Biometric Futures

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Biometric Futures

  1. 1. BIOMETRIC FUTURES By Edward D. Campbell, JDThis is taken from a paper originally developed for Amida Biometrics, L.L.C.,in 2002, by Edward D. Campbell, and edited for use on the IBMBS web site in September, 2003. BIOMETRICS FUTURE & PROFIT The International Behavioral and Medical Biometrics Society, exists to foster thedevelopment of talent and foresight, to explore and understand the entire field of character andmedical diagnostics and human resource valuations through the skillful use of the computer dataprocessing and biometric scanning and observing comparative biological markers and behavioralpatterns and health conditions, for use in daily living, private industry, civil service, education, lawenforcement, military, medicine and psychology, throughout all aspects of human life. This paperoutlines some of the field, the potentials and the goals, including more immediate goals and hintsat the products that can be produced over the coming years.Biometrics, A Definition: The terms "Biometrics" and "Biometry" have been used since early in the 20th century torefer to the field of development of statistical and mathematical methods applicable to data analysisof problems in the biological sciences. Statistical methods for the analysis of data from agriculturalfield experiments to compare the yields of different varieties of wheat, for the analysis of data fromhuman clinical trials evaluating the relative effectiveness of competing therapies for disease, or forthe analysis of data from environmental studies on the effects of air or water pollution on theappearance of human disease in a region or country are all examples of problems that would fallunder the umbrella of "Biometrics" as the term has been historically used. More recently the termshave been used to refer to identification technologies.1 Currently the principal use of the hardware and software dedicated to human biometrics isfor identification purposes. This requires recording in some fashion an image of the subject that canlater be utilized as a template to identify another image of the same part of that subject. It dependsupon a digital form of matching. In the future, behavioral and medical diagnostics will utilize muchthe same type of equipment and pattern recognition and matching.IBMBS TECHNOLOGICAL DIRECTIONS IBMBS would like to see the expansion of the current identification technology torecognize basic patterns that may be identified with certain character evaluations and/or medicaldiagnoses. We believe that this will have immediate and potentially wide scale application in health 1 Biometrics Journal http://stat.tamu.edu/Biometrics/
  2. 2. care delivery and human resource assessment intelligence contractor who reports that at least oneapplications from career and educational planning to of the agencies tried to do what we propose in eithermedical diagnostics, job placement and labor skills the 80s or perhaps early 90s but was not successfulauditing. For example many of us believe that with its attempt. At that time, the state of the art asapplications could, develop home m odules and be as published in the west depended upon ancomm on as the current use of PCs for delivery of incompatible approach to character analysis, failinghealth care and hum an services significantly to take into account the other observers who hadimproving the future delivery systems, effectiveness more than a couple of thousand years of observationsand profit potentials of HMO’s health insurance, to their credit and w ho knew from this longpharmaceuticals, and reducing the costly risks of experience certain basic information that could bemistakes that now plague the industry. Others see derived from the observed human anatomy, andthe vast use in career development both in where this information could be found [hand analystseducational curric ulu m planning and job - serious palmists].placements, while still others can see the potentialuse of this in governm ent, military and in profiling in How ever, scientists, working in the fieldthis age where security is of such importance. known as dermatoglyphics, had opened the door to more scientific and comm ercial use of the Fortunately, we do not have to reinvent the information, through their repeated findings ofwheel. Much of the information to implement these correspondences between the observed skin patternsapplications is already available, even if not well and the human condition. Those of us familiar withknown. New processing programs are required to both approaches have found many more. A couplefully integrate and test this data already available and of the author’s experiences may help explain.easily accessible. Some years ago Gloria came to see me. Your author has Gloria had a very interesting middle finger. She had been studying, developing been born with no pattern (Figure 24) on her middle, a n d w orkin g w ith, the number 3 finger. In a subsequent examination, I speaking and w riting mentioned to her com panion, a chiropractor, that in about parts of these palmistry this finger was know n as the balance or protocols for close to judgment finger. Gloria was notorious for being twenty years. In late 1998 flighty, not knowing from day to day even where in or early1999 he was asked the country she would be. The Chiropractor replied by an intelligence agency that my observation about balance was interesting, contractor if he would be because every time Gloria shut her eyes, she lost her interested in developing a balance. The eyes, the inner ears and the program for one of the proprioceptors control balance. His observation was services w i t h h is a clear indication to me that there this no printknow ledge in the area, as the major problem was not developed by the 16 th week of gestation was a verywith the very good equipment we possessed, but in probable indication of some abnormality in the basechoosing the hum an teams that use it. While that did of the brain w here the proprioceptor information isnot proceed swiftly in a budget tight time during the processed, because that area of the brain was beingClinton administration, it is a use that perhaps the developed during the period that the print wasRussians have subsequently considered.2 developing. Prints are influenced by both environment and genetics. We have also spoken with another The next interesting print was seen on two persons, and involved distortions to the thumb print. 2 The first was on a lady who was accom panied by her See Appendix II, Selecting Military husband. The nail phalange of the thumb is relatedSpecialists -1-
