Intro comparch
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Intro comparch






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    Intro comparch Intro comparch Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Computer Architecture
      Lecture :- 1
      Date :- 15/02/11
      Designed by :- Er Sanjay Agal
    • What is binary?
      We use the decimal (base 10) number system
      Binary is the base 2 number system
      Ten different numbers are used in base 10. How many are used in base 2?
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Bits & Bytes
      kilo, mega, and giga are different in binary!
      bit (b) – binary digit
      Byte (B) – 8 binary digits
      KiloByte (KB) – 210 bytes
      MegaByte (MB) – 220 bytes
      GigaByte (GB) – 230 bytes
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Storage Scam!
      Example: iPod Nano 8GB
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • What is computer architecture?
      What does “architecture” mean?
      Layout and interactions of a computer system
      What is a computer system?
      Input  Process  Output
      Can a computer system be more than one computer? Think of an example...
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Major Components of a Computer
      Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      Random Access Memory (RAM)
      Hard Drive / Disk
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • ON-OFF-ON-ON
      1 0 1 1
      Several ways to remember the state of a switch:
      Electrical – RAM, flash memory
      Magnetic – Hard drives, magnetic tapes
      Optical – CDs, DVDs
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • What does memory look like?
      Memory ~ RAM
      Looks like a table
      Address and Data
      Address is the location
      Data is the actual value
      Memory stores both data and assembly instructions
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      Also called the “chip” or “processor”
      The brain of the computer
      Major components:
      Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
      Control unit
      controls the calculator
      Communication bus systems
      What’s a bus?!?
      Address Bus
      Control Unit
      Data Bus
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Fetch-Execute Cycle
      Fetch instruction from memory
      Decode instruction in control unit
      Execute instruction (data may be fetched from memory)
      Store results if necessary
      Address Bus
      Control Unit
      Data Bus
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Registers
      Temporary storage containers used inside the CPU
      Extremely fast
      Fixed size, usually multiples of 8-bits
      Also called a “word”
      Example: 32-bit machines (4-byte words)
      How large is a word in a 64-bit machine?
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Cache
      Slower than registers
      Faster than RAM
      Located in front of main RAM
      Different levels of cache
      Level1 (L1) and Level2 (L2)
      Size is usually around 1 MB
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Memory Hierarchy
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Virtual Memory
      What if a program is too big for RAM?
      If a program is too big for memory (RAM), then we start using the hard drive (disk) to store data
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Hard Drives
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • CD/DVDs
      Lands and pits used to represent binary
      Optical medium - lasers and refraction used to read lands and pits
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Direct Access
      also known as “random access”
      No need to go through other data to get the data you want
      We already know where the data is, so we just get it
      “Magic data retrieval” – no movement/motion
      Example: registers, cache, RAM
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Sequential Access
      also known as “serial-access”
      Data is ordered in some sequential fashion
      To get to your data, you need to go through other data in front of it
      Fast-forwarding through a tape to get to the song you want
      Designed by Sanjay Agal
    • Direct-Access vs. Sequential Access
      Advantage: fast access
      Disadvantage: data cannot be accessed in sequential or sorted order
      Data is placed randomly on the disk
      Accessing things in order then requires an index file
      Slower when trying to access sequential data that is not already in order (back-and-forth-and-back-and-forth)
      Example: hard drives (disks)
      Sequential Access
      Advantage: Simple to organize (already in some sequential order)
      Disadvantage: Slow when accessing specific things in no order
      Example: magnetic tape backups
      Could we implement sequential access using a hard disk?
      Designed by Sanjay Agal