Local governance


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Local governance

  1. 1. A glimpse of Local Governancein Nepal: presentcontext, challenges, opportunities and way forward Sangita Thapa 6 August 2012
  2. 2. Governance Encompasses a political regime in which the authority exercises its power in the management of a country‘s economic and social resources for development (World Bank, 1992). Good governance consists of a normative aspect (quality of governance); entails managing public affairs in a transparent, accountable and equitable manner (Santiso 2001). Good Governance consists of voice and accountability, effective service delivery, rule of law, control of corruption and just government Interim plan (2010) adopts the strategy of ‘good governance and effective service delivery’ to fulfil its vision of prosperous, modern and just Nepal. Tenth Plan (2007) emphasises on the poverty reduction through improved governance among others strategies. 1
  3. 3. Local Governance Formal and informal relationships between different a ctors in development (e.g. local government, the priva te sector, associations and other agencies) Comprises a set of institutions, mechanisms and proc esses through which citizens and their groups can arti culate their interests and needs, mediate their differen ces and exercise their rights and obligations at the local le vel. Includes a broader set of agents such as citizens, NGOs & private sector: citizens’ participation, partnership among key actors at the local level, capacity of local actors across all sectors, multiple flows of information, institutions of 2
  4. 4. Principle of Local Governance1. Accountability refers to government and its employees being responsible for their actions and activities2. Transparency refers to the information and knowledge of a governments’ decisions, activities (esp. monitory and budgetary), policies etc3. Participation is the principle that all people have right to take part in public affaires of the State and have right to be consulted in the public decision making.4. Rule of law consists of fair, predictable and stable legal system which could ensure all the above mentioned aspects. All these elements are interlinked, and mutually supportive and reinforcing. 3
  5. 5. Local Governance in Nepal After restoration of democracy, LSGA (1999) and subsequent Rules were enacted to strengthen local bodies for self-rule There is no election since 2002 July, LGs are run in ad hoc basis without representatives & civil servants are the in-charge of local authority (DDC acts as local self-government) There is political arrangement of All Party Mechanism Four sectors (Primary education, sub-health post, livestock and agriculture extension) have been devolved to local government Local Governance and Community Development Programme (LGCDP) was launched from 2008 which continued until July 2012. 4
  6. 6. Opportunities Inclusive participatory planning formulation Development according to the consumer’s and local people’s needs Periodic monitoring and evaluation Accountability tools such as Public hearing, Public audit, Social audit and Annual Review to ensure the participation and inclusion of local people 5
  7. 7. Challenges Lip service to social accountability tools Remote and rural areas (e.g. Far and Mid Western parts) are often ignored while allocating resources, designing projects and providing services Monitoring & evaluation is not effective, no elected representative (weakened institutions, bred corruption) Lack of proper coordination with NGOs and Line agencies, conflict of interest due to all Party Mechanism Lack of capacity (Human resource, training, equipment, internal coordination) Budget ceiling and guidelines are not sent on time 6
  8. 8. Way Forward Decentralization in the local and regional bodies and participation of civil society in the governance Accountable and responsible Political Mechanism (article 139 (2) of Interim constitution) Implementation of Capacity Building Programs Empower CSOs to make accountable local bodies Coordination among major stakeholders, control of corruption and misuses Maintain Law and order, timely release of budget Representation as well as effective participation of excluded communities should be ensured in local government bodies and COs to bring them into the mainstream. 7
  9. 9. Contd… Develop mechanism and legislative measures to attract private sector in infrastructure building and divert remittances and savings earned by local migrant workers Budget should be allocated in critical sectors such as education, health, drinking water, sanitation, rural road and communication 8
  10. 10. Reference HMGN (1999) Local Self-Governance Act. Government of Nepal. PRIA (2011) Democratic Accountability in Local Governance Institutions: Experiences from South Asia. PRIA Global Partnership. New Delhi, India. Santiso C. (2001) Good Governance and Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Conditionality. The George town Public Policy Review.7, pp. 1-22. UNDP(2004)Decentralised Governance for Development, A Co mbined Practice Note on Decentralisation, Local Governance an d Urban/Rural Development. UNDP. World Bank (1992) Governance and Development. Washington DC, The World Bank. Acharya, A. (2011) A decade of Democratic Deficit. The Nepali Times. 13 May 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nepalitimes.com/issue/2011/05/13/ByTheWay/18193 9
  11. 11. Thank you for your patience!