An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state which we
normally cannot see or touch.
Abstract nouns are formed
From common nouns .
Pages 51 -56
Revision Test 1
Pages 57 - 60
Complete the following pairs of words by filling in the missing letters/
Pages 61 - 62
The indefinite article a or an is used
Before a singular noun, which is countable, when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing.
Before a singular countable noun which represents a class of things.
With a noun complement
Before certain numerical expressions
In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc
With few and little.
In exclamations before singular, countable nouns.
A can be used before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname.
The indefinite article is not used
Before uncountable nouns such as advice, furniture, information etc.
Before abstract nouns such as truth, beauty, happiness, fear, joy, peace, war etc.
Before a common noun in the singular, used in a general sense.
Use of A and An
A is used before words beginning with a consonant.
An is used before words beginning with a vowel or with a letter h which is not sounded.
A (not an) must be used before words which begin with a vowel pronounced as yoo. (Europe, European, uniform, unique)
A one- rupee note, a one-way traffic, because one begins with the consonant sound of wa.
Use of the Definite Article
Before a noun when it is repeated after it has been said once.
Before a noun which is one of its kind in a given situation.
Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause.
When a singular noun is used to indicate a whole class .
An adverb in such sentences as the following:
The more the merrier
The fewer the better.
Before rivers, ranges of mountains, groups of islands, plural names of countries.
Before oceans, gulfs and bays.
Before the names of certain well-known books.
Before the names of newspapers, magazines etc.
Before the names of public buildings, institutions, associations, etc.
Before the names of peoples (nations), families, and adjectives formed from proper nouns .
Before a common noun, to give it the meaning of an abstract noun.
Before ordinals and superlatives.
Before a proper noun only when it is qualified by an adjective, or by a phrase or clause used as an adjective.
Before an adjective used as a noun.
Before common nouns of which there is only one.
Before the names of ships and trains .
Omission of the Article
Before common nouns used in the widest sense.
Before proper nouns.
Before abstract nouns used in a general sense.
Before material nouns.
Before titles coming before proper nouns
Before names of streets.
Before names of meals.
Before the names of games.
Before the names of languages.
In certain expressions like all day and all night.
In certain phrases consisting of a noun as the object of a verb .
Pages 69 - 71
We must have a verb
The most important word in a sentence is the verb. We cannot make a sentence without a verb. If there is only one word in a sentence, that word must be a verb.
Pages 72 -73
One verb for several words
Pages 74 -75
Onomatopoeia is the imitation of natural sounds in word form. These words help us form mental pictures about the things, people or places that are described. Sometimes the word names a thing or action by copying the sound.
Pages 76 -78
Subjects and Verbs
A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.
If two singular nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every, the verb is singular.
Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, or either. or, neither. nor, take a singular verb.
If two nouns are joined by with or as well as, the verb agrees with the first noun.
A collective noun takes a singular or plural verb according to the sense. If the idea of oneness is expressed, the verb must be singular, if the individuals of the collection are referred to the verb must be plural.
Either, neither, each, everyone, many a must be followed by a verb in the singular.
Two singular nouns qualified by each and every, even though connected by and must be followed by a verb in the singular.
Errors due to proximity
Often the verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it instead of its proper subject. This should be avoided.
When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular.
The verb following a relative pronoun always agrees in number and person with its antecedent.
When the subject is one of, followed by a plural noun, the verb is singular.
But two of , many of, several of, the majority of must be followed by a plural verb.
A lot of, plenty of, some of, half of, most of take a plural verb if the reference is to number. But they will take a singular verb if the reference is to amount or quantity.
A number of is always followed by a plural verb, since it means several or many.
A great deal of , a good deal of, a large quantity of are always followed by a singular verb, since these expressions denote amount or quantity.
Pages 83 – 86
Shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, ought, need, dare, used to are called modal auxiliaries because they are used to form certain moods for which English has no inflected verb forms.
Shall is used with the first person (I, we) and will with the second and third persons (you, he, she, it, they) to express simple future time.
Will is used with the first person to express:
Will is used with the second person (you) in the interrogative, when making a polite request.
