Use of-it-in-quality-management-case-of-technical-edn-2009


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IT helps in streamlining various processes in Technical Education. One can use ERP. Social media and web 2.0 tools to make teaching learning process an exciting one . This can be facilitated if one also adopts simple tenets of quality management.

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Use of-it-in-quality-management-case-of-technical-edn-2009

  1. 1. Use of IT in Quality Management : Opportunities and Challenges in Technical Education Dr S G Deshmukh Director, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management Gwalior Based on the talk given at National Workshop on Quality Management in Technical Education 7 March 2009 at MITS Gwalior
  2. 2. Opening quote….  “Quality in higher education has been a matter of importance, concern and priority at regional, national and international levels especially in the recent past”.  Cathamparampil et al.(2005)
  3. 3. Quality…  Quality – derived from Latin “qualis” meaning “what kind of”  Wide variety of meanings and connotations attached to it  Different things to different people !  Quality as (Harvey & Knight, 1996)  Exceptional  Perfection(Consistency)  Fitness for purpose  Value for money  Transformative
  4. 4. Key points of the presentation  Imperatives for quality  Basic Principles of QM  Management by Measurement  QA through Accreditation  Continuous Improvement  Involvement of stakeholders  Implications and Role of IT  Challenges  End thoughts
  5. 5. Imperatives ..  Globalization : Borderless World of accelerating multi-dimensional change  Quality of services(WTO, Washington accord), and Shift to knowledge economy  Expectations of student community, and industry  Changing face of technology : Revolutions in Information Technology (IT) Engineering Education System MUST translate these challenges through a Quality response
  6. 6. Imperative 1: Globalization of Education  Globalization refers to the increasing flow of technology, finance, trade, knowledge, values and ideas across the borders(Knight & Wit, 1997)  It has multidimensional impact on the system of education.  It has underlined the need for reforms in the educational system with particular reference to wider utilization of IT giving productivity and quality dimension and emphasis on its R&D activities.
  7. 7. Imperative 2 : Expectations of Student community and Industry  Bombarded with technological gadgets (Mobile, web, laptop etc.)  Low retention span  Teacher as a facilitator/coach  Dynamic requirements of industry  Gap between what is taught and what is required
  8. 8. Engineering Curriculum  Too much theoretical content  Compartmentalized approach  Lacks preparing student for problem solving skills  Gap between knowledge and skills  Not industrially relevant
  9. 9. IT is making world flatter ! (Thanks to Friedman)  Outsourcing dominated paradigm  Team work and leadership assumes new meaning  Geography has become history: Time and distance are no longer the important variables  Mobile dense and multimedia rich environment has accelerated digital environment.  Connectivity has made the global village possible  Working on-line, flexi-time, tele/videoconferencing, and continuous learning are changing the traditional notions of how work gets done.  Internet is changing the way we communicate with – suppliers, customers, potential and current employees by way of 2-way communications !  SMS driven communication
  10. 10. What is the QM Philosophy ?  Tenet 1 : Customers are vital to the operation of the organization. Without customers, there is no business, and without business, there is no organization (Deming ,1986). Students as  Customer  Product  Knowledge carrier  Co-producer !  Tenet 2 : Management needs to listen to nontraditional sources of information in order to institute quality, People want to do quality work and that they would do it if managers would listen to them and create a workplace based on their ideas (Deming, 1986). Role of feedback vis-à-vis information systems
  11. 11. Principle 1 : Management by Measurement Indicators of quality a) Teacher / student ratio ; academic staff / non- academic staff ratio b) Quality of outcome: student, research, technology transfers etc.  Statistics related to students :Attendance, Grades  Statistics related to faculty : teaching load, number of papers published, ,  % increase in results , % reduction in absenteeism Shift from Efficiency to Effectiveness through measurement
  12. 12. Remarks..  Efficiency : may relate to Quality of institution  May relate to utilization of resources  Effectiveness : may relate to Quality of Education per se !  May relate to quality of outcomes 1  Role of IT is vital both in Efficiency and Effectiveness  IT as a tool for streamlining processes  IT for bringing in transparency and objectivity  Various IT initiatives- Enterprise wide information systems, e-learning etc.
  13. 13.  Focus on Prevention rather than inspection  Design in quality rather than inspection in quality  For each problem or failure there is a root cause, causes are preventable , and prevention is cheaper !
  14. 14.  students being transformed and matured by the institute experience, which is evidenced by their critical ability to think, doubt and question; and student performance as measured operationally by students passing their subject/modules.
  15. 15. Attributes desired in Review  fairness, for lack of which the effectiveness of the review process can be hampered; comprehensiveness because the exclusive focus on one or only a few aspects of a programme could have a negative impact on other programmes;  . timeliness, which means that programmes have to be reviewed regularly.
  16. 16.  objectivity, to be built in as far as humanly possible.Webster in Barak and Breier (1990) defines it as “emphasising the nature of reality as it is apart from personal reflections or feelings”;  credibility, which means that the review should be regarded as fair, objective and  reasonable;  . utility because lecturers and students like to know that their efforts would be  worthwhile.
