Fundamental TheologyC ourse Objective sy   to make known the fundamental Christian Faith to the second year college    stu...
C ourse OutlineI ntroductionPart One:       T he Profession of F aith         1. M an·s Desire for God         2. God Re v...
Apostles· Creed                         The Nicene·s Creed€                                       €€ I believe in God, the...
Introduction                                     ³Fools say in their hearts, ³There is no God´.´ - (Psalm 14:1)           ...
To be happy is to have fullness of life, to have eternal life. How can a man be happy if life ismiserable, full of emptine...
I.   Faith*                 It is a personal adherence to God.                                  Faith in daily life       ...
Introduction                                             Does God exist?                                           What ma...
What is the name of God? Who is He? What are His qualities? The sacred scriptures formed by theChurch gives us the adequat...
‡   It means coming to know God·s greatness and majesty.   ‡   It means living in thanksgiving.   ‡   It means knowing the...
The Three Divine Persons are Equal   ƒ God the Father does not come first, then the Son, and then the      Holy Spirit.   ...
God as a Trinity   I.   God            1. God is the only Supreme Being in all existence, places, and time. He is Holy (Re...
III.   Objections to the Trinity answered          1. The Word Trinity is not in the Bible.                  1. Just becau...
SIN             (CCC 386-409; 413-421; 1440; 1846-1869; 1870-1876)Introduction:God has a wonderful plan for humanity. Huma...
ORIGINAL SINOur first parents, by their disobedience, committed the first sin, it is called Original Sin. It is a sincontr...
itself and reinforce itself. Vice can be linked to the capital sins which engender other sins. They are theroot of sins. [...
Who is God the Father?  ƒ Our Creator  ƒ Our Provider  ƒ Our Redeemer  ƒ God s Indwelling Spirit  ƒ Our Self-Identity  ƒ C...
ƒ   Kindness   ƒ   Generosity   ƒ   Faith   ƒ   Gentleness   ƒ   ChastityThe Creation and the Fall of Man1. What is man?  ...
Adam and Eve did not obey the commandment of God, but ate of theforbidden fruit.And the woman saw that the tree was good t...
Actual SinLesson 6 from the Baltimore Cathechism« prev : next »63. Is original sin the only kind of sin?Original sin is no...
71. How can a sin be venial?A sin can be venial in two ways:    1. when the evil done is not seriously wrong;    2. when t...
2. Living, changing, growing, deepening experience.3. Historical earthly Jesus and Risen Christ.4. Committed to following ...
given to disciples Lk 12:32, James 2:5 (8) inheritance Mt       25:34, 1Cor 6:9, Gal 5;21, Eph 5:5.   ƒ   Scriptures: to e...
y   Who is the Holy Spirit?              The Third Person in the Holy Trinity              The Paraclete (comforter)      ...
y   In Christ, a) preparation of Mary and John the Baptist, b)       public ministry of Jesus, c) Paschal mystery, d) join...
€ is mystery __ a God-centered reality in its origin, ongoing     life and final goal   € is a sacrament because it is a v...
y    Loving service of one another         y    Loving obedience to the Vicar of Christ on earth   2. Holy         y    Th...
€ Every member of the Church, therefore, shares in this     mission, i.e., the obligation of spreading the faith (LG 17).m...
Ministries in the Church   y    Ministry           y   means service, and   y   Christian ministry           y   refers to...
Jesus said: I am the resurrection and the life; whoever believes inme, though he should die, will come to life; and whoeve...
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Fundamental Theology

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Fundamental Theology

  1. 1. Fundamental TheologyC ourse Objective sy to make known the fundamental Christian Faith to the second year college students of Don Bosco Technical College in a way that is simple and understandable;y to make reflections on their own about their Christian faith;y ultimately, to put it into life.C ourse Description This course is about the fundamental theology of the Roman Catholic Church. It discusses contents of the Nicene Creed and the Apostles¶ Creed. It stresses on integration and inculturation of the faith, and community± formation. ³We will be doing Theology more than learning Theology.C ourse E valuation Evaluation of Grade ‡ Project / midterm 20% ‡ Final exam 25% ‡ Quizzes 25% ‡ Class participation: (Class attendance and college mass, assignment, recitation.) 30% ‡ Total of 100% ‡ Passing 50% = 3.0 1
  2. 2. C ourse OutlineI ntroductionPart One: T he Profession of F aith 1. M an·s Desire for God 2. God Re vealing H imself to M an y H istory of G od re vealing H imself 3. M an·s re sponse to God.Part T wo: T he Profession of the C hristian F aith 1. I Believe in God the F ather a. I Believe in God b. T he F ather c. T he C reation and F all of M an 2. I Believe in J esus C hrist, the Only Son of God a. T he I ncar nate Word b. T he Person of J esus c. T he T hreefold mission of J esu s 3. I Believe in the H oly Spirit a. T he H oly Spirit b. T he One, H oly, C atholic and Apostolic C hurch c. T he C ommunion of Saints d. T he forgivene ss of Sins e. T he Resurrection of the Body f. L ife E verlasting 2
  3. 3. Apostles· Creed The Nicene·s Creed€ €€ I believe in God, the Father almighty, We believe in one God, € creator of heaven and earth. the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.€ I believe in Jesus Christ, His only € We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, Son, our Lord, the only son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one being with the Father. Through him all things were made.€ He was conceived by the power of € For us men and for our salvation the Holy Spirit, and he came down from heaven: born of the Virgin Mary, by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man.€ He suffered under Pontius € For our sake he was crucified under Pilate, Pontius Pilate; was crucified, died, and was he suffered, died, and was buried. buried; he descended to the dead.€ On the third day he rose again; € On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures;€ He ascended into heaven, € He ascended into heaven he is seated at the right hand of the and is seated at the right hand of the Father. Father. He will come again to judge the He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.€ I believe in the Holy Spirit, € We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets.€ the holy catholic church, € We believe in one holy catholic and the communion of saints, apostolic Church.€ the forgiveness of sins, € We acknowledge one baptism for the the resurrection of the body, forgiveness of sins. and the life everlasting. We look for the resurrection of the dead, AMEN. and the life of the world to come. AMEN. 3
