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Green Chemistry
Paul Anastas: Father of Green Chemistry 2
Green Chemistry is about reducing 
•Waste 
• Materials 
• Hazards 
• Risks 
• Energy 
• Cost 
3
Why do we need Green Chemistry 
Objective 
• Chemistry is undeniably a 
very prominent part of our 
daily lives. 
• Chemic...
What it looks for . . . . . 
• Green chemistry looks at pollution prevention on the 
molecular scale and is an extremely i...
Goals of Green Chemistry 
1. To reduce adverse environmental impact, try appropriate and 
innovative choice of material & ...
Goals of Green Chemistry 
6. To develop products that degrade more rapidly in the 
environment than the current products. ...
Principles of 
Green Chemistry
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
1. Prevention of Waste or by-products 
http://www.igd.com/wasteprevention 
9
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
1. Prevention of Waste or by-products 
“It is better to prevent waste than to treat ...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
2. Atom Economy 
Atom economy (atom efficiency) describes 
the conversion efficiency...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
3. Minimization of hazardous products 
Wherever practicable, synthetic methods shoul...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
3. Minimization of hazardous products 
13
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
4. Designing Safer Chemicals 
Chemical products should be designed to effect 
their ...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
5. Safer Solvents & Auxiliaries 
“The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, 
s...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 16 
5. Safer Solvents & Auxiliaries
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
6. Design for Energy Efficiency 
Energy requirements of chemical processes should 
b...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
6. Design for Energy Efficiency 
Developing the alternatives for energy generation ...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
7. Use of Renewable Feedstock 
“A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rath...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 20 
7. Use of Renewable Feedstock
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
8. Reduce Derivatives 
Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, 
protecti...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
8. Reduce Derivatives 
More derivatives involve 
 Additional Reagents 
 Generate m...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
9. Catalysis 
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are 
superior to stoichi...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
10. Designing of degradable products 
Chemical products should be designed so that a...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 25
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
11. New Analytical Methods 
“Analytical methodologies need to be further 
developed ...
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 
12. Safer Chemicals For Accident Prevention 
“Analytical Substances and the form of ...
Efficiency Parameters
1. Reaction Yield 
푅푒푎푐푡푖표푛 푌푖푒푙푑 = 
퐴푐푡푢푎푙 푌푖푒푙푑 
푇ℎ푒표푟푒푡푖푐푎푙 푌푖푒푙푑 
× 100 
The reaction should have high percentage of y...
2. Atom Economy 
Atom economy describes the conversion efficiency of a 
chemical process in terms of all atoms involved (d...
2. Atom Economy 
e.g. 
1. Rearrangement Reactions: 
These reactions involves rearrangement of atoms 
that forms molecule. ...
2. Atom Economy 
e.g. Consider the following reaction to find out atom 
economy. 
32 
O 
H3C CH2 C OC2H5 
+ H3C NH2 
Ethyl...
3. Conversion Factor 
Conversion = 
Amount of reactant reacted 
Amount of reactant taken 
× 100 
33
4. Reaction Selectivity 
Reaction Selectivity = 
Amount of desired 
product formed 
Amount of product expected on 
the bas...
5. Environmental Load Factor 
It is represented by E and it should be minimum. 
E = 
푇표푡al mass of effluent formed 
푀푎푠s o...
The major uses of GREEN CHEMISTRY 
• Energy 
• Global Change 
• Resource Depletion 
• Food Supply 
• Toxics in the Environ...
