An essay is a piece of writing several
paragraphs long instead of just one or two
Therefore, you must devide the topic into
several paragraphs, one for each major point.
Writing An Essay
Restatement or summary of the
main points; Final Comment
An Essay has three main parts
Four purpose :
1. It Introduces the topic of the essay.
2. It gives a general background of the topic.
3. It often indicates the overall “plan” of the essay.
4. It should arouse the reader’s interest in the topic.
General Statements Thesis Statements
The Introductory Paragraph
- Introduce the topic of the essay
- Give the background information on
- States the main topic
- Often list the subdivisions of the topic or
- May indicate the method of organization of the
- Is usually the last sentence in the introductory
“Metropolitan City is full of charm and scenic beauty, so
visitors from around the world come to enjoy its famous
theaters, museums, countless ethnic restaurants, and scenic
wonders. Although Metropolitan City seems like a
paradise, it isn’t. The city has several serious problems: poor
public transportation, congested streets, and expensive
(Hogue, A. & Oshima, A., 1991, p. 92).
Example introductory paragraph
the final paragraph in an essay, which
tells the reader that you have
completed an essay
The concluding paragraph consist of
The Concluding Paragraph
1. A summary of the main points, or a restatement of your
thesis in different words
2. Your Final comment on the subject, based on the
information you have provide
“In conclusion, Metropolitan City must improve its
public transit system, clear up the massive traffic jams caused
by slow-moving traffic in the downtown areas, and keep
rentals down to affordable levels. In other words, Metropolitan
City must improve its image, or it will soon become just
another mediocre city due to the lack of administrative
responsibility to solve these unfortunate problems”
(Hogue, A. & Oshima, A., 1991, p. 79).
Example concluding paragraph
Summary of main ideas
Subtopic that form the body of the essay are indented to the right.
You move to the right, the ideas become more and more specific.
The best way to organize your
thoughts and to plan the body
of your essay before you begin
The Essay Body : Outlining
The Writing Process
Writing and Revising An Essay
The writer's changes to the first draft
You brainstorm for ideas, make an outline and write several drafts until
you have produced a final copy that you can be proud of
After writing the first draft :
The writer edits it for organization and content.
Delete several unnecessary sentences and words.
The writer divides the long paragraphs into two paragraphs.
Adds an example and adds more details of the essay.
In the concluding paragraph, writer makes a note to himself to
adds a final comment.
Write the introductory paragraph.
The writer's changes to the second drafts
Writer corrects punctuation, capitalization, spelling and other
errors in mechanics as well as changing some vocabulary words.
Writer corrects the grammar and improves the sentence structure
If the writer is completely satisfied with the second drafts, he is
ready to make the final copy.
Four Common patterns of essay organization in
English are :
Logical division of ideas
Cause and effect order
Comparison and contrast order
One of its primary uses is to explain processes such as
how to play a game.
Chronological order signal words:
Is order by time
Is the order in which the
events occurred, from
first to last
first third Next then
Finally eventually following this
Is a form of essay organization that is used
to group related items according to some
quality they have in common.
Logical Division of Ideas
signal words :
Logical Division of Ideas
Help to devide a
broad subject into
several categories or
groups and in that
way focus the topic
Lastly finishing with
least... Ending with
Discuss the reasons or cause for
something, and then you discuss the
Cause and effect signal
Cause and Effect Order
2 main ways to organize a cause and effect essay :
1. Discuss all of the cause as a block
2. Then discuss all effects together as a block
#There is often a short paragraph that separates the “cause”
part from the “effects” part. This called a transition
1. Discuss a first cause and its effect, a second cause an its
effect and so on.
2. Discussion of each new cause and its effect begin with a new
3. All the paragraphs are linked in a “chain”
#Usually, each new cause is the result of the preceding effect
Because for this reason
due to on account of
if this then this…as a result
cause Therefore thus
in effect resulting
and the outcome is...
The material is organized to emphasize
the similarities and/or differences between
two or more items or topics
Comparison and contrast signal words:
Comparison and Contrast Order
what things have in common
how items or concepts are a
the similarities between
elements or ideas
the differences between
items or concepts
how things are not alike
Similarly, like, the same as, compared to, in the same way, likewise…
but, yet, on the other hand, however, instead, nevertheless, on the