  4. 4. Introduction ³Fools say in their hearts, ³There is no God´.´ - (Psalm 14:1) Have you ever wonder why do we know that there is a God? Have you ever wonder why do we desire God? Have you ever wonder how do we come to know about God?The answers are plain and simple. We know that there is a God because God made it so. We desireGod because God created us. We come to know about God because God reveals Himself to us inmany ways. In short, because God desires it. Why are we here? Why am I here? Why are you here? What is my purpose? What is the purpose of life?We can have as many answers as we can from the above questions. Answers come along as wejourney in this path called life. But our answers will never be enough until we come to the oneultimate answer of our life GOD. Believe it or not, only God can satisfy us. People have beenlooking for God in other things and other persons but they have not been successful. They have notbeen put to contentment. Only in God we can see God. In Him we discover who we really are. InHim we can discover what our purpose is. Is faith necessary? Why do we need to study our Christian faith? Why do we need to live by faith?There is the universal desire of man and woman to be happy. No man or woman in his/her rightmind who wishes to be sad. In fact, all activities of man and woman have their one and ultimateend, that is, to be happy.Man and woman have tried since the very beginning to find their happiness on the things of thisworld. Yet, they have never found happiness that will satisfy them and will give them contentmentand fulfillment that will last until the end.God, in his goodness and love has revealed Himself to man and woman. He has shown them theway, the truth and the life to attain and obtain such kind of happiness, that is, everlasting joy. Andthis is found only in God. Such revelation of God to man has made man long and desire for God. Godhas come to meet man and man s life is to meet God. To know, to love and to serve God are theprimary purposes of man s existence. Only then man is truly happy because he is created by GodHimself. 4
  5. 5. To be happy is to have fullness of life, to have eternal life. How can a man be happy if life ismiserable, full of emptiness? Happiness is to know God, the only true God, and Him whom yousent, Jesus Christ (cf. Jn.17:3).The answers to the questions above are all affirmative; YES. Why? , because we are human beings;human persons who desire to be happy, and to have it always. If you want to be happy, to be joyful,and have it always, faith is necessary. Why? , because faith leads us to embrace the God whom wedo not see and touch. Faith leads us to accept and obey the commands of God whom we do nothear by our ears. But faith is not only a feeling or idea, it has its content, thus, faith must be studied.How can one appreciate something that he does not know? We need to know our faith. And toknow means we have to give effort and burn energy to learn our faith content. But faith alone is notenough. What is the use of faith without practicing it? We have to practice it (cf. James 2:14-17).Only then we can fully attain lasting happiness and joy. FAITHGod Reveals Himself: o In Creation The World The Human Person Do you want to see God? Look at the human person. God created us in His own image and likeness. Conscience. o In Scripture o In the Church o In Other Religions o Christ: Fullness of RevelationOur Response o We Believe Faith is human person s adequate response to God The desire of God is written in the human heart Obedience of faith: to obey in faith is to submit freely to the word that has been heard, because its truth is guaranteed by God, who is Truth itself. Abraham is the model of obedience of faith. Mary is the most perfect embodiment of obedience of faith. o Our Unbelief Many people deny the existence of God. Many people believe in God but live their lives as if God did not exist. Many people are falling away from the practice of religion among them are fundamentalists, activists, and charismatics. Many people believe in God but do not worship God. 5
  6. 6. I. Faith* It is a personal adherence to God. Faith in daily life It is a free assent to the whole truth that God has revealed. means that we Faith in God is different from our faith in any human person. know, accept, and Believe in God is also believe in Jesus Christ. relate positively Believe in God is also believe in the Holy Spirit. to others, II. Characteristics of Faith** especially the Faith is a grace. Faith is a gift of God, a supernatural virtue mutual trust, love infused by Him. and fidelity we Faith is a human act. experience in Faith is certain than all human knowledge because it is founded family and on the very word of God who cannot lie. friendships. Faith seeks understanding. In the words of St. Augustine I - CFC 162 believe, in order to understand; and I understand, the better to believe. Faith and Science: Though faith is above reason, there can never be any real discrepancy between faith and reason. (Dei Filius 4: DS 3017). The freedom of faith: man s response to God must be free, and therefore nobody is to be forced to embrace the faith against his will. The act of faith is of its very nature a free act. (DH 10; cf CIC, can 748 2.) Faith is necessary. Perseverance in Faith. Faith is the beginning of Eternal Life.* CCC 144-149** CCC 150-165Assignment for next meeting: 1. Memorize the Apostles Creed. 2. What are your beliefs and unbeliefs in God? 6