  17. 17.  Transformation from an elite education system to mass education system (Note number of IITs/IIMs/IISERs/IIITs coming up along with increase in private institutions)
  18. 18. Use of IT: Enterprise wide information systems  Software to connect various modules such as : Admission, Student Information System, Examination, HR, Finance,, Procurement etc.  Advantages: Streamlining of processes, objectivity, transparency and accountability  Example:  In-house developed solution at IITD  Campus Connect : An institutional Resource Planning System  IBM Lotus® Symphony : Set of intuitive easy-to-use applications for creating, editing & sharing documents/spreadsheets and presentation.
  19. 19. “IT Thinking" Paradigm  Everything is a process  All processes have inherent variability  Data is used to understand the variability and drive process improvement decisions  Unless you document, you cannot improve: Documentation facilitated by IT
  20. 20. IT capability Meaning Example Transactional IT can transform unstructured processes into routine transactions. Employee records, (faculty., staff etc.) can be structured Automatical IT can replace or reduce human labor in a routine process Preparation of attendance reports, preparation of defaulters reports etc., goods inspection report etc. Analytical IT can bring complex analytical methods to bear on a process Calculations of CGPA, student /teacher evaluation using multi- attribute decision making models Informational IT can bring vast amounts of detailed information into process, Data on extensive profile of students, faculty , staff Sequential IT can enable changes in the sequence tasks in a process often allowing multiple tasks to be worked on simultaneously. Various steps required for checking credentials of a candidate for admission process, placement related procedure etc. Tracking IT allows the detailed tracking of task status, inputs, and outputs Tracking the status of a particular purchase order., tracking inventory of an item ,use of consumables, use of other financial resources.
  21. 21. Principle 2 : Quality Assurance To make quality the defining element of higher education in India through a combination of self and external quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance initiatives. Regulatory System – UGC, State Governments, Affiliating Universities Built-in regulatory controls through - Assessment and Accreditation NAAC (General Education); NBA (Technical Education) 2
  22. 22. QA through Accreditation Model To ensure that existing systems are continually improved and reviewed for improvement Accreditation is formal or public declaration that the technical programmes complies with a set of previously established standards by the apex body in technical education (AICTE) by assuring the quality and entrusted the work to NBA  It is a structured assessment of compliance to the accreditation standard  It provides an opportunity to acknowledge quality in educational systems  It intends to guarantee quality and public accountability in the educational system, encouraging trust in students, parents, employers, education administration and society in general.  It stimulates the academic environment for promotion of quality of teaching-learning and research  It encourages self-evaluation, accountability, autonomy and innovations.
  23. 23. Sn Criteria Affiliated College 1 Curricular Aspects 100 2 Teaching-learning and evaluation 350 3 Research, consultancy and extension 150 4 Infrastructure and learning resources 100 5 Student Support and progression 100 6 Governance & Leadership 150 7 Innovative Practices 50 Total 1000 Accreditation model (NAAC) 9
  24. 24. Use of IT in Accreditation model  Teaching-learning & Evaluation  IT interventions: use of web, internet,, on-line student evaluation forms, on-line quiz, faculty web page , on- line learning management systems  National initiative such as NPTEL  Infrastructure and learning resources  IT devices such as interactive boards, multi-media aids,  Student Support and progression  On-line counseling service : Ex: IITD’s Board of Student Welfare  Innovative Practices  For teaching, evaluation and student involvement
  25. 25. Use of IT :Teaching-and-learning Learning Management System  Deployed at IITD  For Faculty: uploading of lecture notes, ppts, on-line evaluation (test/quiz etc).  For Students: Notice board, discussion forum, feedback on performance  For Administration: Attendance, grade record, monitoring of progress
  26. 26. Use of IT :Teaching-and-learning  An open source course management initiative for Learning Management System or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) by which rich web content can be developed and shared across wider community base.  As a tool to deliver contents or to connect to larger collaborative community  Used by over 2 million teachers in running 50 thousands courses
  27. 27. USE OF IT: NPTEL  Web enabled curriculum  The main objective of NPTEL program is to enhance the quality of engineering education in the country by developing curriculum based video and web courses. This is being carried out by seven IITs and IISc Bangalore as a collaborative project.  In the first phase of the project, supplementary content for 129 web courses in engineering/science and humanities have been developed. Five major engineering disciplines have been covered in this project so far (NPTEL Phase I) at the undergraduate (B.E./B.Tech) level.  Civil Engineering  Computer Science and Engineering  Electrical Engineering  Electronics and Communication Engineering  Mechanical Engineering  
  28. 28. Useful web addresses Address About Learning Object Repositories E-content Video on demand Live webcast courses from IIT Bombay NPTEL MHRD’s educational portal
  29. 29. Principle 3: Continuous Improvement Case of Engineering Education Excellence Model  Enables to assess quality efforts on a variety of factors  Supports a template for improvement  Encourages Self-assessment, Peer- assessment  Enables “Management-by- Measurement”  Acts as a platform for “Best Practices” and Benchmarking
  30. 30. Academic Processes 100 (10 %) Top Mgmt Commitmt & Leadership 100 (10 %) Faculty Resources Developmt & Mgt. 50 (5 %) Quality Policy & Strategy 50 (5 %) Academic Resources 100 (10 %) Faculty & Staff Satisfaction 100 (10 %) Students Satisfaction 100 (10 %) Impact on Society 50 (5 %) Academic Results 250 (25 %) Placement Results 100 (10 %) Enablers 400 points (40%) Results 600 points (60%) UPTU Academic Excellence Award Model Source:
  31. 31. Criteria S 0- 10 11- 20 21- 30 31- 40 41- 50 51- 60 61- 70 71- 80 81- 90 91- 100 Leadership 100 B Policy & Strategy 50 B Faculty Resources 50 B Academic Resources 100 B Processes 100 B Faculty satisfaction 100 B Student Satisfaction 100 B Impact on Society 50 B Academic Results 250 B Placement Results 100 Inst 1 Inst 2 B - Best Score comparison
  32. 32. Principle 4: Involvement of stakeholders
  33. 33. Web 2.0  Web 2.0 covers a broad range of new online services, user-generated content, communities and social networking tools. Examples :Blogger, Flickr, MySpace, YouTube , Wikipedia and the Godfather of web 2.0 - Google.  It is creation of far greater levels of interactivity, not just between users, or between users and the internet but between complementary online services through web services 33
  34. 34. E-learning 2.0  New way of thinking about e-learning inspired by web 2.0  It emphasizes on social learning and use of social software such as blogs, wikis, podcasts and virtual worlds such as Second Life  Knowledge is socially constructed and construction takes place through conversations and interactions with others !