  3. 3. to attention in palmistry, the attention needed for identify or authenticate persons based upon theirtaking action. I inquired if she ever found herself in physical characteristics stored as graphicalthe midst of doing something and suddenly couldn’t information and/or digital data and templates aboutrecall why she was doing it. Her husband agreed this a person for identification or verification purposes.was common, as if it were far more common that isusually experienced by most people. The next no- I. FACIAL SCANNINGprint was seen on a young man in his mid or latethirties. When I asked him about problems with A digital pattern image of certain facialattention, he volunteered that he had been diagnosed landmarks, chin, nose, mouth, etc, for later matchingas ADHD (A ttention D eficit Hyperactivity with the subject. Currently they are capturedDisorder). The brain’s basil ganglia, consisting of through a series of photographs. Commonthe caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, distinctive features are extracted and recorded.subthalam ic nucleus, and substantia nigra, besidesbeing know n for influencing movement and muscle Accuracy High but not fool proof. Masks,tone, are also integral circuits mediating higher chan ge of hairdo, surgery or ac cide nta lfunctions of attention and affective states. disfigurement, weight gains or losses, and simpleAnomalies have been reported in male-predominant disguises can currently thwart this technique.pediatric disorders such as A DH D through brainscans. 3 METHODS We will explore in this paper the current Eigenface ("Ones Own Face") MITuses of human biometric hardware and softw are with patented technology based upon a series of graycomments on how that may be expanded and even scale two dimensional frontal images.some comments on the future of the markets,because these developments will spawn many Feature Analysis Similar to Eigenface, butmarkets while boosting others, most beyond the it can better accomm odate minor changes inscope or the current paper. appearance or facial expression. Neural Network M apping. Depends more Current Uses of Human Biometrics 4 on matching and identification than scanning but relies heavily on accurate facial scans to begin with. These use technologies that attempt to Can modify identification procedure to allow for weight or facial expression changes. Automatic Face Processing (Afp) Very 3 basic process built on rations distances, directions Toga, A. W., Mazziotta, J. C., Brain and sizes of key facial features. Not high quality butMapping, The Systems, ©2000, Academic can use poor quality photographs for ID purposes.Press, Harcourt Science and TechnologyCompany, pp 578-579. USES 4 Sources for current biometric Current uses include Forensics, to identifytechnologies unless otherwise noted: Jenn persons of interest, Security as at ATM’s in BanksRosenberg, and governmental buildings, and Immigrationhttp://www.colby.edu/~jbrosenb/STS%20Proj Patrol to watch for people who try to come into theect/web/; Nanavati S, Thieme M, Nanavati, country.R, Biometrics, Identity Verification in aNetworked World, ©2002, Wiley Computer Health and Character Use Facial featuresPublishing can also be observed for health conditions and -2-
  4. 4. character evaluation. One of the oldest character differences to measure such things as hemisphericsigns was the smile, or frow n. M any immediate dominance. But the technologists point out that evenconditions of the body can be read on the face. a scan taken during blinking, with the eyelidSchools have arisen to tell character from the face, covering two thirds of the eye, the error rate is stillthe tongue and the ears.5 While in the West the only 1/100,000. Of course the scan can be redone indoctor might have the patient stick out his tongue, in under a minute.the east they have developed diagnosis from theappearance of the tongue to a fine art. 6 The face, Uses. Currently uses include security,eyes, lips and ears are observed for diagnostic monitoring prisoner movements, on line purchasingpurposes in the practice Ayurvedic medicine. 7 and banking, and it is envisioned as a replacement for other identifications, such as driver’s and other licenses, and ticket less air travel. II. IRIS SCANNING Fraud. Because both iris and retinal Based upon the iris of the eye, recording the (below) scanning involve images of the human eye,fibers patterns, rings, furrows and/or freckles, they are both highly resistant to fraud. Contacts willpigment spots, is currently the most accurate of the certainly be considered that might effect irisbiometric recognition programs. Digital images of scanning.these features are compared for recognition. Theactual scan takes about 30 seconds and is taken by a Health Signs The Iris has been used incamera at about 3 feet from the subject while Europe and N orth America as a diagnostic tool forrecognition takes only a couple of seconds. well over a half century. It has been considered a window into the health of the vital organs, and an Accuracy is the highest as the IrisScan indicator of diseases ofprogram recognizes about 266 points in the template the