  7. 7. Introduction Does God exist? What makes God God?The human person wonders: ´How come things exist?µ; ´Where do they come from?µ or ´What istheir origin?µ; ´What made them exist?µ. But aside from the questions on existence of things, thehuman person continues to wonder: ´How come there is movement in this world?µ ´How come thesethings start to exist and others cease to exist?µ ´How come there exist things more perfect thanothers?µ ´How come there is order in the world?µ ´Do they have purpose?For all these questions there is but one answer that can satisfy our hunger for the truth. Theanswer is: there exist a being who is the origin of all things; the same being who does not depend onothers to exist and to continue his existence; the same being who has no beginning and has no end;the same being who is most perfect; His very essence is to exist and to give existence and He isGod, the Supreme Being, the Creator of all things that exist.THE REVELATION OF GODGod has revealed himself to us and in many ways. This is called revelation ² God communicating to usHis very self. He has revealed Himself in creation: in the World and in the Human person. He haswritten Himself in His creation. All that exist are vestiges of Him. This is general revelation,natural revelation.By way of reason, man has come to the knowledge of God·s existence. Moreover, man has also cometo the attainment of certain qualities of God by experiencing his surroundings and his very self. Hehas come to the knowledge of God·s perfections by simply using his senses and faculties. All theseare possible because God made it so.St. Thomas Aquinas, a renowned and brillianttheologian and philosopher has given us ways - proofsof God·s existence, moreover his perfections. We callit, St. Thomas· five ways: (1) way of motion-theUnmoved Mover, (2) way of efficient cause-theUncaused Cause, (3) way of contingency-TheNecessary Being, (4) way of perfection-Most PerfectBeing, (5) way of order-Most Intelligent Being.But reason alone is not enough to know who really God is. God, knowing our limitations, personallyrevealed Himself so that we can come to know who He really is. He is not a distant God but apersonal God who is very close to us. By this very reason we know God. This is special revelation,divine revelation. 7
  8. 8. What is the name of God? Who is He? What are His qualities? The sacred scriptures formed by theChurch gives us the adequate information about God as He has revealed Himself to the humanity.Stages of RevelationThe first book of the bible ² Genesis clearly says that He is the Origin and the Creator of all thatexists. He revealed Himself to Adam and Eve. He made his covenant to Noah, to Abraham, Isaac andJacob (the Patriarchs), a promise that stands forever. The book of Exodus (3:14) gives us the nameof God. This is the name He replied to Moses when he asked Him: ´I AM WHO AM.µ Then he added,´This is what you shall tell the Israelites: I AM sent me to you.µHe continued to remember His covenant to His people Israel, sending them judges, kings andprophets. And finally, in the fullness of time, he sent his Only Begotten Son (John 3:16) to revealHimself fully. This revelation is passed on from generation to generation up to this time throughthe Apostles and the Church. And this revelation will be passed on from our generation togenerations of the future until God will again reveal Himself in His fullness and splendor.The Divine Revelation is summarized in our Creed: the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed. Fromour creed gives us the synthesis of the content of our faith. It is also the symbols of our faith.There are three Parts of our Creed: 1. First Divine Person ± Wonderful work of Creation 2. Second Divine Person ± The mystery of redemption of men 3. Third Divine Person ± The Origin and source of SanctificationThese are the 3 chapters of our baptismal seal.But what does it mean to say ´I believeµ? To say ´I believeµ is to say ´I pledge myself to what thechurch believes.µWhat does it mean to say ´I Believe in Godµ? It means to believe in One God and not many gods; manhas been deceived without knowing it that there are many forms of god in our lives. It means tobelieve in the living God and not a God who is distant and far from being reach. It means to believeto the God who has a name ´I Am Who Amµ (YHWH) [not to be mentioned, but read as Lord] onwhich meaning touches His very essence and nature. It means to believe to an imminent God who ismerciful and gracious, who alone is Truth and Love.This belief in God has consequences in our lives, they are: 8
  9. 9. ‡ It means coming to know God·s greatness and majesty. ‡ It means living in thanksgiving. ‡ It means knowing the unity and the dignity of all men. ‡ It means making good use of created things. ‡ It means trusting God in every circumstances The Trinitarian Doctrine CFC 1326-1331Notions/Definitions ƒ Substance (essence/nature) to designate the divine being in its unity. ƒ Person (hypostasis) to designate the Father, Son and Holy Spirit in the real distinction among them. ƒ Relation to designate the fact that their distinction lies in the relationship of each to the others.The Dogma of the Trinity ƒ The Trinity is One. ƒ The Divine Persons are really distinct from one another. ƒ The Three Divine Persons are equal.The Trinity is One ƒ Not three Gods but one God in three persons. ƒ They do not share the one divinity among themselves but each of them is God whole and entire: ƒ The Father is that which the Son is, the Son is that which the Father is, the Father and the Son that which the Holy Spirit is, i.e. by nature One God.The Divine Persons are Distinct ƒ He is not the Father who is the Son, nor the Son he who is the Father, not is the Holy Spirit he who is the Father or the Son. ƒ God the Father is God, knowing himself. God the Son is the expression of God s knowledge of himself. God the Holy Spirit is the result of God s love for Himself. ƒ God the Father is the Creator God the Son is the Redeemer God the Holy Spirit is the sanctifier what One does, All do; where One is, All are. 9