  35. 35. Remarks..  Both teachers and students construct knowledge collaboratively and the student is an active partner in this process.  Teacher as a guide rather than a sage on the stage !  Self-directed and life –long learning  Teacher's role not extinct but Distinct (Fr Rex Angelo, 2009)  Teaching as a reflective practice not a reflex practice
  36. 36. Involvement through Interactivity  Interactivity (WAP, Web Services, XML) being more recent in the IT evolution  Enables to understand customer (student and industry) better  Establishes long term relationships with all the stakeholders  Helps in understanding various features and add-ons by close interaction  Feedback through blogging 36
  37. 37. Implication for Quality Management: Connectivity ! Communication is anytime, anywhere via any device : Person-to-person, person-to-machine, machine-to- machine  Connecting to Information sources  Connecting to Change  Connecting to an ever-changing , far reaching universe  Connecting to new issues and trends  Connecting to diverse resources  Connecting to talent pipeline
  38. 38. Insights..  Shift from the perspective of knowledge giver/sender to the perspective of knowledge receiver/recipient  Emphasis on Learning !!!  People do not select medium BUT they adopt themselves to medium (Prof N Cho, Hanyang University, Korea, 2 Jan 2009 at IIITM Gwalior)
  39. 39. Challenges  Educational administrators must become “data and information savvy”.  Typical popular surveys (such as India Today, Onlooker ) ranks educational institutes on various parameters. For such ranking, it is necessary that internally, the institute must have a data cell and quality assurance cell whose responsibility is to promote use of quantified data for improvement.  It is important to employ statistical concepts for determining levels of accountability in education. Thus, procedures relevant to these should be setup for acquiring, recording, manipulating and analyzing data/information for reviewing and improvement. This will require sensitization and adequate training to educational administrators, faculty and other stakeholders.  The quantitative framework of education excellence model identifies some of the fundamental requirements and characteristics of the technical institutions.  The challenge is to identify various non-value addition processes and use IT to weed them out.
  40. 40. Challenges.. (contd.)  Procastrination concerning changes in engineering education...  Dangers of a top-down approach to force change  - academics tend to be conservative concerning their institution - they must be convinced of the need to change  - role of leadership - government, regulatory bodies , Professional societies, NGOs , institutions, etc ...  - academic staff ( and society in general ) show low awareness about the concerned issues
  41. 41. Challenges…  The quality philosophy is built around three basic ideas,:  to become customer driven instead of being self- focused,  to concentrate on the process rather than being preoccupied with results;  and to use employee’s thinking ability. Educational institute need to deploy various IT based initiatives to realize this philosophy.
  42. 42. Insights..  Change of mind set  From bureaucratic to process oriented  From paper bound to paper less (or less paper !)  From command and control to empowerment and distributed decision making  Academia has to recognize the importance of flexibility
  43. 43. End Thoughts  Excellence : No excuse for waste and sloppiness, now that IT is a dominant technology  Smart use of technology : Innovation and adaptability  IT offers capabilities for  Management by measurement  QA  Continuous improvement  Involvement of stakeholders Challenge : People dimension  Aligned to customer needs  Sense of being “connected”  Feeling of “Global community”
  44. 44. Quest for Excellence  Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm  Ralph Waldo Emerson  Fundamental duty of every citizen: “ to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity “  Article 51 A of the Indian Constitution
  45. 45. Closing quotes.. It is not the strongest that survives , nor the most intelligent but the one most responsive to change ! (Charles Darwin) IT offers an opportunity to change this !!
  46. 46. Thanks a lot for your patience … My Coordinates : Acknowledgement  Prof N V Ratnalikar  Engineering Education Foundation, Pune