gastro-intestinal tract,as opposed to other biometric scans that rely on 13 to liver and gall bladder,60 points. Only one Iris must be observed. The pancreas, resp irato rIdentification Technologist rely on the argument that organs, cardiovascularthe differences between the left and right eyes is s y s te m , ly mp hati cstatistically insignificant and that the error rate is system, spleen, genitalia,something like 1 in a million of 1.2 million, auto nom ic nervoussomething like 1 in 10^52. Iridologist will point out s ys te m , b r a i n a n dthat there can be and may be found significant disorders of the spinaldifferences in the left ane right irises and use these column. It has also been considered a marker of personality traits. While Iridology will not name 5 diseases from signs in the eye, iris examination is Example: Lee Siow Mong, The useful in determ ining the general health level,Chinese Art of Studying the Head, Face and constitution, inherent w eakness or strength ,Hands ©1989, Eagle Trading Sdn Bhd, biochemical deficiencies, toxins and their location(s)Malaysia. and stages of inflammation.8 Two other forms of noninvasive eye examinations are Sclerology and 6 Lad, Vasant, Ayurveda, The pu pil tonus observations. From recen tScience of Self Healing ©1984, Lotus Press, correspondence on Sclerology we have seen claimsSanta Fe, N.M., 60-62; Ros, Frank, The Lost of the sclera clearly identifying what was medicallySecrets of Ayuvedic Acupuncture, ©1994,Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI. 108-112. 8 See Appendix IV and 7 Ib Lad 62-68; and Ros, 112-115. http://cnri.edu/index.htm . -3-
  5. 5. diagnosed as liver cancer that had metastasised from Current Uses. Finger scans can accomplishthe bowel. The sclera is the white area of the eye. for use in identification in two to three seconds.Of course the pupil is that dark spot in the middle They are used in forensics, security and even atthat we look through and its shape and size, with home uses such as to lock ones computer.total or partial deformations may be observed as a Automated Fingerprint Identification Systemssign of many things, including impending Cerebral (AFIS) are used throughout the country andhemorrhages or clotting that could be accompanied Lockheed Martin recently completed a one hundredby coma or paralysis. These are all capable of million dollar contract for the FBI to install andbiometric analysis. implement this program for its vast records. III. RETINA SCANNING Methods and Accuracy of Finger Scanning. Three methods of scanning are currently This technology has been around since the used, silicon plates, optical and ultrasound. The 1930 and is still one of the ultrasound may be the most accurate as it reads most accurate around, through the dirt and grime. The silicon plate is very depending on the scanning cost effective and can be incorporated into small- retinal patterns through scale devices. It depends on identification of the the pupil by a viewer patterns from the the DC current passing between placed about ½ inch from the finger and the silicon capacitor plate. Optical is the eye. The eye follows a the oldest method. green light that illuminates the inside of the eye to One aspect of finger scanning has long been reveal the unique pattern used in medicine. That is the observation of blood vessels. fingernails. Using the fingernails for medical diagnostics is found in basic Physical Examination Uses. Retina handbooks. See Appendix II, Nail Diagnosis.scans have historically be used for high end securityapplications. They benefit from having the smallest V. HAND SCANNINGof the templates used in biometrics. They may bemore easily disturbed by eye damage that iris A typical hand scan is produced by a digitalscanning. camera taking a 100 digital measurements of the size and proportions of the hand and converting them into IV. FINGER SCANNING a template Typically it reads the top and sides, identifying shapes, sizes and internal measurements. Finger Scanning as understood by In health technologies the scan w ould go beyond thisidentification technologists and fingerprinting need not only to identify these features, but also theto be distinguished. The scanning equipm ent is still complete palmar surface, details of the fingernails,required to take an image of the entire fingerprint, and add in the fingerprints. So health uses wouldbut the full print is not stored. Only certain key data require some expansion of the current scanningfrom the print is stored that is sufficient to match it modalities.to a later acquired image of the print, or partial print.From an original scan identified features are Part of hand scanning involves comparisonsconverted to a digital template and stored for later of finger lengths. It has long been suspected by handuse through mates by the computer softw are. This analysts that when the ring finger exceeds the lengthdiffers from the need of the Health Technologists of the index finger that reaches a normal length, it iswho would require the storing for comparisoncomplete patterns for reference w ith pattern types fordiagnostic purposes. -4-