  10. 10. The Three Divine Persons are Equal ƒ God the Father does not come first, then the Son, and then the Holy Spirit. ƒ All three divine Persons are equally eternal, with no beginning and no end. ƒ God s thought and God s love are equally timeless with God s nature. And God the Son and God the Holy Spirit are not in any way subordinate to God the Father. One is not more powerful, nor wiser, nor greater than the other. ƒ All three possess the same infinite perfection, an equality rooted in the one divine nature which they equally possess.TO DO: Assignment to be submitted next meetingWho is God for you? 1. Make a reflection paper of the above theme. Put your work in a bond paper. Minimum of 1 page. 2. Format: Font: Times New Roman. Font Size: 12. margins: 1 x 1 3. No need for title page, just place your name and year and course at the upper left corner of your paper. 10
  11. 11. God as a Trinity I. God 1. God is the only Supreme Being in all existence, places, and time. He is Holy (Rev. 4:8), Eternal (Isaiah 57:15), Omnipotent (Jer. 32:17,27), Omnipresent (Psalm 119:7-12), Omniscient (1 John 3:20), etc. 2. He is Love (1 John 4:8,16), Light (1 John 1:5), Spirit (John 4:24), Truth (Psalm 117:2), Creator (Isaiah 40:12,22,26), etc. 3. He is to be worshiped (Gen. 24:26; Exodus 4:31; 2 Chron. 29:28; 1 Cor. 14:25; Rev. 7:11). 4. Christianity is monotheistic - Only one God in existence anywhere, anytime.( Isaiah 43:10; 44:6,8; 45:5,14,18,21,22; 46:9; 47:8; John 17:3; 1 Cor. 8:5-6; Gal. 4:8-9). 5. One God verses 1. Isaiah 43:10, You are My witnesses, declares the Lord, And My servant whom I have chosen, in order that you may know and believe Me, and understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, and there will be none after Me. 2. Isaiah 44:6, Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: I am the first and I am the last, and there is no God besides Me. 3. Isaiah 44:8, Do not tremble and do not be afraid; have I not long since announced it to you and declared it? And you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me, or is there any other Rock? I know of none. 4. Isaiah 45:5, I am the Lord, and there is no other; besides Me there is no God. II. Trinity 1. The Trinity is one God who exists simultaneously in three persons. Each is co-equal, co- powerful, and co-eternal with the other. Each person--Father, Son and Holy Spirit--is not the other. Without either there is no God; all comprise the one God. 2. Analogy of the Trinity: With time, for example, the past is distinct from the present, which is distinct from the future. Each is simultaneous. Yet, they are not three times, but one. That is, they all share the same nature: time 3. Trinitarian Verses 1. Matt. 28:19, Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 2. 1 Cor. 12:4-6, Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit. 5And there are varieties of ministries, and the same Lord. 6And there are varieties of effects, but the same God who works all things in all persons. 3. 2 Cor. 13:14, The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you all. 11
  12. 12. III. Objections to the Trinity answered 1. The Word Trinity is not in the Bible. 1. Just because the word trinity is not in the Bible doesnt mean that the concept is not taught. The word monotheism is not in the Bible, yet the Bible teaches it (Isaiah 43:10; 44:6,8). Therefore, your criticism is invalid. 2. The Trinity is illogical 1. What law of logic is it that the doctrine of the Trinity violates? If you cannot tell me, then your statement is meaningless. Saying it is illogical does not mean it is. 3. The Trinity is pagan 1. Saying it is pagan means nothing. The question is whether or not it is biblical. Are there verses that show that the F., S., H.S. are each God, each indwell, each have a will, each loves, etc.? Yes there are. 2. The F., S., H.S. are each called God (F., Phil. 1:2), (S., John 1:1,14; Col. 2:9), (H.S., Acts 5:3-4). Each has a will (F., Luke 22:42), (S., Luke 22:42), H.S., (1 Cor. 12:11). Each is all knowing (F., 1 John 3:20), (S., John 16:30; 21:17), (H.S., 1 Cor. 2:10-11), etc. 3. Regarding the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Each has a will (F., Luke 22:42), (S., Luke 22:42), H.S., (1 Cor. 12:11). Each speaks (F., Matt. 3:17), (S., Luke 5:20., (HS., Acts 8:29; 13:2). 4. The Trinity came from pagan trinities. 1. There are no trinities in pagan theology. There are triads (three gods), but no trinities (one God in three persons). Therefore, your statement is inaccurate. 5. The Bible does not say that God is three whos and one what 1. That is correct. But the Trinity is a doctrine arrived at systematically (by looking at the whole of scripture), not by looking at a single verse. Therefore, your complaint is misdirected and shows you dont understand the Trinity. 6. Show me one verse in the Bible that says that God is three persons. 1. The Trinity doctrine is arrived at systematically (by looking at the whole of scripture), not by looking at a single verse. Therefore, you wont see a single verse that says it. Also, this demonstrates that you dont understand the Trinity, otherwise you would not have asked that question. 12
  13. 13. SIN (CCC 386-409; 413-421; 1440; 1846-1869; 1870-1876)Introduction:God has a wonderful plan for humanity. Humanity has sinned. God has revealed Himself to the Worldand to Humanity, and is and will continually reveal himself to mankind. He has communicated to us Hislove and divine life through His creation. Finally and ultimately, He has revealed Himself in Jesus Christ,His only Begotten Son. Through Jesus we came to know who God is a loving Trinitarian God desiring toshare His eternal love and happiness to mankind. [Cfr. CCC 387, 396]Humanity has refused to accept this plan. Humanity has refused to love and live according to God s will.He has chosen rather to do his own will, bringing himself to his own destruction. We call this refusal SIN.It is an abused of freedom. It is a rejection of the Love of God and His life. Contrary to his Love and lifeare sin and death. Thus, the fall of mankind lies on his refusal to God s plan. [Cfr. CCC 396, 398, 400, 401,415]God is real and so is sin. No man should say he has no sin for there is no man on earth so just as to dogood and never sin. (Ecclesiastes 7:20). If we say, we have no sin , the devil/Satan who is also real, hasdeceived us already. It is the greatest lie that the devil can do to us. Like the lie it gave to our firstparents. But