278 Finger patterns of digit II & IQ level; M Najafi Introduction Tornjova, Mavaluava and Tysiaczny, Tirosh, Kodama, Hartin and Barry, Intelligence quotient (IQ) level has a very Tay, Dar, Kharitonov and finally significant effect on individuals and on society. Bandyopadhyay have demonstrated that Individuals with low IQ level will have dermatoglyphics may offer us new insights difficulties in thinking, acquisition and into mental characteristics. Table 1 presents a processing of new information and summary of the previous researches. To sum knowledge, hence their requiring additional up, this study sought to study the putative care, education and medical services. In some correlation of digital dermatoglyphic patterns cases, affected individuals will never achieve with IQ level. personal independence, and the need for care will persist throughout their lifetime. This condition is more than 50% prenatal in origin . Subjects and Methods Dermatoglyphics (finger prints), also known as "epidermal ridge configurations" are Study Sample: To carry out this the characteristics of the ridged skin on the anthropological study, we utilized cluster fingertips, palms, toes and soles of primates sampling method and randomly selected 342 (including human beings) and some other adolescents from schools for talented students mammals . They consist of the alignment of (n=101), those for normal adolescents the sweat glands pores and are shaped in the (n=146) and the ones for individuals with first trimester of gestation (between the tenth learning disabilities (n=95) in the Shahrekord and eighteenth weeks of gestation) . Figure I city, Iran in the year 2002. illustrates the shapes of digital pattern Group definition: Individuals were divided types. into 3 groups with different IQ level. The task Dermal ridges complete their development was performed using Ravens Progressive in about the 16th week of fetal life. After that Matrices, a non verbal intelligence and they remain unchanged except for an increase executive function test, whose validity has in size in parallel with general growth. been previously confirmed . Higher scores Dermatoglyphic alterations may be the result indicate higher IQ in subjects. Individuals who of early prenatal disturbances, which are had IQ scores above 120, 70‐120 and below 70 thought to be implicated in the etiology of were considered as group 1 (talented learning disabilities. Some previous studies by individuals), group 2 (normal adolescents) Rosa et al, Chakraborty et al, Weinstein et and group 3 (subjects with learning al, Cvjeticanin et al , Gutierrez et al , disabilities), respectively. Fig 1: Shapes of digital pattern types
Iran J Pediatr; Vol 19 (No 3); Sep 2009 279 Table 1: A summary of previous researches investigating dermatoglyphic in some mental or psychological statusessubjects Dermatoglyphic variables result Reference Subjects with idiopathic Rosa et al **** **** learning disabilities 2001 Subjects with bipolar mood Epidermal ridges and the patterns The radial loops increased in bipolar mood Chakraborty disorder, controls formed by them were studied. disorder et al 2001 Subjects with schizotypal The group with schizotypal personality personality disorder or disorder showed more dermatoglyphic Weinstein et **** other personality disorders asymmetries than the normal comparison al 1999 and controls group. Statistically significant differences were Eighteen variables of epidermal ridge found for five variables in the group of Children with central count were examined: ten on the patients with severe lesion, ie on the second Cvjeticanin nervous system lesion and fingers of the either hand, and four on finger of the right hand, between a‐b and b‐ et al 1999 controls either palm, and on a‐b, b‐c and c‐d c triradii of the right palm, and between a‐b triradii, at atd angle. and c‐d triradii of the left palm. Assessment of congenital Dermatoglyphic malformations (ridge dissociation (RD), abnormal features Bipolar cases showed a significant Patients with chronic Gutierrez et (AF)), two metric dermatoglyphic predominance of RD and AF when bipolar illness and controls al 1998 traits [total finger ridge count (TFRC) compared with controls and total a‐b ridge count (TABRC)] were carried out. Children with visual, Significant differences were observed in the Relative frequencies of the pattern Tornjova auditory or mental relative frequencies of the pattern types on types on the digits were recorded. 