  6. 6. a sign of a risk taker. 9 Interesting support for this markers in the hands, such as bipolar mood disorder,observation can be seen from the recent reports that cancer, congenital defects, coronary heart diseasethe length of the ring finger is specifically influenced and diabetes just to get usby the availability of testosterone during gestation.10 to D in the alphabet. Uses of Hand Scanning. Currently this The reason for thismethod is used for lower level security clearances can be found inwhere security is desired, but must live with understanding the w ayconvenience and ease of use. Thus it is used in the these patterns develop. AtINSPASS (Immigration and Naturalization Service the top of each palm belowPassenger Accelerated Service System) at airports to the fingers, in the areas thatspeed frequent travelers and bypass passport control. the palmists call the mounts Israel is considering or implementing such of Jupiter, Saturn, Apollotechnology (Basel) in turnstiles at check points and Mercury, are the apicalbetween its territory and Gaza and the West Bank. pads. At the end of theEven Disneyland is considering using such a fingers, opposite the nails, on the distal phalange, thetechnology to speed crowds. But it is new , not as fingerprints form. On each site, the formation beginsaccurate yet as other methods nor is it the most at about the 10 th week of gestation at two places ininexpensive. each of these areas, at the tip, or distal end, and in the proximal (lower) third. In those locations we begin Health and Character Analysis. Parts of to see ridge development. The prints grow in a radialthe hand have long been observed as a diagnostic manner from these two central foci. On thetool in medicine, and gesture has traditionally been fingertips will form the arches, w horls, loops or otherobserved in making character assessments. So using pints as the twin growths interact and are influencedthe hand as a biometric diagnostic tool is not new. no only by their genetics, but by the surroundingDoctors are trained to observe the fingernails for environment. This allows for the tremendous varietysigns of disease. (See nail diagnosis Appendix II). of possible patterns. Prints can reflect problems thatThe dermatoglyphics, those furrow s and ridges on occurred during development as possibly illustratedthe palm side of the hand in figures 15, 16, 19, 21, 22 and 24 below (Appendixand the soles of the feet, I). Theoretically one could count the num ber ofhave long been the subject different prints, estimated from three to 48 or more,of diagnostic inqu iry. and vary their location on the five fingers of eachAppendix III contains a hand and estimate there w ould be a near infinitelong list of conditions that variety of fingerprint hand types. But practically farhave been related to fewer combinations have been found.11 Estimates based on population studies appear to indicate that considering the actual varieties of fingerprints 9 displayed in populations in combinations over all ten . Campbell, E.D., Encyclopedia of fingers, there will typically be for a little over ofPalmistry, ©1996, Perigee Division Berkley 7,000 differential pairs of hands based on fingerprintPutnam, N.Y. p. 60. types. Some prints are very rare, and even more 10 Manning, J.T. and P.E. Burdred (Anew predictor of disease predisposition? 11Medical Hypothesis 54:855-7. 2000; and J. T. Avdeychik, Oleg S.& Lagerstrom,Manning, J.T., Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, Kenneth A., Dispensation of DermatoglyphicS., and G. Sabders, G., The 2nd to 4th digit Whorl Patterns on the Hands Nail Phalangesratio in autism. 2001, Developmental Medicine © 1999and Child Neurology 42:160-64. http://www.humanhand.com/dispensation.html -5-
  7. 7. comm on prints are rare rarer on certain fingers. To The new born baby is not a tabula rosa, asee some of the wondrous prints that can be blank slate to be written upon by life’s experiences,produced, refer to the Appendix I. or a blank hard drive to be programed.15 The child comes into the world w ith a full set of basic drives, The time of formation is critical. The character traits and abilities to react and programsproximal and m iddle phalanges begin to develop designed for his or her survival and propagation. Hetheir papillary ridges in the 12 th week of gestation. or she has established biological templates ofThere is strong evidence that the afferent neural character at least since the establishment of thedevelopment plays an important role in the spatial flexion creases by the tenth or eleventh week ofand temporal sequence of the papillary ridge gestation, and the dermatoglyphics set as early as theformation, thus, the dermatoglyphic map of the tenth to thirteenth week of gestation. We can readhand.12 The flexion creases have established before them in the fingerprints, the palmar dermatoglyphicsthe prints.13 Dermatoglyphics are formed during the and the flexion lines.16 The hand forms a true springlast part of the embryonic period under genetic sway board into modern biometric analysis of psychologyand do not change thereafter. They also reflect and general health from the very birth of the child.environmental factors present at the time. They thus Individual identity is either a small part or the sumgive indication of the stability or otherwise of total of all that, but current technologies are onlydevelopment at that early stage. As such we believe focusing on the very smallest part of that puzzle.they form markers for nonspecific insults during theembryonic period that destabilizes the developmental Hand scanning for aptitudes and charactercontrol systems and may result in congenital traits has many advantages over most other majormalformations of any organ undergoing current psychological assessments.17 The major tests canepigenesis.14 Dermatoglyphics in Congenital Spinal 12 Moore, SJ, Munger, BL, The Early DeformitiesOntogeny of the Afferent Nerves and Papillary Spine 1997, Apr 22:775-9; A. C. Bogle, T.Ridges in Human Digital Glabrous Skin, Brain Reed, and R. J. Rose, Replication ofRes Dev Brain Res 1989 Jul 1; 48(1):119-41 Asymmetry of a-b Ridge Count andSee also Dermatoglyphic books below and Behavioral Discordance in MonozygoticStevens CA, Carey JC, Shah M, Bafley GP, Twins, Behavior Genetics, 24 (1) Jan. 1994,Development of Human Palmar and Digital pp. 65-72.Flexion Creases, J Pediatr 1988 Jul; 113(1 PT 151):128-32. For example, see generally Ridgley, Mat, Nature via Nurture, Genes, Experience, 13 Kimura S, Kitagawa T, & What Makes Us Human ©2003, HarperEmbryological Development of Human Collins, N.Y., N.Y.Palmar, Plantar, and digital Flexion Creases, 16Anat Rec 1986 Oct; 216(2):191-7. See also Encyclopedia of Palmistry, supra.,Lacroix B, Wolff-Q uenot MJ, Haffen K, Early and bibliography therein, andHuman Hand Morphology: an Estimation of http://www.edcampbell.com/PalmD-History.htFetal Age, Early Hum Dev 1984 Feb; m9(2):127-36 17 For descriptions of leading current 14 Glodberg CJ, Fogarty EE, Moore DP, psychological assessments see generallyDowling FE, Fluctuating Asymmetry and Major Psychological Assessment Instrum entsVertebral Malformation. A Study of Palmar 2 nd Ed. Sharles S. Newmark ©1996, Simon & -6-
