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P2 e2 samhui



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  • 1. Conference on Pollution Prevention & Energy Efficiency (P2E2) U.S., Hong Kong, China Cooperation 9-10 May 2005 Technology and market potential of energy performance contracting for buildings Dr. Sam C M Hui ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter & Department of Mechanical EngineeringHong Kong The University of Hong Kong E-mail:
  • 2. Agenda• Introduction to EPC• Market Potential• Major Barriers and Risks• Key Issues• Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction to EPC• Energy performance contracting (EPC) • = energy savings performance contracting • A financing technique to raise money for energy efficiency investments based on future savings• Energy service companies (ESCO) • Offer EPC services, without upfront capital on building owners (e.g. by guaranteed saving) • Become an important trend in many countries like USA and Japan
  • 4. Client’s benefits ESCO’s benefits Client’s benefits Recovered costs Energy + O&M Energy Energy costs $ Cost savings + O&M + O&M costs $ costs $Before EPC Before EPC During EPC During EPC After EPC After EPC 契約終止後 Basic concept of energy performance contracting (EPC)
  • 5. Introduction to EPC• Performance contract • Contract with payments based in performance • Can be used for energy conservation projects, to mitigate indoor air quality concerns, to reduce water & sewage usage, or to implement renewable energy systems• ESCO guarantees and takes the risk of not achieving savings; it is paid back out of the savings (around 4-10 years)
  • 6. Introduction to EPC• Benefits of EPC for a business • Reduced risk (contractor guarantees) • Turnkey services (contractor provides all services) • The business needs less internal expertise • Project financing could be ‘off balance sheet’ • Advanced products & services can be used • Savings can be much higher than done by itself • Additional improvements to built environment
  • 7. Introduction to EPC• Typical saving measures include: • Energy reduction via equipment retrofitting • Such as replace lighting equipment, chillers & boilers • Fuel saving measures • Such as add window films, insulation or pool cover • Load shifting • Such as by energy management control systems • Modification of operating procedures • Water & resource efficiency measures
  • 8. Introduction to EPC• Different ways of structuring such a contract • ‘Guaranteed savings’ • Most common; length 4-8 years • Allow extra measures to be added • ‘Shared savings’ • The Client & ESCO share the savings; up to 10 years • Actual cost not included in contract • ‘Pay from savings’ • Variation from shared savings; operates like a loan • ‘Chauffage’ or full services (ESCO takes over)
  • 9. Market Potential• External factors • Large stock of existing buildings (esp. commercial) • Energy cost is a concern for developers/owners • Savings not difficult to obtain from equipment optimization, retrofitting or retrocommissioning• Potential ESCO market • In HK, potential market around US$100 million • Air-conditioning & lighting are major areas
  • 10. Total floor area (000 sq.m) Building Newly Completed in 1968-2000 5,000 1977-1992 (10 to 25 years old, from 2002) Combined residential & non-residential 4,500 Non-residential 4,000 Residential 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1968 1969 1970 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1997 1998 1999 2000 Year Building completed in 1968-2000 in Hong Kong
  • 11. Market Potential• Current EPC active players • Automatic control companies • Building services consultants/contractors • Semi-government bodies (e.g. HKPC) • Power companies (for demand side management) • Private energy/environmental consultants• Government energy projects • Electrical & Mechanical Services Dept. (EMSD) is active in promoting EPC
  • 12. Market Potential• Prospects • Growing concern on energy & environment • Achieving sustainable performance! • Saving energy & operating costs • Policy tools & programmes by government • Building energy codes (performance-based), energy labels, pilot renewable energy projects • Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (converting of air-cooled systems) • Need to maintain & upgrade existing buildings
  • 13. Major Barriers & Risks• Major barriers • Weak awareness & experience • Skepticism of stakeholders • Problems with conventional procurement process • Problems with measurement & verification• Key factors for successful EPC • ESCO has the technical, financial & mgt. skills • Customer & ESCO have a partnership • Good understanding of project goals
  • 14. Major Barriers & Risks• Typical EPC project stages • Stage 1: The opportunity assessment • Stage 2: Preliminary energy services • Stage 3: Develop detailed proposal • Stage 4: Project implementation • Stage 5: Performance assurance + M&V services• Risks associated with EPC • Technical knowledge & management culture • Financing risks & guarantees • Argument on savings & responsibilities
  • 15. Key Issues• Choosing a contractor • Equipment suppliers • Best if their technologies are the main measures • Fee-based ESCO • Best for a wide range of measures or long-term facilities management • Utility-based ESCO • Best if focus on electricity or gas technologies • International energy companies • Best for international connection & overseas technology transfer
  • 16. Key Issues• Project financing • By the ESCO itself • As a loan from financial institution • By working together with the client• Under adverse economy • The client may not have the project capital • ESCO need to negotiate with bankers to explore creative financial tools• Some clients may want to finance themselves
  • 17. ESCO Capital Financier (Project Developer) (Secured Party) Fees PaymentsEnergy services Finance contract and savings (lease or loan) gurantee Customer (Project Owner) Financial structure used by ESCO
  • 18. Key Issues• Measurement & verification (M&V) methods • Deemed or stipulated savings • Payments based on savings estimates, using measurements or audit + equipment characteristics • Savings based on utility bills • Past energy bills determine baseline consumption • Measured savings • Compare ‘before’ & ‘after’ measurements• M&V options & techniques have matured • Guidelines e.g. IPMVP and ASHRAE 14-P
  • 19. M&V options and analysis techniques M&V option Analysis techniquesPartially measured retrofit Engineering calculations using short termisolation or continuous measurementsRetrofit isolation Engineering calculations using short term or continuous measurementsWhole facility Analysis of whole facility utility meter or sub-meter data using techniques from simple comparison to regression analysis.Calibrated simulation Energy use simulation, calibrated with hourly or monthly utility billing data and/or endues metering.
  • 20. Conclusion• EPC is a useful tool for promoting & delivering energy efficiency projects• HK & Mainland China have market potential in existing & new buildings• Some barriers need to be overcome & suitable skills should be developed locally