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  1. 1. Rina Utami 201012501025 Nursanti Setiorini 201012500913 Nurhasanah 201012500908 Muhammad Fajarudin 201012500842 Nurhadini Astuti 201012500015 Nur Eviyanti 201012500573 Yuli Iriyanti 201012500695 Muhammad Zamroni 201012500890 GROUP 7 Lecturer Risa Mufliharsi, S.Pd.,M.Pd. Lecture WRITING 3
  2. 2. THE ESSAY
  3. 3. An essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long instead of just one or two paragraphs. Therefore, you must devide the topic into several paragraphs, one for each major point. Writing An Essay
  4. 4. INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH BODY CONCLUSION General Statement Thesis Statement Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Restatement or summary of the main points; Final Comment An Essay has three main parts
  5. 5. Four purpose : 1. It Introduces the topic of the essay. 2. It gives a general background of the topic. 3. It often indicates the overall “plan” of the essay. 4. It should arouse the reader’s interest in the topic. General Statements Thesis Statements The Introductory Paragraph - Introduce the topic of the essay - Give the background information on the topic - States the main topic - Often list the subdivisions of the topic or subtopic - May indicate the method of organization of the entire paper - Is usually the last sentence in the introductory paragraph
  6. 6. “Metropolitan City is full of charm and scenic beauty, so visitors from around the world come to enjoy its famous theaters, museums, countless ethnic restaurants, and scenic wonders. Although Metropolitan City seems like a paradise, it isn’t. The city has several serious problems: poor public transportation, congested streets, and expensive housing” (Hogue, A. & Oshima, A., 1991, p. 92). General Statement Thesis Statement Example introductory paragraph
  7. 7. the final paragraph in an essay, which tells the reader that you have completed an essay The concluding paragraph consist of The Concluding Paragraph 1. A summary of the main points, or a restatement of your thesis in different words 2. Your Final comment on the subject, based on the information you have provide
  8. 8. “In conclusion, Metropolitan City must improve its public transit system, clear up the massive traffic jams caused by slow-moving traffic in the downtown areas, and keep rentals down to affordable levels. In other words, Metropolitan City must improve its image, or it will soon become just another mediocre city due to the lack of administrative responsibility to solve these unfortunate problems” (Hogue, A. & Oshima, A., 1991, p. 79). Example concluding paragraph Summary of main ideas Prediction
  9. 9. OUTLINE Subtopic that form the body of the essay are indented to the right. You move to the right, the ideas become more and more specific. The best way to organize your thoughts and to plan the body of your essay before you begin to write The Essay Body : Outlining
  10. 10. Example the body outlining
  11. 11. Show relationship between your first paragraph and second paragraph and so on. Transition Signals Transition Signals Between Paragraph  A single word  A phrase  A clause
  12. 12. Example transition signal
  13. 13. The Writing Process Writing and Revising An Essay The writer's changes to the first draft You brainstorm for ideas, make an outline and write several drafts until you have produced a final copy that you can be proud of After writing the first draft :  The writer edits it for organization and content.  Delete several unnecessary sentences and words.  The writer divides the long paragraphs into two paragraphs.  Adds an example and adds more details of the essay.  In the concluding paragraph, writer makes a note to himself to adds a final comment.  Write the introductory paragraph.
  14. 14. The writer's changes to the second drafts  Writer corrects punctuation, capitalization, spelling and other errors in mechanics as well as changing some vocabulary words.  Writer corrects the grammar and improves the sentence structure  If the writer is completely satisfied with the second drafts, he is ready to make the final copy.
  15. 15. Patterns of Essay Organization
  16. 16. Four Common patterns of essay organization in English are : Chronological order Logical division of ideas Cause and effect order Comparison and contrast order
  17. 17. Chronological Order One of its primary uses is to explain processes such as how to play a game. Chronological order signal words:  Is order by time  Is the order in which the events occurred, from first to last Chronological order first third Next then Finally eventually following this
  18. 18. Is a form of essay organization that is used to group related items according to some quality they have in common. Logical Division of Ideas signal words : Logical Division of Ideas Help to devide a broad subject into several categories or groups and in that way focus the topic for discussion Central principal Chief major Main key Primary significant…finally Lastly finishing with least... Ending with
  19. 19. Discuss the reasons or cause for something, and then you discuss the result Cause and effect signal words: Cause and Effect Order 2 main ways to organize a cause and effect essay :  Block Organization 1. Discuss all of the cause as a block 2. Then discuss all effects together as a block #There is often a short paragraph that separates the “cause” part from the “effects” part. This called a transition paragraph  Chain Organization 1. Discuss a first cause and its effect, a second cause an its effect and so on. 2. Discussion of each new cause and its effect begin with a new paragraph 3. All the paragraphs are linked in a “chain” #Usually, each new cause is the result of the preceding effect Because for this reason due to on account of if this then this…as a result Since consequently cause Therefore thus in effect resulting and the outcome is...
  20. 20. The material is organized to emphasize the similarities and/or differences between two or more items or topics Comparison and contrast signal words: Comparison and Contrast Order Comparison means:  what things have in common  how items or concepts are a like  the similarities between elements or ideas Contrast means:  the differences between items or concepts  how things are not alike  distinctions between elements Similarly, like, the same as, compared to, in the same way, likewise… but, yet, on the other hand, however, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary...
  21. 21. THANK YOU