1994 insufficiencies and controls the second and fourth digits. Mavaluava **** **** **** & Tysiaczny (1991) A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between unusual dermato‐Mentally retarded subjects **** glyphics and mental retardation, multiple Tivosh 1987 hair whorls and more than two dysmorphic features. Several dermatoglyphic characteristics, including simian Patients with severe mental The incidence of inv (9) (p11q13) in the creases, fingertip patterns, mean a‐b Kodama and physical handicaps and patients was 4.2 times higher than that in ridge count, thenar/first interdigital 1982 controls the general Japanese population. pattern, hypothenar pattern and hallucal pattern were observed. The distribution of dermal patterns Significant differences were found between Autistic children, retarded and ridge line disruption were studied the autistic and normal children in the Hartin and children and normal and a total mean ridge count was distribution of dermal patterns and ridge Barry 1979 children performed. line disruption. Subjects suffering from **** **** Tay 1979 febrile convulsion Children with psychomotor A dermatoglyphic and palmar crease Certain unusual features were found to be Dar et al. retardation and controls analysis was carried out. twice as common in the retarded children 1978 There were more transversal sulci but less symmetry in digital patterns in the group Kharitonov Patients with seizure **** comprising epileptic patients compared to et al 1978 that composed of normal individuals. Bandyopad‐Mentally retarded subjects **** **** yay 1969
280 Finger patterns of digit II & IQ level; M Najafi Dermatoglyphic patterns: The different groups being compared to each other at a steps taken in order to obtain fingerprints time. The analysis was carried out with the were as follows: first, both hands were statistical package SPSS for windows. cleaned with alcohol (98° GL), and then a 2:1 mixture of glycerin and ink was applied to the tip of the right and left digits. Any excess of ink was avoided. Finally, the impressions were collected on writing paper. Findings The digital dermatoglyphics were categorized as: arches, radial loops, ulnar Participants: Drawing on the results of loops and whorls. This standard classification Ravens Progressive Matrices, we categorized was based upon Cummins and Midlo. We 144, 102 and 96 adolescents as talented analyzed the finger patterns of digit II in view subjects, normal individuals and those with of the fact that Cvjeticanin et al and Tornjova learning disabilities respectively. The et al recommended digit II as the best distribution of age and sex is presented in finger for dermatoglyphic studies for the table 2, and the IQ levels of the subjects at detection of any association between different sampling locations are demonstrated fingerprints and mental statuses (Table 1). in table 3. While different observers were recruited in Digital Pattern Types: Table 4 presents the some previous studies[22,23,24], the prints were relative frequencies of digital patterns on right analyzed by a single observer in our study so and left digits II between the 3 groups. The as to avoid inter‐observer variation. All the range of variation was from 4% to 13.5% for assessments were carried out at the schools arches; from 0.5% to 13.2% for radial loops; where the subjects were studying. The from 26.4% to 47.2% for ulnar loops and from examiner of the fingerprints was the staff of 40.2% to 54.9% for whorls. The most frequent fingerprint department of Shahrekord branch dermatoglyphic pattern in the 3 groups was of the Iranian Police Academy. He was blind to whorl on both right and left fingers. the intellectual functioning of the participants. A close study of right digit II revealed that Sample size: Sample size of 273 adolescents the normal adolescents in comparison with (91 in each group) seemed to be sufficient to the talented ones possessed a greater number detect a difference of 20% between groups in of the whorl patterns (P=0.02), whereas the the relative frequency of each finger pattern latter had more ulnar loops than the former with 80% power and a 5% significance level, (P>0.05). Another comparison between the by using the formula for the sample size for group comprising subjects with learning comparison of 2 proportions. disabilities and that composed of the normal Statistical Analysis: In order to compare the adolescents yielded the same difference relative frequencies of the fingerprints of the (P>0.05), and there was a predominance of right and left digits, we conducted a cross tab radial loops among the talented subjects when and Chi‐square test between the relative contrasted to those among the ones with frequencies of each pattern among the learning disabilities (P=0.002). There was no members of the groups on the basis of two significant association between the relative Table 2: Sex and age distribution of the 3 groups Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Male (%)* 49 (34) 50 (49) 76 (77.6) Mean age (± SD)* 13.1 (0.7) 13.2 (0.7) 12.4 (1.5) * There is a significant difference between sex and age in groups.
