two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are lost from the two monosaccharides' carboxyl group.
  9. 9. LIPIDS  A triglyceride with a glycerol molecule on the left and three fatty acids coming off it.  Lipids are usually made up of a molecule of glycerol and other molecules. In triglycerides, or the main lipid, there is one molecule of glycerol, and three fatty acids. Fatty acids are considered the monomer in that case, and could be saturated or unsaturated. Lipids, especially phospholipids, are also used in different pharmaceutical products, either as co-solubilisers e.g. in Parenteral infusions or else as drug carrier components (e.g. in a Liposome or Transfersome ).
  10. 10. PROTEINS  The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right.  Proteins are large molecules, and have monomers of amino acids. There are 20 standard amino acids, and they contain a carboxyl group, an amino group, and an "R" group. The "R" group is what makes each amino acid different. When Amino acids combine, they form a special bond called a peptide bond, and become a polypeptide, or a protein.
  11. 11. NUCLEIC ACIDS  The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the picture shows the monomers being put together.  Nucleic acids are very important in biochemistry, as they are what make up DNA, something all cellular organism use to store their genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.
  12. 12.  Their monomers are called nucleotides. The most common nucleotides are called adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. Adenine binds with thymine and uracil, thymine only binds with adenine, and cytosine and guanine can only bind with each other.
  13. 13. SO WHAT IS BIOCHEMISTRY???!!
  14. 14.  Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms.  Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.
  15. 15.  Simplistic overview of the chemical basis of love, one of many applications that may be described in terms of biochemistry.

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