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Grammar viii

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  • 1. I WANT TO GO. THEY TRIED TO FIND FAULT WITH US the forms TO GO AND TO FIND are “INFINITIVES”
  • 2.
    • The infinitive may sometime be used as the subject of a finite verb, but the construction with the preparatory “IT” is often prepared.
    • To steal is wrong.
    • It is wrong to steal
    • To find fault is wrong.
    • It is easy to find fault..
    • WORKSHEET 37 page. 145
  • 3.
    • Hearing the noise, the boy woke up. The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an adjective does. The word hearing, partakes of the nature of both verb and an adjective and is called Participle.
  • 4.
    • We met a girl carrying a pot of milk on her head.
    • This sentence is an example of present participle which ends in -ing and represents an action as going on or incomplete or imperfect.
  • 5.
    • REPRESENTS PAST ACTION OR STATE OF THE THING SPOKEN OF.
    • Deceived by his best friends, he lost all hopes.
    • We saw a few trees laden with fruits.
    • Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.
    • THE PAST PARTICIPLE USUALLY ENDS WITH –ed, -d, -t, -en, or-n
    • WORKSHEET 38 PAGE 149 continue with the exercise
  • 6.
    • Having lost our way, we sat down to rest.
    • Having done our homework, we went out to play.
    • Eg. We met an old woman. She was carrying a bundle of sticks on her head.
    • We met an old woman carrying a bundle of sticks on her head.
  • 7.
    • THE GERUND IS A KIND OF VERB (ending in –ing)which has a verbal function as well as a noun functions. It may be the subject, complement or object of a sentence or the object of a preposition.
    • Eg. SWIMMING IS A GOOD EXERCISE. (SUBJECT)
    • TEACH ME SWIMMING. (OBJECT)
    • SEEING IS BELIEVING. (COMPLEMENT OF A VERB)
    • HE IS FOND OF SWIMMING.(object of a preposition)
  • 8. CONTINUATION OF GERUND ADJECTIVES AND VERBS which are always in combination with the preposition (fond of, intrested in, object to) must be followed by a gerund, not an infinitive. Eg. SHE IS FOND OF PLAYING CARDS. HE IS ADDICTED TO SMOKING. I OBJECT TO DOING IT. GERUNDS MAY ALSO BE USED ADVERBIALLY. Eg. We are going shopping ,fishing, riding, swimming, visiting friends etc. WORKSHEET 39. CONTINUE WITH THE EXERCISE
  • 9.
    • WE CAN CHANGE ACTIVE VOICE INTO PASSIVE VOICE BY TAKING THE OBJECT IN THE ACTIVE VOICE AND MAKING IT THE SUBJECT IN THE PASSIVE VOICE.
    • Eg. ACTIVE: CHILDREN ARE FLYING KITES.
    • PASSIVE: KITES ARE BEING FLOWN BY CHILDREN
  • 10.
    • ACTIVE: THE POLICE HAVE CAUGHT ALL THE THEIVES.
    • PASSIVE: ALL THE THIEVES HAVE BEEN CAUGHT BY THE POLICE.
    • ACTIVE: OUR TEAM HAD WON THE MATCH.
    • PASSIVE:THE MATCH HAD BEEN WON BY OUR TEAM.
    • ACTIVE: YOU WILL HAVE HEARD THE GLAD NEWS ALREADY.
    • PASSIVE: THE GLAD NEWS WILL HAVE BEEN HEARD BY YOU ALREADY.
    • WORK SHEET-40
  • 11.
    • A CONJUNCTION IS A WORD THAT JOIN TWO SENTENCES.
    • Eg:- TWO AND TWO MAKES FOUR.
    • Eg:-SHE MUST WEEP OR SHE WILL DIE.
  • 12. SOME CONJUNCTIONS ARE USED IN PAIRS AND ARE CALLED CORRELATIVES. Eg. both…. and: we both loved and honoured him. either …or: Either take it or leave it. neither…nor: It is neither useful nor ornamental. not only…..but also: He was not only fined but also imprisoned. TWO SIMPLE SENTENCES MAY ALSO BE JOINED TOGETHER BY THE USE OF CO-ORDINATING CONJUNCTION. WORKSHEET 41 – DO THE EXERCISES
  • 13.
      • TENSES MEANS THE TIME OF ACTION. THERE ARE THREE TENSES.
      • PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE FUTURE TENSE
      • A TENSE HAS FOUR FORMS.
      • SIMPLE 2. CONTINUOUS 3.PERFECT 4. PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  • 14.
    • PRESENT TENSE-
    • SIMPLE-HE EATS.
    • CONTINIOUS-HE IS EATING.
    • PERFECT-HE HAS EATEN.
    • PERFECT CONTINIOUS-HE HAS BEEN EATING.
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • PAST TENSE-
    • SIMPLE- HE ATE
    • CONTINUOUS-HE WAS EATING
    • HE HAD EATEN
    • PEFECT CONTINIOUS-HE HAD BEEN EATING
  • 17.
    • SIMPLE- HE WILL EAT
    • FUTURE CONTINIOUS-HE WILL BE EATING
    • FUTURE PERFECT-HE WILL HAVE EATEN
    • FUTURE CONTINIOUS-HE WILL HAVE BEEN EATING.
    • WORKSHEET-43
  • 18.
    • DIRECT SPEECH REPORTS THE EXACT
    • WORDS OF THE SPEAKER.
    • Eg. Direct: Ashok said “I want to become a doctor.”
  • 19.
    • INDIRECT SPEECH REPORTS WHAT THE SPEAKER SAID WITHOUT QUOTING HIS EXACT WORDS.
    • Eg-ASHOK SAID THAT HE WANTED TO BECOME A DOCTOR.WORKSHEET 44.
  • 20.
    • Compare the following:
    • Ashok says the teacher is a fool.
    • “ Ashok,” says the teacher, “is a fool.”
    • From the two sentences it is clear that stops may alter the sense of a sentence. Punctuation means the correct use of such stops.
  • 21.
    • Te principal stops are:
    • FULL STOP (.)SEMICOLON-(;) NOTE OF INTERROGATION (?) COLON-(:) NOTE OF EXCLAMATION (!) INVERTED COMMAS (“ ”)
    • WORKSHEET 45