Iran J Pediatr; Vol 19 (No 3); Sep 2009 281 Table 3: IQ levels of subjects at different sampling locations IQ level Total >120 70 120 <70 Schools for talented 94 7 0 101 adolescents Schools for normal 50 95 1 146 adolescents Schools for adolescents 0 0 95 95 with learning difficulties Total 144 102 96 342 frequencies of different finger patterns on left the concomitant of trisomy 21 (Down digit II between the groups (P>0.05), nor was syndrome), Fragile X syndrome, other there any significant association between the chromosomal disorders such as Angelman frequencies of each pattern among the males syndrome (15q 11.2‐12), Prader Willi and females (P>0.05) as determined by Chi‐ syndrome (15ql‐13) and Cri‐du‐Chat square test. syndrome (5p‐) and finally some other X linked syndromes like Coffin‐Lowry syndrome . Some of the above‐mentioned syndromes have been recognized as having Discussion abnormal dermatoglyphic characteristics. The dermal ridges are thought to be related “Lack of any correlation between fingerprint to fetal development, which in part includes and intelligence” was the null hypothesis of the development of the central nervous our study. As a result, this study sought to rule system. Furthermore, during fetal out the hypothesis by detecting differences development, dermal ridges are influenced by between the relative frequencies of finger such factors as maternal psychological stress, patterns between the 3 groups of adolescents anticonvulsants or alcohol ingested by enjoying different levels of IQ. Support for this the pregnant mother. Therefore, it can be correlation came from the observations that a concluded that dermatoglyphic may be significant proportion of learning difficulties is different in adolescents with various IQ level. Table 4: Number (%) of finger patterns on right and left second digits II Whorls Ulnar loops Radial loops Arches No (%) No (%) No (%) No (%) Right Left Right Left Right Left Right Left Group 1 58 66 53 41 19 15 14 22 (n=144) (40.3)* (45.8) (36.8) (28.5) (13.2) (10.4) (9.7) (15.3) Group 2 56 44 27 33 8 13 11 12 (n=102) (54.9) (43.1) (26.5) (32.3) (7.8)‡ (12.7) (10.7) (11.7) Group 3 45 39 36 33 2 6 13 18 (n=96) (46.9) (40.6) (37.5) (34.4) (2.1) (6.2) (13.5) (18.8) * x2 test (P=0.02) ‡ Fishers exact test (P=0.002)
282 Finger patterns of digit II & IQ level; M Najafi In our study, the most frequent comparison to healthy subjects. Although dermatoglyphic patterns seen on different an association between dermatoglyphics and fingers were ulnar loop and whorl. Despite the some mental statuses are reported, the traits fact that the frequencies of the digital patterns and methods used have varied widely among in the normal population as established by investigators[9,11‐14,17]. Such methodological various studies differ around the world, it has variations may produce results that cannot be also been reported that ulnar loops and appropriately compared with one another and whorls are the most common finger those in our study. Table 1 presents a patterns, which confirms the results of our summary of previous studies. In some cases, study. subtle abnormalities in fingerprints have been Much as the dermatoglyphic patterns on reported to be the only indicator of the cause various fingers are widely different in our of the learning disability[1,28]. In order to study, they keep the likely pattern distribution prevent the development of risk symptoms in on the same fingers between the 3 groups. A children with the presence of risk factors, correlation between dermato‐glyphics and Cvjeticanin and Polovina recommended that mental statuses has already been palmar and fingerprints be taken in the reported[6,9,11‐15,17,19]. Our results support an immediate postnatal period. Another study association between some dermato‐glyphic concluded that unusual features might patterns seen on the right digit II with IQ level. indicate an “at risk” infant if dermatography Tornjova‐Randelova also reported a was performed during the routine significant difference in the relative examination of the newborn. The results of frequencies of pattern types on the second and that study testify a certain diagnostic and fourth digits among children with visual, prognostic value of dermatoglyphic features. auditory and mental insufficiency and Having drawn upon the above‐mentioned controls. The authors suggested that the results, we arrived at the conclusion that restriction of this association to these two dermatoglyphics should be used in digits could be related to the differing conjunction with the physical examination evolutionary histories of the different digits rather than as an independent diagnostic test. and differences in their innervations. Another The strength of our study in the analysis of study demonstrated the importance of fingerprints lies in the fact that it circumvents abnormal dermato‐glyphics as the marker of inter‐observer