  8. 8. typically take from twenty five minutes to an hour FUTURE MARKETSand a half to adm inister. A hand scan should beadm inistered in under a minute. Most psychological A full home health care appliances andtests will depend on some language and software are possible long range future markets,communication skills, which can bring in the need either in modules or as complete units, probablyfor interpreters , or m ake th em unfeasible directly interfacing with primary care organizations.administering to persons who do not speak the This advance could follow the clinical andlanguage of the tester. Hand scans do not depend on institutional market saturation of medical history andlanguage. Hand analysis, like other biometric diagnostic applications. Future work of members ofobservations, does not depend upon the subject’s test IBMBS could bring health care back into the hometaking skills or reading or mathematical with full doctor visits as necessary. Future personscomprehension in tests. The tests do not need to be who would join in the market would be HM O’s, thedesigned to identify untruthfulness, refusal to insurance industry, labor and industry departm entsrespond, lack of attention of the subject during the and employers who need to monitor health oftest. Just check the hand for foreign objects, such as employees, as well as clinics and hospitals aroundpaste on fingerprint patterns. the world. Biom etric analysis could play an VI. VOICE SCANNING indispensable roll in many future pharmaceutical developm ents and applications, from discovery and A template of ones voice can be created testing to prescriptions and follow up. We expectbased upon its distinctive qualities such as tone, that this type of rapid analysis will aid thepitch and volume. It is new in the digital pharmaceutical industry as an easily applicableidentification technologies uses, but the process of research tool in establishing which patients are moreusing voice assessment has quite a history and was likely to respond favorably to what drugs and whoused in the Soviet judicial system for years. That may be more likely to suffer adverse effects, andscanning technology and should be am enable to perhaps assist on reducing time from developm ent tofurther health and character identification purposes. market.Again, this is nothing new. Mothers have beenlistening for the different sound from their children Entire new structures for data managementsince time immemorial to understand the needs. and storage of health information will be necessary, with appropriate care for related laws concerning various levels of privacy protection. As our work underpins more and more the organic basis of mental VII. SIGNA TU RE SCAN NING (Dy namic infirmities, we will see behavioral biometrics usedSignature Verification) extensively to understand and classify the nature of the internal-external conflicts, socially unacceptable This is based on a variation of the long drives and failures to thrive. We will also seeestablished and accepted practices of handwriting behavioral biometrics used in career placement inanalysis, graphology, both used judicially and in government and industry, and extensive use in careerHuman Resource practices. It requires a digital print counseling and individual curriculum developm ent.of the signature that records key aspects, including All of these benefits not only will result in a vastpressure, speed of writing or stroke direction to decreases in certain non productive current costscreate a template for later use. because of poor placement of human resources, but allow more focused and productive use of human effort and capital in the future. Indeed, industry and accounting could begin to look to hum an resourcesShuster; and Psychological Testing 6 th Ed. not as a total expense item. but as part of the capitalization of the enterprise as the result ofAnne Anastasi ©1988, Prentice Hall. -7-
  9. 9. developing auditable values of these resources using through the use of the speed gained throughthe knowledge gained through the study of biometric scanning and computer analysis and is notbehavioral and m edical biometrics. In this era of dependent on the language of the em ployee, so it isglobalization it will add human resources as a very applicable to persons of all nationalities. CEO’stangible part of the balance sheet of any enterprise. familiar with the general human resource needs of their enterprises, could experience great relief from GROSS REVENUES being at the mercy of their manager’s families, friends and cronies in who is hired, fired and The total gross revenue from Biometric promoted.Disciplines, without the input of Behavioral andMedical Biometrics, are expected to grow from $399 INTERESTED IN FURTHERmillion in 2000 to $1.9 billion by 2005. 