Biochemistry is the study of the
chemical processes in living
organisms. It deals with the
structure and function of cellular
components such as proteins,
nucleic acids and other
are a vast number of different
biomolecules many are complex and
large molecules (?) that are
composed of similar repeating
subunits (?). Each class of polymeric
biomolecule has a different set of
Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of
important biological molecules, like proteins, in
particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed
The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the
endocrine system has been extensively described.
Other areas of biochemistry include the
genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis,
cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.
Monomers and Polymers
Monomers and polymers are a structural basis in
which the four main macromolecules or
biopolymers, (Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids) of biochemistry are based on.
Monomers are smaller micromolecules that are
put together to make macromolecules.
Polymers are those macromolecules that are
created when monomers are synthesized
together. When they are synthesized, the two
molecules undergo a process called
A molecule of sucrose (glucose +
fructose), a disaccharide.
Carbohydrates have monomers called
monosaccharides. Some of these
monosaccharides include glucose
(C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), and
deoxyribose (C5H10O4). When two
monosaccharides undergo dehydration
synthesis, water is produced, as two
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are
lost from the two monosaccharides'
A triglyceride with a glycerol molecule on the left
and three fatty acids coming off it.
Lipids are usually made up of a molecule of
glycerol and other molecules. In triglycerides, or
the main lipid, there is one molecule of glycerol,
and three fatty acids. Fatty acids are considered
the monomer in that case, and could be saturated
or unsaturated. Lipids, especially phospholipids,
are also used in different pharmaceutical
products, either as co-solubilisers e.g. in
Parenteral infusions or else as drug carrier
components (e.g. in a Liposome or Transfersome
The general structure of an α-amino acid, with
the amino group on the left and the carboxyl
group on the right.
Proteins are large molecules, and have monomers
of amino acids. There are 20 standard
amino acids, and they contain a carboxyl group,
an amino group, and an "R" group. The "R" group
is what makes each amino acid different. When
Amino acids combine, they form a special bond
called a peptide bond, and become a
polypeptide, or a protein.
The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA), the picture shows the monomers
being put together.
Nucleic acids are very important in
biochemistry, as they are what make up
DNA, something all cellular organism use
to store their genetic information. The
most common nucleic acids are
deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.
Their monomers are called nucleotides.
The most common nucleotides are called
adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and
uracil. Adenine binds with thymine and
uracil, thymine only binds with adenine,
and cytosine and guanine can only bind
with each other.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical
substances and vital processes occurring
in living organisms.
Biochemists focus heavily on the role,
function, and structure of biomolecules.
The study of the chemistry behind
biological processes and the synthesis of
biologically active molecules are examples
Simplistic overview of the chemical basis
of love, one of many applications that may
be described in terms of biochemistry.
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