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Transcript of "Green chemistry"

  1. 1. Green Chemistry
  2. 2. Paul Anastas: Father of Green Chemistry 2
  3. 3. Green Chemistry is about reducing •Waste • Materials • Hazards • Risks • Energy • Cost 3
  4. 4. Why do we need Green Chemistry Objective • Chemistry is undeniably a very prominent part of our daily lives. • Chemical developments also bring new environmental problems and harmful unexpected side effects, which result in the need for ‘greener’ chemical products. Results • A famous example is the pesticide DDT. 4
  5. 5. What it looks for . . . . . • Green chemistry looks at pollution prevention on the molecular scale and is an extremely important area of Chemistry due to the importance of Chemistry in our world today and the implications it can show on our environment. • The Green Chemistry program supports the invention of more environmentally friendly chemical processes which reduce or even eliminate the generation of hazardous substances. • This program works very closely with the twelve principles of Green Chemistry. 5
  6. 6. Goals of Green Chemistry 1. To reduce adverse environmental impact, try appropriate and innovative choice of material & their chemical transformation. 2. To develop processes based on renewable rather than non-renewable raw materials. 3. To develop processes that are less prone to obnoxious chemical release, fires & explosion. 4. To minimize by-products in chemical transformation by redesign of reactions & reaction sequences. 5. To develop products that are less toxic. 6
  7. 7. Goals of Green Chemistry 6. To develop products that degrade more rapidly in the environment than the current products. 7. To reduce the requirements for hazardous persistent solvents & extractants in chemical processes. 8. To improve energy efficiency by developing low temperature & low pressure processes using new catalysts. 9. To develop efficient & reliable methods to monitor the processes for better & improved controls. 7
  8. 8. Principles of Green Chemistry
  9. 9. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevention of Waste or by-products http://www.igd.com/wasteprevention 9
  10. 10. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 1. Prevention of Waste or by-products “It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed” 10
  11. 11. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 2. Atom Economy Atom economy (atom efficiency) describes the conversion efficiency of a chemical process in terms of all atoms involved (desired products produced). 퐴푡표푚 퐸푐표푛표푚푦 = 푀표푙. 푤푒푖푔ℎ푡 표푓 퐷푒푠푖푟푒푑 푝푟표푑푢푐푡 푀표푙. 푤푒푖푔ℎ푡 표푓 푎푙푙 푟푒푎푐푡푎푛푡푠 × 100 11
  12. 12. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 3. Minimization of hazardous products Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to people or the environment. 12
  13. 13. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 3. Minimization of hazardous products 13
  14. 14. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 4. Designing Safer Chemicals Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimising their toxicity. 14
  15. 15. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 5. Safer Solvents & Auxiliaries “The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible, and innocuous when used” 15
  16. 16. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 16 5. Safer Solvents & Auxiliaries
  17. 17. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 6. Design for Energy Efficiency Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognised for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimised. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 17
  18. 18. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 6. Design for Energy Efficiency Developing the alternatives for energy generation (photovoltaic, hydrogen, fuel cells, bio based fuels, etc.) as well as Continue the path toward energy efficiency with catalysis and product design at the forefront. 18
  19. 19. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 7. Use of Renewable Feedstock “A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable.” 19
  20. 20. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 20 7. Use of Renewable Feedstock
  21. 21. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 8. Reduce Derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/de-protection, and temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimised or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 21
  22. 22. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 8. Reduce Derivatives More derivatives involve  Additional Reagents  Generate more waste products  More Time  Higher Cost of Products • Hence, it requires to reduce derivatives. 22
  23. 23. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 9. Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. e.g. Toluene can be exclusively converted into p-xylene (avoiding o-xylene & m-xylene) by shape selective zeolite catalyst. 23
  24. 24. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 10. Designing of degradable products Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment. 24
  25. 25. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 25
  26. 26. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 11. New Analytical Methods “Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.” 26
  27. 27. The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry 12. Safer Chemicals For Accident Prevention “Analytical Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimise the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.” 27
  28. 28. Efficiency Parameters
  29. 29. 1. Reaction Yield 푅푒푎푐푡푖표푛 푌푖푒푙푑 = 퐴푐푡푢푎푙 푌푖푒푙푑 푇ℎ푒표푟푒푡푖푐푎푙 푌푖푒푙푑 × 100 The reaction should have high percentage of yield. 29
  30. 30. 2. Atom Economy Atom economy describes the conversion efficiency of a chemical process in terms of all atoms involved (desired products produced). 퐴푡표푚 퐸푐표푛표푚푦 = 푀표푙. 푤푒푖푔ℎ푡 표푓 퐷푒푠푖푟푒푑 푝푟표푑푢푐푡 푀표푙. 푤푒푖푔ℎ푡 표푓 푎푙푙 푟푒푎푐푡푎푛푡푠 × 100 For the reaction, the atom economy should be maximum. 30
  31. 31. 2. Atom Economy e.g. 1. Rearrangement Reactions: These reactions involves rearrangement of atoms that forms molecule. Hence, the atom economy of these reactions are 100%. 2. Addition Reactions: These reactions involves addition of two or more molecules without elimination that forms molecule. Hence, the atom economy of these reactions are 100% 31
  32. 32. 2. Atom Economy e.g. Consider the following reaction to find out atom economy. 32 O H3C CH2 C OC2H5 + H3C NH2 Ethyl propionate Mol wt 102.13 Methyl amine Mol wt 31.05 O H3C CH2 C NHCH 3 + H5C2 OH Ethyl Alcohol Mol wt 46.06 N-Methyl propionate Mol wt 87.106
  33. 33. 3. Conversion Factor Conversion = Amount of reactant reacted Amount of reactant taken × 100 33
  34. 34. 4. Reaction Selectivity Reaction Selectivity = Amount of desired product formed Amount of product expected on the basis of reactant consumed × 100 34
  35. 35. 5. Environmental Load Factor It is represented by E and it should be minimum. E = 푇표푡al mass of effluent formed 푀푎푠s of desired products × 100 35
  36. 36. The major uses of GREEN CHEMISTRY • Energy • Global Change • Resource Depletion • Food Supply • Toxics in the Environment
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