MORE ABOUT NON-FINITES They are the forms of verbs which function as Nouns, Adjectives or Adverbs. They have no Predicate of their own. They cannot by themselves perform the full function of a Finite Verb. They are not limited by number and person. They have no subject . no tense and take no modals.
NOTE - 'To kill' expresses the action independently as a verbal noun. In the absence of its subject it functions as the subject of the verb 'requires'. Its meaning in the form of an action is not governed by any subject, person or number. Its meaning is infinite so it is termed as non- finite.
FINITE INFINITE verb is limited by the subject's number and person. verb is not limited by number and person.
In sentence 1,'he' is the subject of the verb 'kill'. It is controlled by the number and person of the subject. In sentence 2 'to kill' is not governed by any subject, person or number. functions as subject of verb 'requires' is a finite verb and 'he' is its subject
TYPES OF INFINITE INFINITIVE It is a form of verb which mentions in the abstract of the action expressed by the verb. 'To' is placed before the Present form of the verb to form the Infinitives. Sometimes the infinitive appears without 'to' and is termed as 'bare Infinitive'.
After a Verb as an Adverb He stood to welcome me. My father went to the college to see the Principal.
Infinitive as an Adverb after an Adjective Iam delighted to see you here. She was astonished to hear the news. Infinitive as an Adjective after a Noun or Pronoun He has many books to read. I wish you to get a good job. Infinitive as Subject to a Verb To drink is bad for your health. To speak the truth is a virtue.
Infinitive as Object to a Verb I want to sleep now. They want to play. Infinitive as a object of a Preposition She went around to search her necklace. He sat down to take rest.
Infinitive as an Object complement NOTE - Sometimes Infinitive is dropped after the verbs ' bid, dare, let, make, need, hear, see, fall and all modals except 'ought'.
manage decide seem regret attempt agree promise remember determine help pretend claim prepare offer tell fail ask expect care mean
Acts partly as a verb and partly as a Noun. Is formed by adding 'ing' to the first form of verb. Is similar to the form of Present Participle. Drinking is bad for health. Painting is really an art.
Gerund as a Subject to a verb Riding is an exercise. Driving needs concentration. As an Object of the Verb Let us enjoy boating. She could not help laughing. As an object of a preposition She is fond of skating. Iam thinking of going abroad.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
THE PARTICIPLE A word partly verb partly adjective I saw him writing a letter. NOTE- 'writing' is a participle that qualifies the object 'him'.It is adjective as well as a verb.
PRESENT PAST PERFECT
PRESENT PARTICIPLE It is formed by adding 'ing' to the verb. It expresses an incomplete or continuous action. I heard him sobbing. They found the baby shouting with joy.
PAST PARTICIPLE It ends in 'd, ed' t' n' en' or ne. It indicates finished or complete action.
PERFECT PARTICIPLE It is formed by putting 'having' before the past participle i.e. third form of verb. It denotes an action which was finished in the past. It emphasises that the first action is complete before the second one starts.
USES OF THE PARTICIPLE To form continuous tenses of Active Voice- It is raining.(present) The child was weeping bitterly.(past) Ishall be coming back in a jiffy.(future) To form the Perfect Tense of Active Voice He has finished his work.(present) He had already gone.(past) He will have posted the letter.(future)
To form Passive Voice Iam pleased to see you.(present) He was hanged.(past) He will be punished.(future) To qualify a Noun or Pronoun Everybody worships the rising sun. I found him weeping.
To form a Nominative Absolute Weather permitting, we shall fly kites. The sun having risen, the birds began to chirp. It being very hot, we kept indoors.
As an Adjective in the subject-complement position The book was interesting. His way of speaking was disgusting.
After the Verbs of sensation I heard people shouting. I smell something burning. You can hear the clock ticking.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form either Gerund or Infinitive of the verb given in brackets: 1.Avoid--------(mix) with bad boys. 2.I don’t want her--------(know )my address. 3. You made the woman---------(show) you how---------(open) the safe. 4. Nikunj tried---------(write) a poem. 5. Stop--------(talk) now. 6. We use kerosene ----------(cook) our food. 7. She enjoyed---------(bask) in the sun. 8. --------(see) is --------(believe). 9. Rekha intends----------(join) the college. 10. The tree was easy---------(climb). 11. It is no use--------(go) there now. 12. How did you manage--------(reach) there in time? 13. I bought a new---------((dine) table. 14. -----------(smoke) is injurious to health. 15. Please give me something--------(eat)
Key to I. Exercise-
Show, to open
Rewrite the following sentences using suitable form of the Participle of the Verbs given in brackets: 1. Everybody worships the----------(rise) sun. 2. The sun-------(rise), the birds began to chirp. 3. ----------(place) the books on the table, he ran away. 4. A---------(break) glass cannot hold water. 5. ---------(hit) by an arrow in the chest, he fell down dead. 6. ---------(see) the film once, I do not want to see it again. 7. ----------(lose) my book, I reported the matter to the teacher. 8. ---------(see) the Principal, the student ran away. 9. --------(work) hard, my sister got good marks. 10.---------(starve) is better than--------(beg). 11.---------(abuse) by his friend, he lost his temper. 12. ---------(reach) home, I asked my mother to make tea.
Key to Exercise II.
Having been abused
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using a Gerund:
She laughs. She cannot help it.
It was hot. He did not go out.
I got ready. I went to the conference.
Please move a bit. Would you mind it?
She likes to eat chocolates. It is her weakness.
Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using an Infinitive:
He has come here. He will see you.
He was very weak. He could not go up the stairs.
She is coming to Delhi. She will see the Prime Minister.
We go to the library. We study there.
I shall go to the market. I shall buy some papers.
Key to Exercise III.- 1.She cannot help laughing. 2. It being hot he did not go out. 3. Getting ready, I went to the conference. 4. Would you mind moving a bit? 5. Eating chocolates is her weakness.
Key to Exercise IV.
He has come here to see you.
He was too weak to go up the stairs.
She is coming to Delhi to see the Prime Minister.
We go to the library to study.
I shall go to the market to buy some papers.
Combine the following sentences using a Participle:
She felt hungry. She went on eating.
They finished their breakfast. They boarded the school-bus.
The sun had set. We returned home.
I do not like this child. He weeps bitterly.
I saw a woman. She was crossing the road.
I found my brother. He was drinking.
It was cloudy. We did not venture out.
I threw the pen. It was broken.
The traveller lay under a shady tree. He was tired.
He won a lottery. He bought a car.
Key to Exercise V.-
Feeling hungry, she went on eating.
Having finished their breakfast, they boarded the school bus.