18 We INFORMATION?estimate that current technologies cover less than.5% of potential applications for biometrics over the Contact Ed C ampbell, 206 783 3410, ornext ten to fifteen years, and most of the growth will www.edcampbell.com, or write to Ed Campbell,not be in identification but in analysis of the subjects 9534 14 th Avenue NW,scanned. Seattle, WA 98117-2308 or send an inquiry through THE LABOR - HR MARKET this web site. See Appendix II for further This discussion does not include any detailed reference to scientificanalysis of the potential markets for behavioral and journals and literature onmedical Biometrics products and services in these subjects. R eturn tomedicine, education, defense, law enforcement, civil original w eb siteservice and government, all of which are large, and ww w.ibmbs.org.some of which will dwarf the human resourcemarkets. Business HR M arket: In the United Statesthere are almost 600,000 firms employing over APPENDIX I – NAIL DIAGNOSIStwenty people and together they employ over 80% ofthe private w orkforce, approximately 90 million TAKING A CLOSER LOOKpeople.19 Behavioral Biometrics could offer theonly way verifiable way for CEO ’s, plant and AT YOUR NAILSdivision managers and head hunters to evaluate andtrack any detailed comparable analysis of the values Changes in toenails and fingernails may indicateof the aptitudes, character and potential reliability of specific types of illnesses. Following are some ofthese employees to his or her business, as the more com mon nail problems and what theyindividuals, team members and in the aggregate. could mean:Such a survey, breakdown and individual evaluation, Nail bending - Rheumatoid arthritis. Brittle nails - Vitamin A, calcium or iron deficiency, thyroid problems, impaired 18 kidney function or circulation problems. Revenues:http://www.finger-scan.com/finger-scan_mark Clubbed purple nails (rise upward andet_report.htm curl around the fingertip) - Lung, liver, colon or heart disorders. 19 Deep blue nails - Pulmonary obstruction such as asthma or emphysema.http://www.bizstats.com/businesses.htm i
  10. 10. Flat, spoon- shaped nails - Vitamin B. 12 APPENDIX II deficiency, anemia or thyroid disease. DERMATOGLYPHIC REFERENCES Horizontal ridges (Beaus lines) - Flu, malnutrition, hormonal disorders or STUDIES SHOWING SIGNIFICANCE OF anemia. DERMATOGLYPHICS Horizontal- white streaks Sickle cell disease, heart disease. Hodgkins disease FOR POTENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC USE or kidney failure. Lengthwise grooves -Kidney disorders and/or Associational Reference iron deficiency; also associated with- general aging. Affective Disorders Pitted nails - Psoriasis,-eczem a or Dermatoglyphic Studies in Affective parasites. Disorders> An Appraisal Splitting-vertical "nails Calcium Balgir RS: Biol Psychiatry 1982 Jan; deficiency-tendency to develop arthritis. 17:69-82 Thick nails - Blood is not circulating properly. Ankle and Foot Surgery Treatment Success Vertical red streaks Rheumatoid arthritis, Dynamic Footprints: Adjuvant Method for high blood pressure or psoriasis. Postoperative Assessment of Patients after White spots , Zinc deficiency Calcaneal Fractures. White nails - Liver or kidney disorders or Dudkiewicz I, Levi R , Blankstein A , et al.: anemia, Isr Med Assoc J (Israel), May 2002, 4(5) Yellow nails - Diabetes, liver problems, p349-52 trouble with the respiratory-or lymph systems. Anky losing Spondylitis White moon area turns red - Heart Dermatoglyphics and Ankylosing problems. Spondylitis White moon area turns slate blue - Lung Gömör B, Petrou P: Clin Rheumatol 1994 trouble or overexposure to silver. Jun 13:265-8 Downw ard curved nail ends - Heart, liver or respiratory problems. Autistic Children Nails that chip or crack easily - Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study of Nutritional and/or mineral deficiency. Autistic, Retarded, and N ormal Children Hartin, PJ, Barry, RJ, J. Autism DevSource: Medical Resource Center, See also Discord 1979 (:233-46)Mosby’s Guide to Physical Examination, Seidel, Bipolar Mood DisorderBall, Dains & Benedict ©1987, p 112-115. Dermatoglyphic analysis in Malay subjects with Bipolar Mood Disorder Charraborty D, Mazumdar P, Than M, Singh B, Med J. Malaysia 2001 Jun 56:223-6 Cancer Dermatoglyphics and Cancerous Diseases Polzik EV, Katsnel’son BA , Iakusheva Miu, Lezhnin VL, Kazantsev VS: Tsitol Genet 1994 Jul-Aug 28:72-9 ii
  11. 11. Relationship between genetic anomalies of VS, Khalfina M E: Kardiologiia 1993 different levels and deviations in 33:43-5 dermatoglyphic traits. Part 7: Dermatoglyphic peculiarities of females Deaf-Mutism, Congenital with cervical and endometrial carcinoma. Characteristics of the D ermatoglyphics of Bejerano M , Yakovenko K, Katznelson the hand in Congenital Deaf-mutism MB, et al.: Z Morphol Anthropol Gagaeva, LF: Tsitol Genet, 1977 Mar- (Germany), 2001, 83(1) p75-108 Apr 11:109-13Cerebral Palsy Diabetes Quantitative Analysis of Digitopalmar Palmar Flexion Creases and Dermatoglyphics in M ale Children with Dermatoglyphics Among Diabetic Patients Central Nervous System Lesion by Eswaraiah G, Ball, RS: Am J Phys Quantification of Clinical Parameters of Anthropology 1977 Jul 47:11-3 Locomotor Disorder Cyjeticanin M, Polovina A, Acta Med Croatica 1999, DOOR Syndrome 53:5-10 DOO R Syndrome: Aditional Case and Literature ReviewChildhood (prepubescent) Behavioral Patterns Bos CJ, Ippel PF, Beemer FA: Clin Prepubescent children show the adult Dysmorphol 1994 Jan 3:15-20 relationship betw een dermatoglyphic asymmetry and perform ance on sexually Down’s Syndrome dimorphic tasks. Dermatoglyphics in Down’s Syndrome Sanders G, Kadam A: Cortex (Italy), Feb Rajangram S, Janakiram S., Thomas IM: 2001, 37(1) p91-100 J Indian Med Assoc 1995 Jan; 93:10-3Chromosome Aberrations Dy slexia Screening for Autosomal Aberrations Palmar Dermatoglyphics of Dyslexia Hqurashi M, Segewa M, Matsui I, Ihbuma Jamison C S: Am J Phys Anthropol 1988 K, Nakagome Y, Acta Peadiatr Scand Aug 76:505-13 1977 Jul 66:501-4 Epileptic DisordersCongenital Defects The Mechanisms of the Occurrence and Dermatoglyphics in Cleft Lip and Cleft Development of the Epileptic Range of Palate Anomalies Disorders Nalgir RS, Indian P ediatr 1993 Mar Bogdanov NN, Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S 30:341-6 Korsakova, 1999; 99:37-47 Fluctuating Asymmetry and vertebral Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Malformation. A Study of Palmar Dermatoglyphic Abnormalities in the Fetal Dermatoglyphics in Congenital Spinal Alcohol Syndrome Deformities Quzi QH, Masakawa A, McGann B, Glodberg CJ, Fogarty EE, Moore DP, Woods J: Teratology 1980 Apr; Dowling FE, Spine 1997, Apr 22:775-9 21(2):157-60Coronary Heart Disease Dermatoglyphic Asymmetry in Fetal Genetic Markers of susceptibility to Alcohol SyndromeMyocardial Infarct Wilber E, New ell-Morris L, Streissguth Polzkk E V, Sidorovich SB, Kazantwev AP: Biol Neonate 1993;64(1):1-6 iii