when the first sin was done, it was the only time they recognized that they have sinnedagainst God and His will. As a consequence, sin had taken its place. Together with sin is its punishment.Its effect had taken root. We have experienced its effects in our lives. The world and humanity areexperiencing and suffering much from these. [Cfr. CCC 386, 389, 400, 401]Nature of SINBut what is sin? Where does it come from?Sin is a moral evil, distinguished from the physical evil. Evil is the absence of good. Thus, for a humanperson to be deprived of any part of his body possesses physical evil. Physical evil can be in nature whenthere is chaos. When there seem the absence of good because of catastrophes and calamities. Physicalevil can be indirectly attributed to God for he has created all things in this world. And in them He has putHis eternal law. On the other hand, moral evil cannot come from God even indirectly, for He neverwilled that man should do evil. This moral evil, for many times, has brought many physical evil becauseof the imbalance of nature done by man. Moral evil exists because of abused freedom. Freedom that isintended so that we can will God/desire God. It is a gift freely given by God (only to human beings). Sinentered because of the abuse of freedom.Thus, moral evil is directly coming from man when he refuses to do and observe the order that God hasput from the beginning of His creation. [CCC 385, 397] 13
  14. 14. ORIGINAL SINOur first parents, by their disobedience, committed the first sin, it is called Original Sin. It is a sincontracted, not committed - a state and not an act. It is transmitted by propagation not by imitation.[Cfr. CCC 404, 419]Effects or consequences of the original sin: Deprivation of original holiness and justice, Corruption of thehuman nature, Subject to ignorance, Suffering and dominion of death, Inclination to sin calledconcupiscence. [Cfr. CCC 402-409, 416-418]Different Kinds of SinsAfter the original sin, there committed great many kinds of sins: immorality, impurity, licentiousness, 20idolatry, sorcery, hatreds, rivalry, jealousy, outbursts of fury, acts of selfishness, dissensions, factions, 21occasions of envy, drinking bouts, orgies, and the like. and with this St. Paul warns us: I warn you, as Iwarned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. (Gal 5:19-21)[cfr. CCC1852] Sins can be distinguished according to its objects ; according to the virtues they oppose, by excess ordefect; according to the commandments they violate. Sins can be classified according to whether theyconcern God, neighbor or oneself, environment. Sins can be divided into spiritual and carnal sins, oragain as sins in thought, word, deed or omission. [CCC 1853]Where is sin rooted? For from the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, unchastity, theft, falsewitness, blasphemy. (Matthew 15:19) [CCC 1853]We cannot deny that there are sins which affect us and others most, and there are sins which seeminglydo not affect us or our neighbors. Thus we evaluate our sins according to its gravity [CCC 1854]There is the venial sin that does not totally destroy our relationship to God. It does not destroy charitybut weakens it. One commits venial sin when in a less serious matter; when he does not observe thestandard prescribed by moral law. Deliberate and unrepented venial sin disposes us little by little tocommit mortal sin. [Cfr. CCC 1855, 1862-63]But there is a sin that destroy charity in our hearts. It is committed by a grave violation of God s law. Itturns man away from God. Thus, its effects are: Loss of Charity Privation of sanctifying grace. If it isnot redeemed by repentance and God s forgiveness, it causes exclusion from Christ s Kingdom and theeternal death of hell. [Cfr. CCC 1855-56, 1861, 1874]For a sin to be mortal three conditions should be met: Serious offense, Full knowledge Full consent. Agrave sin/serious matter not consented or willed is not a mortal sin. [Cfr. CCC 1857-1861, 1863]Sin proliferates. It engenders vice by repetition of the same acts. With this, our conscience becomesclouded, and it corrupts our ability to judge correctly between good and evil. Sin tends to reproduce 14
  15. 15. itself and reinforce itself. Vice can be linked to the capital sins which engender other sins. They are theroot of sins. [Cfr. CCC 1865, 1866]There are the 7 capital sins. They are the roots of sins we commit. They are pride, avarice, envy, wrath,lust, gluttony, and sloth. [Cfr. CCC 1866, 1876]Sin is a personal act but we have a responsibility for the sins committed by others when we cooperatewith them. To cooperate means: By participating directly and voluntarily in them; By ordering, advising,praising, or approving them; By not disclosing or not hindering them when we have an obligation to doso; By protecting evil-doers. [Cfr. CCC 1868-69]When sin proliferates it creates a structure called sinful structure or structures of sin. Thus, it becomesmore and more difficult to fight. Even those who are good become sinful because of the structure. [CCC1869]We are bombarded with sin. We, ourselves, commit and experience sin and its effect. But sin is not ourlife, death is not destiny. There is a powerful reality that is greater than the reality of sin. It is the realityof GRACE. God has a plan. And it will come to its fulfillment. He has sent us His Son, Jesus Christ whoalready has overcome sin and death by his Passion, death and Resurrection. In Him and Through Him,sin and death are overcome. In Him and through Him, love and life is ever present. We only need tocooperate to him. And allow His grace to work in us. [cfr. CCC 405, 410-412, 420-421, 1848, 1851].INVITATION:Make a sincere and honest examination of conscience and go to confession as soon as possible.´God will never refuse a humble and contrite heart.µ ´FOR GOD·s GREATER GLORY.µ 15
