I would be talking on thefollowing points•Defining the element•Some chemical and physical properties•The element in the periodic table•Uses/ biological role of the element•Isotopes of the element•Some interesting facts.
Each element is given a unique chemical symbol. The samechemical symbol is used all over the world. The first letter isalways a capital letter. If in case there is a second letteralso, it is a small letter. These chemical symbol always comefrom either their Greek, Latin or English names. The symbolfor :•Oxygen is “O”•Phosphorus is “P”•Sodium is “Na” which derived from its Latin name Natrium .CHEMICAL SYMBOL
ETYMOLOGY•OXYGEN: The word oxygen arrived from a Greek word “oxy”meaning ‘a sharp acid’ and “gen” or “genes” meaning ‘formation’ as at thattime it was mistakenly thought that oxygen is an important constituent inthe formation of acids..•SODIUM: The symbol of the sodium element is Na which comesfrom the Latin name for a common sodium compound called natrium fromthe Greek word nítron‘ meaning a natural salt.•PHOSPHORUS: The word Phosphorus originates from theGreek words “phos” meaning light and “phoros” meaning bearer creatingthe term ’bringing light’ as phosphorus white phosphorus oxidizes in airand glows in the dark.
ATOMIC NUMBEREach element is given an atomic no. Atomic no. is the no. of protons and electrons in the atom. The atomic no. of oxygen is 8. The atomic no. of sodium is 11. The atomic no. of phosphorus is 15.
OXYGEN Oxygen has 6 electrons in its valence shell, hence it lies in the VI A group in the periodic table.
Sodium has 1 electron in its valence shell, so itSODIUM lies in the I A group.
PHOSPHORUS Phosphorous has 5 valence electrons, and thus lies under the V A category of periodic table..
STATEEach element is defined as a solid liquid or a gas atthe normal room temperature. These are the statesof matter. The following are of oxygen, sodium andphosphorus:•OXYGEN: oxygen occurs as a gas at the normalroom temperature.•SODIUM: sodium occurs as a solid in the roomtemperature.•PHOSPHOROUS: it is a solid at normal roomtemperature.
PROPERTIESChemical properties Physical properties How an element reacts Related to its appearance with other elements. Odour, density, colour and Change in the inner shape. structure (atomic structure).
WHAT IS OXYGEN???? Oxygen can be referred to as an essential gas, colourless and vital for life. It is the most abundant element . Oxygen constitutes 21% of the atmosphere. It is also found in water(as a constituent of water molecule), rocks and minerals and many organic compounds.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Oxygen can change from gas to a liquid at a temperature lesser than -218.4 degree Celsius, that means its melting point is -218.4 degree Celsius. It can then be solidified. Solid oxygen has pale blue colour. Colour : colourless.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES It is tasteless and odourless. Phase : gas Density : oxygen is denser than air, with a density of 1.429 g/cubic cm. Conductivity : it is a poor conductor of electricity and heat Solubility : it is slightly soluble in water alcohol and some other liquids
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Flammability :It does not burn. It supports combustion but does not burn. It forms some very common compounds with hydrogen (water), ferrous (rust/ iron oxide), carbon ( carbon dioxide).
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Formula :the formula for oxygen is O2. It is in its molecular form to make a stable configuration. Ozone gas is O3.
OXYGEN, A NON-METAL Each element is categorized into groups on the basis of some properties. Oxygen is in Pure substance the Non-Metal group. Non metals have these properties: elements compounds• Poor conductivity, good insulators, non- metallic, exist as metals Non-metals -- solids/gases at the room temp.(EXCEPTION IS BROMINE).
Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, with a total of 4, 16O, with 8 neutrons 17O, with 9 neutrons and 18O, with 10 neutrons, 16O being the ISOTOPES most abundant (99.762% natural abundance).
BIOLOGICAL ROLE, USES Respiration: oxygen plays an important infact the most important role in aerobic respiration. Glucose breaks down into energy, carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen.