  12. 12. Fetal Developmental Instabilities Tuberk 1993 :33-5 Dermatoglyphic Morphology in Some Diseases Lopuszanska M , Jankowska E: Pol Klinefelter’s and Turner’s Syndromes Merkuriusz Lek (Poland), Sep 2001, A study of Dermatoglyphics in Gonadal 11(63) p282-6 Dysgenesis: A Com puterised Analysis Applicable in Under-developed C ountriesHypertension Richards, B, Mandasescu S: Stud Health Palmar Dermatoglyphics in Essential Technol Inform 1997 43 Pt A:290-4Hypertension Pursnani ML, Elhence GP, Tibrewaia L: Leprosy Indian Heart J 1989 Mar-Apr 41:119-22 Palmar Flexion Creases and Dermatoglyphics in Leprosy Patients Relation of Fingerprints and Shape of the Eswaraiah G, Ball, RS: Int J Lepr Other Palm to Fetal Growth and A dult Blood Mycobact D is 1978 Jan-Mar 46:56-60 Pressure Godfrey KM, Barker DJ, Peace J, Cloke J, Male Infertility Osmond C: BMJ 1993 Aug 14; Study of Finger and Palmar 307(6901):405-9 Dermatoglyphics in Primary Infertile Males Makol N, Kshatriva G, Basu S: Caveat On the Association Between Anthropol Anz 1994 Mar 52:59-65 Adult Blood Pressure and Dermatoglyphics as Prenatal Markers of Parental Dermatoglyphics relative to Development (WW II twins: pairs and co- Congenitally Malformed Children twins) Dermatoglyphics of the Relatives of Reed, T, J. Hypertension 1995 Jun; Children with Congenital Defects in Development 13(6):595-601 Usoev, SS: Genetika 1975 11:151-5 Disproportionate Fetal Growth and Personality Clasification fingerprint Patterns Medical Anthropological Aspects of Hand Wheeler T, Godfrey K, Atkinson C, Phalanx Dermatoglyphics Badger J, Kay R, Ownes R, Osmond C, Zviagin VN: Shpak Liu: Sud M ed Ekspert Br. J: Obstet Gybaecol 1998 May; 2000 Jul-Aug 43:16-20 105(5):562-4 Psychotic DisordersIdiopathic Intellectual Disability Congenital Dermatoglyphic Malformations Dermatoglyphics and Abnormal Palmar and Psychosis: a Twin Study Flexion Creases as Markers of Early Rosa A, Fañanás L, Bracha HS, Torrey Prenatal Stress in Children with Idiopathic EF, van Os J: Am J Psychiatry 2000, Intellectual Idiopathic Intellectual Sept; 157:1511-3 Disability Rosa A, Gutiérrez B, Guerra A, Arias B, Respiratory H ypersensitivity Fañanás L, J Intellect Disabil Res 2001 Dermatoglyphics in Nasobronchial Oct 45:416-23 Allergic Disorders Joshi P, chavan V D, Mulev PY: Indian J.Imunology Chest Dis Allied Sci 1992 Oct-Dec 34:185-90 Correlation of Dermatoglyphic and Cellular Immunity parameters in Children Rheumatic Diseases with Early Stage of Primary Tuberculosis Dermatoglyphics in Patients with Khodzitskaia V K, Zosim ov A N: Probl Rheum atism iv
  13. 13. Belov BS, Miakotkin VA: Ter Arkh 1988 Cannon M, Byrne M, Cotter D, Sham P,60:101-4 Larkin C, O ’Callaghan E, Schizophr Res 1994 Sept; 13(2):179-84Selecting M ilitary Specialists Prospects for Using Dermatoglyphics for Preliminary Evidence for an Association Evaluating the Mental Status of Service Between Minor Physical Anomalies and Members Second Trimester Neurodevelopment in Kolkutin W, Krymova TG: Voen Med Zh Schizophrenia(Russia) 2001 Nov 322:9-12, 96 Green MF, Bracha HS, Satz P, Christenson CD, Psychiatry Res 1994 Aug; 53(2):119-Sex Offenders 27 Dermatoglyphics in Individuals with Asocial Behavior Caveat Derm atoglyphic Patterns in Gustavson, KH, M odrzewska K, Sjöquist Schizophrenic Patients KE: Ups J Med Sci 1994 99:63-7 Varma SL, Chary TV, Singh S, Azhar MZ, Dharap A S: Acta Psychiatr Scand 1995Sexual Orientation Mar; 91(3):213-5 Dermatoglyphics, Handedness, Sex, and Sexual Orientation. Prenatal Development of Monozygotic Mustanski BS, Bailey JM, Kaspar S: Arch Twins and Concordance for Schizophrenia Sex Behav (United States), Feb 2002, 31(1) Davis JO, Phelps JA , Bracha H S: p113-22 Schizophr Bull 1995; 21(3):357-66 for Erratum see Schizophr BullSchizophrenia 1995;21(4):559 Palmar Dermatoglyphics of SchizophrenicPatients Dermatoglyphic A-b Ridge Count as a Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova Possible Marker for Developmental1975 75:891-7 Disturbance in Schizophrenia: Replication in Two Samples Dermatoglyphic Evidence of Fluctuating Fañanás L, van Os J, Hoyos C, McGrath J, Asymmetry in Schizophrenia Mellor CS, Murray R, Schizophr Res 1996 Mellor CS, Br J Psychiatry 1992 Apr; Kul 5; 20:(3):307-14 160:467-72 Prenatal Grow th Markers in Second-Trimester Markers of Fetal Size In Schizophrenia: a Monozygotic Co-Twin ControlSchizophrenia: A Study Study Bracha HS, Torrey EF, Gottesman II, Davis JO , Bracha HS, Am J. Psychiatry Biglow LB, Cunniff C: Am J Psychiatry 1996 Sept; 153(9):1166-72 1992 Oct 149:1355-61 Minor Physical Anomalies and Their Genetic Loadings in Schizophrenia: A Relationship to the Aetiology of Dermatoglyphic Study Schizophrenia. Balgir RS, Murphy RS, Wig N N: Isr J Murphy KC , Owen MJ: Br J Psychiatry Med Sci 1993 May 29:265-8 1996, 168: 139–142. Further Evidence for Anomalies in the Schizophrenia: A disorder of Hand-prints of Patients with Neurodevelopment? Schizophrenia; a Study of Secondary Commentary, Harrison, PJ: Current Creases Opinion in Neurobiology 1997, 7:285-289 v
