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Sanivation: Kakuma Trip Summary
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Sanivation: Kakuma Trip Summary

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Kakuma May 2013 trip summary

Kakuma May 2013 trip summary

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  • 1. Kakuma OverviewTrip Sumary May 2013
  • 2. Kakuma• Began in early 90s, originally designed for 20,000refugees, mainly South Sudanese• End of 2012 data places population at 107,200, almost36,000 families, and over 16 nationalities represented.• Kakuma is divided into 3 camps, separated by rivers.Kakuma 1 is the closest to Kakuma town and the oldestand most densely populated• Each camp is divided into zones, each zone is dividedinto blocks, each block holds about 100 families.• UN staff compound is located on the only tarmac roadin the area, south of Camp 1, near Kakuma Town• Air strip is located on the other side of Kakuma Town
  • 3. Process of refugees living in kakuma• First a refugee must check in with Kenyan Governmentofficials for refugees, this in Kakuma town.• Then they go to UNHCR registration in the UN compound• Then they are transferred to the reception center. Wherethey live in communal dorms until a plot is prepared forthem• Then about 50 families at a time move into new arrivalsarea. Water lines with taps are laid, and communal latrinesare built. They are given tarp houses and instructed on howto build mud brick houses. When the mud brick houses arefinished, NCCK provides iron sheets for roofing• During the first year NRC teaches about making their ownHH latrine
  • 4. Sanitation in KakumaTwo main implementing partners• IRC: been the only implementer of sanitationsince 1990’s, now only runs camp 1 &2, soonwill pass off all to NRC• NRC: Been in Kakuma for less than a year.Runs Kakuma 3 sanitation, soon will run all
  • 5. Latrines• New arrivals are given communal latrines toshare about 4-10 HH per toilet• Households are encouraged to dig their own5m deep pit, and then will be provided with aslab and usually a super structure, families areto build their own latrine• Health promoters will teach and asses theconstruction of the pit and the superstructure
  • 6. Slabs• Slabs cost about 2,000ksh to make, about 24days ready for installation• 3 types– Dome ferrowcement, weighs 250kg– Square reinforced cement, weighs 100kg– Domed square reinforced, weighs 10kg
  • 7. Super Structure• Cost about 10,000ksh• Made from poles,nails, iron sheets,hinges and possiblesome timber for door• Biggest problems:– wind blowing door off– Drainage from shower– Rainy season
  • 8. New Arrival Areas• NRC builds communal latrines in sanitation corridorbetween plots• These fill up and super structure breaks very easily
  • 9. Households• Often can not afford to have pit dug, or to payto have materials for latrine delivered• Often there is no space for consecutivelatrines as old ones fill up
  • 10. Schools• Sanitation blocks, as latrines fill up, continueto build new ones• Very difficult to maintain
  • 11. Reception Center• Currently almost 2,000 refugees living in anarea designed for 500• Have sanitation blocks in public area. Filling upvery quickly
  • 12. Protected Area• Where people who might be in danger live• Very crowded area, plots are too small to haveany HH latrine. So there is a latrine corridor nearfence. But have been so many latrines here, thatthere are few places left to dig where there is notan already full pit just below the surface.
  • 13. Hand washing• Promote washing hands withsoap before eating, and aftervisiting the latrine• Most families do not havesoap, some replace with ash• Implementing partners try togive out soap, but do not havefunding• Just started giving leaky teen /tippy taps with latrines– But often times container isremoved and used for otherpurposes
  • 14. Re-use possibilities• Cooking Fuel– NRC provided each HH with about20% of its fuel needs throughfirewood– Refugees tend to trade food ratiosfor more fire wood– NRC manufactures and gives awayefficient stoves that make cooking30% more efficient– NRC spends a lot of money onfirewood, and becoming more andmore of a problem– Deforestation problem– Solar cookers were tired in the pastwithout much success– ALWAYS looking for new ideas forcooking fuels
  • 15. Re-use possibilities• Soil amendment– NRC has tree nurseries thatgrow local seedlings and giveto refuges– NRC also builds and maintainsgreenbelts to help grow treesagain in the area– Currently buys manure (maidmainly from goat and cowdung) from local communities– Would be very interested in ahuman waste based manurefor tree nursery
  • 16. Biggest Problems dealing withSanitation• Lack of space for new latrines– As more refugees come, lacking space for communal latrines– On older plots, running out of space to dig new pits• Funding for everyone to get materials they need– Funding only allows top need people to get entire latrine structures• Drainage of water from bathroom use• People claim they can not dig pit and do not have funds to paysomeone else to dig pit• People claim they can not pick up slab, and do not have fundsto have it delivered• Rainy Season: muddy, flooding, smells• Lack of latrines for disabled• New arrival areas where as many as 10 HH share 1 latrine, nomaintenance, arguments over cleaning
  • 17. Biggest Problem for Hygiene• Lack of sap/lime for cleaning or washing hands• New jerry-cans used for Tippy-taps are taken• Stagnate water in rainy season• Toilets are also bathrooms• Solid waste– Lack of tools for cleaning and transport– Lack of space for trash dump sites• Too many residents per Health Promoter
  • 18. Locations of toughest Sanitation• Protected area• Reception area• Old, small plots where there is no more spacefor latrines• Schools• New arrival areas
  • 19. Goals for this ProjectHad a meeting with leaders in sanitation from NRC, IRCand UNHCR, asked questions about what they want ina new sanitation system, the responses had a largevariety.Reminder of Focus:• #1 priority of Sanitation in Camp is disease prevention:lets make sure as many people as possible get accessto a clean, safe toilet and that waste is containedsafely• Focus of implementing partners is to provide toiletsthat are acceptable and assessable to all beneficiaries
  • 20. Possible Goals / Aims for this Project• Increase lifespan of current latrines– Funding comes and goes, long lasting is vital– Current pits are working, are already installed how can we justcontinue those– No space to keep adding, make the most of what we have• Biggest expenses come from materials being broken or stolen, weneed durability• Pit latrines are not the way to go, not safe, take up lots of space,not sustainable• Need a practical technology that can convince donors to invest inthis longer sustainable option• Need new technology that minimizes the need for digging new pits,less latrine digging is the biggest priority• Need to focus on recycling/ reuse• Need to focus on each beneficiary having their own toilet that theycan maintain, they have the ownership• Need to focus on more employment creation
  • 21. Focus ideas– Something to help sanitation coverage– Something to help refugees do more themselves– Something to save space– Something to empty current latrines– Something that will work 10 years from now– Something that can deal with high inflows of newarrivals