  16. 16. Who is God the Father? ƒ Our Creator ƒ Our Provider ƒ Our Redeemer ƒ God s Indwelling Spirit ƒ Our Self-Identity ƒ CFC 270-276Who is God the Son? CFC Ch.10 ƒ The Person of Jesus True Man (CFC 500-501, 543) and True God (CFC 500, 504- 506, 543) ƒ Threefold mission Prophet (CFC 479-490, 534-538) King (CFC 653-658, 672, 2073-2075, 2105) Priest (CFC 1954-1955, 2014)Three popular images of Christ: Sto.Niño, Black Nazarene, Sacred Heart ofJesus.Who is God the Holy Spirit? ƒ Paraclete literally means he who is called to help. Advocate/Helper/Counselor CFC 1322 ƒ Functions: Giver of life CFC 1302 Unifies CFC 1303-1304 Moves to ministry CFC1305Gifts of the Holy SpiritCFC 1304, 1339 Isaiah 11:1-2 1. Wisdom 2. Understanding 3. Counsel 4. Fortitude 5. Knowledge 6. Piety 7. Fear of the LordFruits of the Holy SpiritCFC 1283, 1339 Gal 5:22 ƒ Love ƒ Joy ƒ Peace ƒ Patient-endurance 16
  17. 17. ƒ Kindness ƒ Generosity ƒ Faith ƒ Gentleness ƒ ChastityThe Creation and the Fall of Man1. What is man? Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God. And God created man to his own image. (Genesis 2:7)2. Is this likeness to God in the body or in the soul? This likeness to God is chiefly in the soul.3. How is the soul like God? The soul is like God because it is a spirit having understanding and free will, and is destined to live forever. And the dust return into its earth, from whence it was, and the spirit return to God, who gave it. (Ecclesiastes 12:7)4. Who were the first man and woman? The first man and woman were Adam and Eve, the first parents of the whole human race. And Adam called the name of his wife Eve. (Genesis 3:15)5. What was the chief gift bestowed on Adam and Eve by God? The chief gift bestowed on Adam and Eve by God was sanctifying grace, which made them children of God and gave them the right to heaven.6. What other gifts were bestowed on Adam and Eve by God? The other gifts bestowed on Adam and Eve by God were happiness in the Garden of Paradise, great knowledge, control of the passions by reason, and freedom from suffering and death. He gave them counsel, and a tongue, and eyes, and ears, and a heart to devise; and he filled them with the knowledge of understanding. (Ecclesiasticus 17:5)7. What commandment did God give Adam and Eve? God gave Adam and Eve the commandment not to eat of the fruit of a certain tree that grew in the Garden of Paradise. And he commanded him, saying: Of every tree of paradise thou shalt eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat. For in what day soever thou shalt eat of it, thou shalt die the death. (Genesis 2:16-17)55. Did Adam and Eve obey the commandment of God? 17
  18. 18. Adam and Eve did not obey the commandment of God, but ate of theforbidden fruit.And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, anddelightful to behold; and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave toher husband who did eat. (Genesis 3:6)56. What happened to Adam and Eve on account of their sin?On account of their sin Adam and Eve lost sanctifying grace, the right toheaven, and their special gifts; they became subject to death, to suffering,and to a strong inclination to evil, and they were driven from the Garden ofParadise.In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return to the earth, outof which thou wast taken; for dust thou art, and into dust thou shalt return.(Genesis 3:19)57. What has happened to us on account of the sin of Adam?On account of the sin of Adam, we, his descendants, come into the worlddeprived of sanctifying grace and inherit his punishment, as we would haveinherited his gifts had he been obedient to God.But, by the envy of the devil, death came into the world. (Wisdom 2:24)58. What is this sin in us called?This sin in us is called original.59. Why is this sin called original?This sin is called original because it comes down to us through our origin,or descent, from Adam.Therefore as through one man sin entered into the world and through sindeath, and thus death has passed unto all men because all have sinned.(Romans 5:12)60. What are the chief punishments of Adam which we inheritthrough original sin?The chief punishments of Adam which we inherit through original sin are:death, suffering, ignorance, and a strong inclination to sin.61. Is God unjust in punishing us on account of the sin of Adam?God is not unjust in punishing us on account of the sin of Adam, becauseoriginal sin does not take away from us anything to which we have a strictright as human beings, but only the free gifts which God in His goodnesswould have bestowed on us if Adam had not sinned.62. Was any human person ever preserved from original sin?The Blessed Virgin Mary was preserved from original sin in view of themerits of her Divine Son, and this privilege is called her ImmaculateConception.I will put enmities between you and the woman, between your seed and herseed; he shall crush your head, and you shall lie in wait his heel. (Genesis3:15) 18
  19. 19. Actual SinLesson 6 from the Baltimore Cathechism« prev : next »63. Is original sin the only kind of sin?Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind, called actualsin, which we ourselves commit.Amen, amen, I say to you that whosoever commiteth sin is the servant of sin.(John 8:34)64. What is actual sin?Actual sin is any willful thought, desire, word, action, or omissionforbidden by the law of God.65. How many kinds of actual sin are there?There are two kinds of actual sin: mortal sin and venial sin.66. What is mortal sin?Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.Flee from sins as from the face of a serpent; for if thou comest near them,they will take hold of thee. (Ecclesiasticus 21:2)67. Why is this sin called mortal?This sin is called mortal, or deadly, because it deprives the sinner ofsanctifying grace, the supernatural life of the soul.Before man is life and death, good and evil; that which he shall choose shallbe given him. (Ecclesiasticus 15:18)68. Besides depriving the sinner of sanctifying grace, what else doesmortal sin do to the soul?Besides depriving the sinner of sanctifying grace, mortal sin makes the soulan enemy of God, takes away the merit of all its good actions, deprives it ofthe right to everlasting happiness in heaven, and makes it deserving ofeverlasting punishment in hell.For the wages of sin is death; but the grace of God, life everlasting in ChristJesus our Lord. (Romans 6:23)69. What three things are necessary to make a sin mortal?To make a sin mortal these three things are needed: 1. the thought, desire, word, action, or omission must be seriously wrong or considered seriously wrong; 2. the sinner, must be mindful of the serious wrong; 3. the sinner must fully consent to it.70. What is venial sin?Venial sin is a less serious offense against the law of God, which does notdeprive the soul of sanctifying grace, and which can be pardoned evenwithout sacramental confession.Be ye therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. (Matthew6:48) 19