variations by making use of a prenatal disturbance in learning difficulties of single researcher. Our study had some unknown etiology. Increased arches, a simple limitations. First this is the first attempt, to fingerprint pattern, and increased radial loops, our knowledge, to assess the putative an unusual pattern, have been found in correlation between IQ and dermatoglyphics children, particularly boys, with learning with the inclusion of talented individuals as a difficulties more commonly than in healthy group. Secondly our results may still be biased controls. A significant increase in abnormal on account of the small size of the samples. flexion creases has also been identified in Nevertheless, the sample size in our study individuals with learning difficulties. It has was such that a slightly more than 10% been previously concluded that some difference in the relative frequency of each fingerprints are indelible markers of impaired finger print was considered as significant. fetal development at different stages of Thirdly confirmation of any association pregnancy. between IQ and dermatoglyphics will be Kodama showed significant differences in difficult, and the use of different indices as several dermatoglyphic characteristics, digital dermatographics (including various including simian creases, fingertip patterns, quantitative dermatographic indices) in mean a‐b ridge count, thenar/first interdigital further studies – especially with a focus on patterns, hypothenar patterns and hallucal digit II – can confirm the hypothesis of this patterns in severely handicapped patients in study more powerfully. Fourthly, many other
Iran J Pediatr; Vol 19 (No 3); Sep 2009 283 factors may have some effects on the 4. Kahn HS, Ravindranath R, Valdez R, et al. fingerprint patterns; the differences detected Fingerprint ridge‐count difference in this study may be under influence of other between adjacent fingertips (dR45) factors such as maternal psychological stress predicts upper body tissue distribution: Evidence for early gestational which the authors did not control. programming. Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 153(4): 338‐44. 5. Holt SB. The Genetics of Dermal Ridges. Springfield MA: Charles C. Thomas Publ. 1968. Conclusion 6. Rosa A, Gutierrez B, Guerra A, et al. Our results support an association between Dermatoglyphics and abnormal palmar some dermatoglyphic patterns observed on flexion creases as markers of early right digit II with IQ level in adolescents. We prenatal stress in children with idiopathic intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil need more studies with a group of students Res. 2001;45(Pt 5):416‐23. with learning difficulties (reading, writing and mathematics problems) using specific 7. Chakraborty D, Mazumdar P, Than M, et al. measures for learning disorders detection in Dermatoglyphic analysis in Malay subjects future. Further researches, needless to say, with bipolar mood disorder. Med J Malaysia. 2001;56(2):223‐6. especially employing various quantitative dermatoglyphic indices and larger‐sized 8. Weinstein DD, Diforio D, Schiffman J, et al. samples are recommended. Minor physical anomalies, dermato‐glyphic asymmetries and cortisol levels in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder. Am J Psychiat. 1999;156(4):617‐ 23. 9. Cvjeticanin M; Polovina A. Quantitative Acknowledgment analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics This study was fully supported and funded by in male children with central nervous Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. system lesion by quantification of clinical Author thanks persons that helped to design parameters of locomotor disorder. Acta the study, data collection and writing proposal Med Croatica. 1999;53(1):5‐10 . and manuscript. 10. Gutierrez B, van Os J, Valles V, et al. Congenital dermatoglyphic malformations in severe bipolar disorder. Psychiat Res. 1998;78(3):133‐40. 11. Tornjova‐Randelova SG. Some aspects on References the dermatoglyphics of normal and defective children in Bulgaria. Anthropol 1. Rittey CD. Learning difficulties: What the Anz. 1994;52(4):351‐5. neurologist needs to know. J Neurol 12. Mavalwala J, Tysiaczny CA. A rare Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(Suppl dermatographic finger pattern in a 1):i30‐7. Canadian kindred. Anthropol ANZ. 2. Aronson J. When I use a word... 1991:49(4):355‐60. Fingerprints. Br Med J. 1997; 315(7113):i. 13. Tirosh E, Jaffe M, Dar H. The clinical 3. Cannon TD. On the nature and mechanisms significance of multiple hair whorls and of obstetric influences in schizophrenia: A their association with unusual review and synthesis of epidemiologic dermatoglyphics and dysmorphic features studies. Int Rev Psychiat. 1997;9(4):387‐ in mentally retarded Israeli children. Eur J 98. Pediatr. 1987;146(6):568‐70.
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