BIOLOGICAL ROLE, usesOxygen cylinders are used a high altitudes by themountaineers, during space expeditions by the astronauts andby deep sea divers as their supply of oxygen.ABOUT 61% of the body is made up of oxygen.IT is used in the production of steel from the iron ore(55% isO2)Oxygen is used in diseases like bronchialasthma, anemia, trauma(chest injury).Oxygen is also essential to decay. The process of decay is reallya kind of oxidation, but it will only take place in the presence ofbacteria.
OXYGEN, A HAZARDCUMBUSTION: combustion is an exothermicreaction in the presence of oxygen. It is referredto, in general language as fire. Explosion and firetake place in the presence of oxygen.However, combustion is a useful process also.
WHAT IS SODIUM???? Sodium can be referred to as a soft, light, extremely malleable silver-white metallic element . It constitutes 0.002% of the universe, 2.3% of the earth’s crust and 0.14% of the human body. It is the 6th most abundant element on the earth.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Phase : solid Density : sodium’s density is 0.971 g/cubic cm. Conductivity : it is a good conductor of electricity and heat. Solubility : sodium will act disastrous if put in water. Sodium is brittle.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Flammability : Sodium itself is not flammable but when you combine sodium with water it produces to sodium hydroxide which is extremely flammable gas. When introduced to a flame though it turns the flame a bright yellow. Sodium is not flammable, but some compounds of it are. It forms sodium hydroxide when reacted with water, Sodium Chloride, common salt, when reacted with Chlorine.
SODIUM, A METAL Sodium is in the Metal group. Metals have these properties:• Good conductivity, malleabili ty, ductility, sonority, e xistence in the solid form at normal room temperature(exception -mercury)
ISOTOPES 20 isotopes of sodium are known, but only 23Na is stable. Also, it is the most common sodium used.
USES Agricultural uses Medicinal uses Purifying molten metals Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide – used in soap, cleaners
WHAT IS PHOSPHOROUS? A highly reactive, poisonous, non-metallic element, waxy occurring naturally in the solid state. It constitutes 0.0007% of the universe, as whole, 1.1% of the human body and 0.99% of the earth’s crust.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Phase : solid Density : 1.82 g/cubic cm. Conductivity : black Phosphorous is a good conductor of electricity and heat. Solubility :it does not dissolve well in water. WHITE phosphorous is white in colour. Red phosphorous varies from orange to purple colour( due to its chemical structure).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Melting point: 44.1 °C Colour : silver-white Boiling point: 280.0 °C It is a deadly poison. It glows in the dark.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Flammability : Flammability: it is highly inflammable. White phosphorous is the most reactive of the three allotropes of phosphorous while It forms phosphates as a constituent(of any compound).
Phosphorous, a nonmetal Phosphorous is in the Non-Metal group. It is a brittle solid.
ISOTOPES Twenty-three isotopes of phosphorus are known, including all possibilities from 24P up to 46P. Only 31P is stable 31 and is therefore present at 100% abundance.
USES A well known use of red phosphorus is the safety match. The red phosphorus safety matches were invented by fellow Gustaf Erik in 1855. Inflammable bombs. Fertilizers Steel production Pesticides
SOME INTERESTING FACTS Why does sodium explode in water?? Sodium (Na; Atomic number: 11) is a highly reactive element belonging to the alkali group. Since sodium has valency 1 i.e. it has one lone electron in its outermost orbit, it is highly reactive in nature. When sodium is added to water, the lone electron of sodium reacts with the water and displaces H+ ion, thus forming NaOH (sodium hydroxide). Since this is a highly exothermic reaction, the sudden release of energy during bond reformation results in explosion.
We cannot survive even for 5 minutes withoutoxygen.Sodium was isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807.Bones and teeth are 85% phosphorous.Though is though a metal is isn’t extracted from anyore but from rock salt and common salt it is isolated.
CREDITS ANDREFERENCES•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorous•http://www.webelements.com/•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92Mfric7JUc•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYMbh-l-fRs•Class 11 NCERT chemistry book-Part II•And many more