Intro comparch
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Intro comparch






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Intro comparch Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Computer Architecture
    Lecture :- 1
    Date :- 15/02/11
    Designed by :- Er Sanjay Agal
  • 2. What is binary?
    We use the decimal (base 10) number system
    Binary is the base 2 number system
    Ten different numbers are used in base 10. How many are used in base 2?
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 3. Bits & Bytes
    kilo, mega, and giga are different in binary!
    bit (b) – binary digit
    Byte (B) – 8 binary digits
    KiloByte (KB) – 210 bytes
    MegaByte (MB) – 220 bytes
    GigaByte (GB) – 230 bytes
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 4. Storage Scam!
    Example: iPod Nano 8GB
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 5. What is computer architecture?
    What does “architecture” mean?
    Layout and interactions of a computer system
    What is a computer system?
    Input  Process  Output
    Can a computer system be more than one computer? Think of an example...
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 6. Major Components of a Computer
    Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    Random Access Memory (RAM)
    Hard Drive / Disk
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 7. ON-OFF-ON-ON
    1 0 1 1
    Several ways to remember the state of a switch:
    Electrical – RAM, flash memory
    Magnetic – Hard drives, magnetic tapes
    Optical – CDs, DVDs
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 8. What does memory look like?
    Memory ~ RAM
    Looks like a table
    Address and Data
    Address is the location
    Data is the actual value
    Memory stores both data and assembly instructions
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 9. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    Also called the “chip” or “processor”
    The brain of the computer
    Major components:
    Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
    Control unit
    controls the calculator
    Communication bus systems
    What’s a bus?!?
    Address Bus
    Control Unit
    Data Bus
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 10. Fetch-Execute Cycle
    Fetch instruction from memory
    Decode instruction in control unit
    Execute instruction (data may be fetched from memory)
    Store results if necessary
    Address Bus
    Control Unit
    Data Bus
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 11. Registers
    Temporary storage containers used inside the CPU
    Extremely fast
    Fixed size, usually multiples of 8-bits
    Also called a “word”
    Example: 32-bit machines (4-byte words)
    How large is a word in a 64-bit machine?
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 12. Cache
    Slower than registers
    Faster than RAM
    Located in front of main RAM
    Different levels of cache
    Level1 (L1) and Level2 (L2)
    Size is usually around 1 MB
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 13. Memory Hierarchy
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 14. Virtual Memory
    What if a program is too big for RAM?
    If a program is too big for memory (RAM), then we start using the hard drive (disk) to store data
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 15. Hard Drives
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 16. CD/DVDs
    Lands and pits used to represent binary
    Optical medium - lasers and refraction used to read lands and pits
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 17. Direct Access
    also known as “random access”
    No need to go through other data to get the data you want
    We already know where the data is, so we just get it
    “Magic data retrieval” – no movement/motion
    Example: registers, cache, RAM
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 18. Sequential Access
    also known as “serial-access”
    Data is ordered in some sequential fashion
    To get to your data, you need to go through other data in front of it
    Fast-forwarding through a tape to get to the song you want
    Designed by Sanjay Agal
  • 19. Direct-Access vs. Sequential Access
    Advantage: fast access
    Disadvantage: data cannot be accessed in sequential or sorted order
    Data is placed randomly on the disk
    Accessing things in order then requires an index file
    Slower when trying to access sequential data that is not already in order (back-and-forth-and-back-and-forth)
    Example: hard drives (disks)
    Sequential Access
    Advantage: Simple to organize (already in some sequential order)
    Disadvantage: Slow when accessing specific things in no order
    Example: magnetic tape backups
    Could we implement sequential access using a hard disk?
    Designed by Sanjay Agal