  20. 20. 71. How can a sin be venial?A sin can be venial in two ways: 1. when the evil done is not seriously wrong; 2. when the evil done is seriously wrong, but the sinner sincerely believes it is only slightly wrong, or does not give full consent to it.72. How does venial sin harm us?Venial sin harms us by making us less fervent in the service of God, byweakening our power to resist mortal sin, and by making us deserving ofGods punishments in this life or in purgatory.But I tell you, that of every idle word men speak, they shall give account onthe day of judgment. (Matthew 12:36)73. How can we keep from committing sin?We can keep from committing sin by praying and by receiving thesacraments; by remembering that God is always with us; by recalling thatour bodies are temples of the Holy Ghost; by keeping occupied with workor play; by promptly resisting the sources of sin within us; by avoiding thenear occasions of sin.And if thy right hand scandalize thee, cut it off and cast it from thee. For it isexpedient for thee that one of thy members perish rather than that thy wholebody go into hell. (Mark 9:42)74. What are the chief sources of actual sin?The chief sources of actual sin are: pride, covetousness, lust, anger,gluttony, envy, and sloth, and these are commonly called capital sins.75. Why are these called capital sins?They are called capital sins, not because they, in themselves, are thegreatest sins, but because they are the chief reasons why men commit sin.76. What are the near occasions of sin?The near occasions of sin are all persons, places, or things that may easilylead us into sin.The Word Made Flesh IncarnationSto. NiñoHesus NazarenoSacred Heart- Adult Christ- Risen Christ- LiberatorPresuppositions of knowing Christ1. Life long task. 20
  21. 21. 2. Living, changing, growing, deepening experience.3. Historical earthly Jesus and Risen Christ.4. Committed to following him.5. Knowledge of the Salvific Jesus.Purpose of Jesus 1. As an offering for our sins. 2. To reveal to us God s love, to have life through Him. 3. As a model of sanctity 4. To share in his divine sonshipMinistry of the Historical Jesus A. Prophet: Proclaim, Signs and wonders, and Martyr s fate B. Priest: Offerer, Offering C. King: Governs like the Good ShepherdThe Person of Jesus: TRUE GOD, TRUE MANPROCLAMATION OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD (3rd mystery ) ƒ The announcement of the Kingdom is near or has arrived (Mt. 3:2; 4: 17; 10:7; 12:28; Mk. 1:15; 11:10; Lk. 10:9, 11; 11:20; 17:20, 19:11; 21:31). ƒ At the same time the arrival of the kingdom is something for which Jesus tells His disciples to pray (Mt. 6:10; Lk. 11:2). ƒ The Kingdom is a mystery which men do not perceive and which Jesus reveals to His disciples (Mt. 13:11; Mk. 4:11; Lk. 8:10).What is meant by the Kingdom? ƒ CFC 481, 535: (1) all the blessings of God s presence among His people , (2) liberating them from sin, (3) for loving service of one another. ƒ PCP II 39-43: (1) gift of God, (2) task, (3) Promise.What is meant by the Kingdom? ƒ Scriptures: (1) everlasting Lk. 1:33; (2) Christ s kingdom 2Pt 1:11; (3) heavenly 2Ti 4:18; (4) messianic banquet Mt 8:11, 22:1-10; (5) righteous will shine Mt 13:43; (6) the disciples will sit on thrones Mt 19:28, 20:21; Mk 10:37, Lk 22:30; (7) a reward 21
  22. 22. given to disciples Lk 12:32, James 2:5 (8) inheritance Mt 25:34, 1Cor 6:9, Gal 5;21, Eph 5:5. ƒ Scriptures: to enter the Kingdom is synonymous with entrance into eternal life Mk 9:47, 2Pet 1:11.SIGNS AND WONDERSMARTYR S FATE ƒ Passion narratives of the of all four gospels. ƒ The passion of the Christ movie.THE GOOD SHEPHERD ƒ He is the shepherd who leaves the 99 sheep to search out one stray, and His joy at the recovery of a single sinner is like the good shepherd who finds the stray Mt 18: 12-14; Lk 15:3-7 ƒ The Good Shepherd John 10:1-5, 11-16.Integration:DOCTRINE: JESUS IS LORDMORAL: MORAL LIFEWORSHIP: EUCHARISTThe Holy Spirit: Chapter 22 of CFCApostles Creed y I believe in the Holy Spirit,The Nicene s Creed y We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets.The Giver of Life: 22
  23. 23. y Who is the Holy Spirit? The Third Person in the Holy Trinity The Paraclete (comforter) The Advocate The Spirit of Truth The Spirit of God The Spirit of Love He comes to us when we are baptized He dwells within usDiscerning the Holy Spirit: y Always leads us to faith in Jesus Christ whom he glorifies; y Acts always in keeping with Scripture and Tradition showing unity, continuity and consistency; y Gives spiritual gifts to individuals for the service of the community: to build up the Christian community and fellowship, and work toward overcoming dissensions and factions; y Is known by his fruits which St. Paul lists as love, joy, peace, patient endurance, kindness, generosity, faith, mildness, and chastity (Galatians 5:22) y Is authoritatively discerned, and the proper use of his Gifts is judged by those who preside over the Church whose office is not indeed to extinguish the Spirit, but to test all things and hold fast to what is good. (LG 12) y Is found in humility: God resists the proud, but bestows His favor on the lowly (James 4:6)The Activity of the Holy Spirit y In creation, he is God s creative power y In the OT, in the Spirit, Abraham, Moses, David, Judges and Prophets heard and responded to God s call. 23