Shall is used with the second or third person to express:
Shall indicates simple future tense, permission or a desire of the person spoken to in the first person.
Will is not used at all in the first person.
Will denotes willingness, intention, or wish of the person spoken to in the second person.
Will denotes simple future tense in the third person.
The most usual form of request is that introduced by will you?
Should and would
To express that an action is future in relation to the past.
To express conditions and suppositions .
Should and would have the following special uses.
Should is used:
To express duty or obligation in all persons.
When giving or asking advice.
In the negative, to indicate disapproval of something that was done in the past .
To express purpose and result in the clauses introduced by in order that and so that.
After lest to express a negative purpose.
To express a wish.
Would is used:
To express a wish.
In the negative, to indicate refusal.
To express determination.
To express willingness in the past.
To express past habit.
In polite speech.
To denote condition or uncertainty.
Can and Could
Can is used:
To express ability.
To express possibility.
To mean be in a position to.
To express permission.
To mean have the right to.
With verbs of perception.
Could is :
The past tense of can and is used to indicate ability that existed in the past.
Used as the past tense of can in indirect speech.
Used to express past time.
Used to express possibility.
Used to ask polite questions.
May and Might
May is used
To express permission.
To express doubt, uncertainty.
To express possibility.
To express wishes, fears, and hopes.
To express purpose.
To express concession .
Might is used:
As the past tense of may.
To express uncertainty and improbability concerning the future.
To express purpose.
To express gentle reproach.
Must is used:
To express compulsion or strong moral obligation.
To express fixed determination.
To express duty.
To express certainty or strong likelihood.
To express an inevitable result.
Ought to have
Used with a past participle to indicate past obligation that was not fulfilled or carried out .
Ought not to have
Is used to indicate disapproval of something that was done in the past.
Is used only in the negative and interrogative.
With a perfect infinitive may refer to the past.
The verb dare has the form dare for the third person singular, present tense, when it is followed by a negative and also in the interrogative.
The past tense used expresses:
A permanent state that existed in the past.
Actions and activities that were habitual or customary in the past.
Pages 96 - 100
The Simple Present is used
To express what is actually now taking place.
To express habitual action.
To express universal truths.
To express future action, when the future tense is indicated by the context.
Is used to express an action going on at the time of speaking.
To express an action that has just been completed.
To express a past action, the results of which still continues.
To express a future perfect when such words as when, before, as soon as, till, after are used before it.
Present Perfect Continuous
Shows that the action that began in the past is continuing up to the present time.
The Simple Past
To express that something was done or took place in the past.
To express a habitual action in the past.
To express an action actually going on at the time started.
The action was going on in the past time referred to.
To denote an action which had been completed at some point in the past time, before another action commenced.
Past Perfect Continuous
Shows that the action had begun prior to the past time being referred to.
Denotes an action that will take place in the future.
Denotes an action going on at some point in the future.
Denotes that an action will be completed at some point of time in the future.
Future Perfect Continuous
Shows that the action, whether finished or unfinished, has been in progress in some time.
106 -- 109
The future tense of intention
Going to is used to indicate:
What is considered likely or probable.
Future time when there is no reference to external conditions or circumstances.
Tenses in conditional
A condition which may or may not be fulfilled.
If I have time, I shall visit the zoo.
A condition which might have been fulfilled but is not.
If I had time. I should visit the zoo.
One which could not be true.
If you were a bird, you would fly.
Inversion of subject and finite verb.
Were I alone, I should be afraid to go.
Had I known, I should never have gone there.
Pages 114 - 115
One adjective for Several words
It is possible to use a single adjective instead of a group of words or an adjective phrase.
Pages 116 -117
Similes and Idioms
A comparison of one person or thing with another is called a simile.
Pages 118 -120
Degrees of Comparison
Other after positives and comparatives.
Other is wrong after superlatives.
Pages 122 - 124
Exercise 125 - 126
The pronouns who, whom, which, that which join two sentences and relate or refer to nouns which have gone before are called relative pronouns.
The noun to which a relative pronoun relates or refers is called its antecedent.