  14. 14. Dermatoglyphics in Schizophrenia: Susceptibility to Schizophrenia in Twins: Qualitative Aspects the Significance of D ermatoglyphic Sivkov S, Akabaliev V: Folia Med Indices in Relation to Other Determinants(Plovdiv) 1998 40:44-50 of Brain D evelopment. van Oel CJ, Baare WF, Hulshoff Pol HE, Dermatoglyphics in Schizophrenia: et al.: Schizophr Res (Netherlands), Dec 1 Qualitative Aspects 2001, 52(3) p181-93 Sivkov S, Akabaliev V: Folia Med (Plovdiv) 1998; 40(3):44-50 SIDS Dermatoglyphics in Sudden Infant D eath Schizophrenia as a Developmental Syndrome Disorder of the Cerebral Cortex [R eview article] Kozakewich H, Fox K, Plato DC, Cronk Thomas J Raedler, Michael B Knable, D, Mandell F, V aw ter GF: Pediatr Pathol Daniel R Weinberger 1992 Sept-Oct 12:637-51 Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1998, 8:157-161 Turner’s and Klinefelter’s Syndromes A study of Dermatoglyphics in Gonadal Minor Physical Anom alies, Dysgenesis: A Com puterised Analysis Dermatoglyphic Asymmetries, and Applicable in Under-developed C ountries Cortisol Levels in Adolescents with Richards, B, Mandasescu S, Stud Health Schizotypal Personality Technol Inform 1997 43 Pt A:290-4 Weinstein DD, Diforio D, Schiffman J, Walker E, Bonsall R, Am J. Psychiatry Wilson’s Disease 1999 Apr; 156:617-23 Dermatoglyphics of Homo- and Heterozygotes for Wilson’s Disease Relevance of Sequential Development of (Hepatolenticular Degeneration) (Author’sDermatoglyphics to Schizophrenia Translation) Ponnudural R, Psychiatry Res 1999 Dec Vorm ittag W, W eninger M, Willvonseder89:59-67 R, Wewalka F: Human G enet 1976 Feb; 31:221-8 Neurodevelopmental Risk Factors in Schizophrenia. Lobato MI, Belmonte-de-A breu P, Knijnik SOME BOOKS IN THE AREA D, et al.: Braz J Med Biol Res (Brazil), Feb 2001, 34(2) p155-63 Alter, Milton, and Blanka Schaumann, Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders, Is Reduced Dermatoglyphic a-b Ridge Springer-Verlag, 1976. Count a Reliable Marker of Developmental Impairment in Schizophrenia? Bagga, Amrita Dermatoglyphics of Fearon P, Lane A, Airie M, et al.: Schizophrenics,1989, M ittal Publications. Schizophr Res (Netherlands), Jul 1 2001, 50(3) p151-7 Barsley, Michael, Left Handed People (1967) Originally published as The Other Hand ©1966, Dermatoglyphic Fluctuating Asymmetry wilshire Book Company, No. Hollywood, CA. and Atypical Handedness in Schizophrenia. Reilly JL, Murphy PT, Byrne M, et al.: Berry, Dr. Theodore J., M.D., F.A.C.P., Hand As Schizophr Res (Netherlands), Jul 1 2001, A Mirror of Systemic Disease, The, 1963, F.A. 50(3) p159-68 Davis Company, Philadelphia Differentiating Betw een Low and H igh vi
  15. 15. Cum mins, Harold, and Midlo, Charles, Finger ©M IT 1987, MIT Press.Prints, Palms and Soles An Introduction toDermatoglyphics, ©1943 The Blakiston Company Willson, Frank R. MD , The Hand, ©1998,- Philadelphia Vintage Books, division of Random House (1999)Durham, Norris M and Plato, Chris C., editors Wolff, Dr. Charlotte, Studies In Handreading,Trends in Dermatoglyphic Research (Studies in with preface by Aldous Huxley, Alfred A. Knopf,Human Biology Vol. 1, Kenneth M. Weiss, Editor) New York, 1937.Kluwer A cadem ic Publishers, Dordrecht, HostonLondon, ©1990 Wolff, Charlotte, Human Hand, The, Alfred A. Knopf, 1943.Durham, Norris M., Kathleen M. Fox and Chris C.Plato, The State of Dermatoglyphics, the Science Wolff, Charlotte, Hand in Psychologicalof Finger and Palm Prints, Mellen Studies in Diagnosis 1952 Philosophical Library, New Y orkAnthropology, Vol. 2, Edwin M ellen Press,Lewiston • Queenston • Lampeter ©2000. APPENDIX IV – IRIDOLOGYElbualy, Musallam and Schindeler, Joan D., IRIDOLOGY REFERENCESHandbook of Clinical Dermatoglyphs,University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Fla., Bamer, Donald R., Applied Iridology and1971. Herbology © 1982, Bi World Publishers, Orem, UtahHoltzman, A rnold, Applied Handreading, (1983)The Greenw ood Chase Press, Toronto. For more Deck, Josef, Principles of Iris Diagnosis ©1965,updated inform ation oh is work see English ©1985 published by author, U.S.http://www .pdc.co.il Distributor Medicina Biologica, Portland, Or.Loesch, Danuta Z., Quantitative Deck, Josef, Differentiation of Iris MarkingsDermatoglyphics, Classification, Genetics, and ©1980, English © 1983 published by author, U.S.Pathology, Oxford Monographs on Medical Distributor Medicina Biologica, Portland, Or.Genetics, Oxford University Press ©1983 Griffin, LaDean, Essentials of Iridology © 1984,Mavalwala, Jamshed Editor, Dermatoglyphics, Woodland Books, Provo, UtahAn International Perspective, 1978, MoultonPublishers, Jensen, Bernard, The Science and Practice of Iridology © 1952 published by author (12thMosbys Guide to Physical Examination, Henry printing 1981)M. Seidel, M.D., Jane W . Ball, R.N., C.P.N.P., Dr.P.H., Joyce E. Dains, R.N., Dr. P.H., G. William Johnson, Deny, What the Ey e Reveals, ©1984,Benedict, M.D ., Ph.D . with illustrations by George Rayid Model Publications, Goleta, CA.J. Wassilchenko, C.V. M osby Company, St. Louis,Washington D.C. and Toronto, 1987. Kriege, Theodor, Fundamental Basis of Iris Diagnosis, English Translation © 1969 by A. W.Napier, John, Hands, Pantheon Books, New York Priest, Camelot Press Ltd., Southhampton, U.K.©1980 (Not a palmistry book but a scientific bookon hands). Kriege, Theodor, Priest, A.W., Disease Signs In the Iris, Interpretation and Medication, © 1985,Poizner, H oward; Klima, Edward S.; and Bellugi, L. N. Fowler & Co. Ltd., Romford, Essex, UKUrsula, What the Hands Reveal About the Brain vii
  16. 16. Hall, Dorothy, Iridology, How the Eyes RevealYour Health and Y our Personality, © 1980,Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, CN.Schimmel, H.W., Constitution and Dispositionfrom the Eye, © 1984 PASCOE , GiessenWolf, Harii, Applied Iridology, Vol One,Wolf, Harii, Vahjen, James, Instructional IrisAnalysis, Vols 1 ©1979Wolf, Harii, Instructional Iris Analysis, Vols 2and 3 and ©1983Zadoc, Clifford, Clinical Iridology: Neuro-OpticReflex A nalysis And Its Application in the Fieldof Nutrition, A Ph.D. Dissertation presented toDonsbach University, 1983.Seattle, Washington© 2002, 2003 Edward D. Campbell, JDAmida Biometrics, L.L.C.9534 14 th Avenue NorthwestSeattle, Washington 98117-2308Phone (206) 783 3410Facsimile (206) 784 2206 viii

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