  24. 24. y In Christ, a) preparation of Mary and John the Baptist, b) public ministry of Jesus, c) Paschal mystery, d) joint mission of Jesus and the Spirit. y In the Church, 1) pentecost, 2) gave birth to the first Christian community. Today, 3) gives life, 4) unifies, 5) moves to ministry. y In Christians, 1) adopts us, 2) empowers us to love, 3) empowers us to bear witness, 4) empowers us to know the truth, 5) draws us into community, unity and service, inspires true Christian life.REFLECTION PAPER:Make a story of your life on how the Holy Spirit has been working inyou since the time you were conceive until today.mention events in your life and see how did the Holy Spirit work inyou.the CHURCH € The first great living work of the Holy Spirit , the Giver of Life. € Chapter 23 of CFCJesus replied: I for my part declare to you: you are Rock [Peter],and on this rock I will build my Church, and the jaws of death shallnot prevail against it.(Mt 16:18)the Catholic Church € Is the community of men and women, united in Christ and guided by the Holy Spirit, under the successor of Peter and the bishops in communion with him. € Is not merely a human social organization € But, the People of God called together. € It consists of all who are drawn to personal communion with Christ and one another, 24
  25. 25. € is mystery __ a God-centered reality in its origin, ongoing life and final goal € is a sacrament because it is a visible sign which makes present a spiritual grace-filled reality. Specifically, the Church is the efficacious symbol that unites us to God and to one another, and thus is the efficacious symbol of our salvation. € is related to each Person of the Blessed Trinity.Relatedness to the Blessed Trinity € originates according to the Father s eternal plan, from the side of the Crucified Christ, and is animated and united by the coming of the Holy Spirit; € structured as a community of love modelled on the Trinity s loving union of Father, Son and Spirit; € missioned (sent) by the Father following the joint Mission of Son and Spirit; € destined as a pilgrim people to journey toward perfect communion with the Trinity in heaven.Scriptural images: y Kingdom of God, y People of God, and y Body of Christ.Marks of the Church 1. One y Source: unity of the Holy Trinity y Founder: Jesus Christ y Life: one body and one Spirit in: y Confession of one faith y Common sacramental worship 25
  26. 26. y Loving service of one another y Loving obedience to the Vicar of Christ on earth 2. Holy y The Church is holy as a gift from Christ who unites her to himself as his Body, and sends her his Holy Spirit. Empowered by the Spirit, the Church sanctifies her members by her preaching, loving service, sacramental life, and charismatic gifts. y Holiness is a task y all __ without exception are called to holiness. . . though all do not pursue the same path (PCP II 402; cf. LG 32). 3. Catholic y is Catholic or universal as a gift from the Lord because she is sent to bring all peoples to Christ the Head in the unity of his Spirit (LG 13). y But it is also a Task since all without exception are also called to mission, that is, to evangelize (PCP II 402; cf. LG 33). 4. Apostolic y As Gift, the Church is apostolic because Christ built [her] upon the foundation of the apostles (Eph 2:20), thus linking her permanently with their witness (cf. Mt 28:19-20). This apostolic charism is carried on through the apostolic succession of the Bishops. y As Task, the apostolic nature of the Church is exercised by all the faithful who carry on the mission entrusted by Christ to his apostles.Her mission € The Church received the mission to proclaim and establish among all peoples the Kingdom of Christ and of God (cf. LG 5). She is the Universal Sacrament of salvation for the whole world. 26
  27. 27. € Every member of the Church, therefore, shares in this mission, i.e., the obligation of spreading the faith (LG 17).mission applied to Filipino Catholics € Since the Church in the Philippines is a Church of the Poor, PCP II stresses the thrust for justice and liberation as an integral part of the renewed evangelizing mission of proclaiming the Gospel.CHURCH OF THE POOR (PCP 2)Now all the believers lived together and shared all their belongings.They would sell their property and all they had, and distribute theproceeds to others according to their need.(Acts 2: 44-45) € The community combines detachment from possessions with a profound trust in the Lord. € The better off orients and tilts the center of gravity of the entire community in favor of the needy. They collaborate with the poor themselves and with others to lift up the poor from poverty. € The pastors and leaders give preferential attention and time to those who are poor, and generously share their own resources in order to alleviate them. € The poor are not discriminated against because of poverty, and are not deprived of their right to receive in abundance the help of her spiritual goods. € The poor are not only evangelized but are enabled to become themselves evangelizers. € The community does not remain silent before the exploitation of the poor and for which reminds the rich of their precise duties, condemns injustices, defends, and vindicates the rights of the oppressed. € The drawing of plans needs to be drawn up not only for the poor, but with them, so that by following them they will be able to manage their own lives. (GC 23, 212) 27
  28. 28. Ministries in the Church y Ministry y means service, and y Christian ministry y refers to serving the people of God in a stable fashion. a. ministry is characterized by: doing something, b. for God s Kingdom, c. in public, d. on behalf of the Christian community, e. empowered by a gift of faith received in baptism, or ordination, f. identifiable within the diversity of ministerial activities.Ministry is not the privilege of a selected few, but the vocation of allbaptized Christians.The Communion of Saints y communion in holy things (sancta) y communion in the faith y communal life y communion in the sacraments y communion in possessions y communion of charity y communion with holy people (sancti) y Pilgrim Church y Suffering Church y Triumphant churchResurrection of the Body and Life Everlasting 28
  29. 29. Jesus said: I am the resurrection and the life; whoever believes inme, though he should die, will come to life; and whoever is alive andbelieves in me will never die.(Jn 11:25f)Eschatology y the study of the individual s last things (eschata): y death, y judgment, y heaven or hell and y Christ s Second Coming.Resurrection means first of all new life in the Risen Christ __not justa restoration of our present earthly life. y LIFE EVERLASTINGThe Credo 29

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