soil

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different types of soil.

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soil

  1. 1. GUIDED BY:- RUPA MAM
  2. 2. Soils-4-1 Image: T. Loynachan
  3. 3. TUNDRA SOILS FORM IN ARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS, HAVE A DARK ORGANIC-RICH UPPER LAYER, AND A MINERAL RICH LAYER OVER FROZEN GROUND. Soils-4-7Images: Travis Hudson, Alaska/Yukon Society of Professional Soil Scientists
  4. 4. ORGANIC SOILS ARE DARK COLORED, RICH IN DECOMPOSED ORGANIC MATTER, AND FORM IN POORLY DRAINED LOWLANDS SUCH AS SWAMPS AND WETLANDS. Soils-4-5 Images: Bruce Molnia, Soil Classifiers of Michigan
  5. 5. TROPICAL SOILS ARE REDDISH AND IRON- OXIDE RICH, DEPLETED IN NUTRIENTS, AND FORM IN HUMID AND WARM REGIONS. Soils-4-4Images: National Cooperative Soil Survey, University of Nebraska
  6. 6. FOREST SOILS HAVE A LIGHT GRAY UPPER HORIZON, A HORIZON RICH IN ALUMINUM AND/OR IRON, AND FORM IN WARM TO COOL HUMID REGIONS WHERE CONIFEROUS FORESTS GROW. Soils-4-3Image: Bruce Molnia Image: Soil Classifiers of Michigan
  7. 7. PRAIRIE SOILS HAVE A DARK SURFACE LAYER (HORIZON), ARE RICH IN MINERALS, AND FORM IN GRASSLANDS WIDESPREAD ACROSS EARTH’S MIDDLE LATITUDES. Soils-4-2 Images: NRCS
  8. 8. Where does soil come from? •Rocks •Minerals •Organic Matter
  9. 9. o A E B C R TOP SOIL SUBSOIL
  10. 10. Sagebrush-Cold Desert
  11. 11.  Mineral Matter  Air  Water  Organic Matter
  12. 12. SOIL COMPONENTS idealized soil SOIL SOLIDS WATERFILLED PORES AIR FILLED PORES 50 % 25 % 25%
  13. 13. Soil Components (volume ba
  14. 14. Note: clays are microscopic in size !
  15. 15. Soil separate particle diameter (mm) ____________________________ Sand . . . . . . . . . 2.0 - 0.05 Silt . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 - 0.002 Clay . . . . . . . . . . <0.002 SAND SILT CLAY
  16. 16. Clay minerals photographed with an electron Microscope. Note: they are plate or flake like and are stacked on top of each other. They are electrically charged and act like magnets that attract and hold plant nutrients.
  17. 17. What causes soil erosion? Water Wind No Vegetation
  18. 18. What are the FACTORS that make SOIL? TIME 1000’S TO 10,000’S OF YEARS LAY OF THE LAND TOPOGRAPHY LIVING ORGANISMS ANIMALS AND PLANTS CLIMATE HOT/COLD, WIND/RAIN PARENT MATERIAL ROCKS AND MINERALS
  19. 19. Physical land features
  20. 20. WHAT ARE SOME PERACTICES OF SOIL CONSERVATION? Terracing Strip Cropping Contour Plowing Tilling Wind Breaks Ground Covers

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