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  1. 1. Universal Design Material from Authors of Human Computer Interaction Alan Dix, et al
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Universal design is about designing systems so they can be used by anyone in any circumstance. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-modal systems use more than one human input channel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech & non-speech sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal design means designing for diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people with sensory, physical or cognitive impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people of different ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people from different cultures or backgrounds </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Universal Design <ul><li>Practical? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be able to design everything to be accessible to everyone so they have the same experience, but we try to provide equivalent experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not have to be complex or costly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many examples take into account diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lowered curb with different texture at intersections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>help people in wheelchairs, blind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mothers pushing carriages, people lugging suitcases ... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Seven Universal Design Principles <ul><li>1. Equitable use - if identical use is not possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>safety, security and privacy should be available to all. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Flexibility in use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide choice of methods & adapt to user’s pace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Simplicity and intuitiveness of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support user’s expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accommodate different languages and literacy skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide prompting and feedback </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Seven Universal Design Principles <ul><li>4. Perceptible information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redundancy of information: use different forms/modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasize essential information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Tolerance for error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize impact caused by mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove potentially dangerous situations or hard to reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hazards should be shielded by warnings. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Seven Universal Design Principles <ul><li>6. Low physical effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comfort; minimize fatigue and effort; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repetitive or sustained actions should be avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Size and space for approach and use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>placement of system should be reachable by all users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consider line of sight for standing and sitting user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow for variation in hand size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide room for assistive devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles 6 and 7 apply less to software </li></ul>
  7. 8. Multi-modal Interaction <ul><li>Provides access to information through more than one mode of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Sight is predominant and most interactive systems use visual channel as primary presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Multi-modal interaction <ul><li>Sound important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keeps us aware of surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides clues and cues to switch our attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music - also auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>convey and alter moods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conjure up visual images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evoke atmospheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tactile feedback to operate tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hold and move tools, instruments, pens </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Multi-modal interaction <ul><li>Taste and smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less appreciated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check food if bad, detect early signs of fire, … </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Multi-modal interaction <ul><li>Human-human everyday interaction multi-modal </li></ul><ul><li>Each sense provides different information to make whole </li></ul><ul><li>Want Human-computer interaction to be multi-modal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visual channel can get overloaded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide richer interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide redundancy for an equivalent experience to all </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Sound in the interface <ul><li>Contributes to usability </li></ul><ul><li>Audio confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in key clicks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>error occurrences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide information when visual attention elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>… or environment has visual limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Dual presentation through sound and vision supports universal design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables access to visual and hearing impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two kinds: speech and nonspeech </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sound in the interface: Speech <ul><li>Language complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phonemes - atomic elements of speech (40 in English) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prosody - alteration in tone and quality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>co-articulation - phonemes sound different next to others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allophones - differences in sound in phonemes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>morphemes - smallest unit of language that has meaning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Sound in the interface: Speech <ul><ul><li>Speech recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful when hands are occupied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative means of input for users with visual, physical and cognitive impairment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>single-user systems; require training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>barriers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>background noise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>redundant and meaningless noise (‘uh’) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variations between individuals and regional accents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speech-based word processors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telephone -based systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interactive systems that give feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Sound in the interface: Speech <ul><li>Speech Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary to speech recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monotonic - doesn’t sound natural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>canned messages - not too bad, prosody can be hand coded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spoken output cannot be reviewed or browsed easily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intrusive (more noise or equipment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blind or partially sighted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accessible output medium (screen readers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assist those with disabilities affecting their speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predefined messages can be stored </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Sound in the interface: Speech <ul><li>Un-interpreted speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech does not have to recognized by computer to be useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed pre-recorded messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>human prosody and pronunciation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quality is low </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: announcements in airport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio annotations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be digitally sped up without changing pitch </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound <ul><li>Assimilated quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Learned regardless of language </li></ul><ul><li>Require less attention </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indications of changes or errors in interactive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide status changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound representation of actions and objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give redundant information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Kinds - auditory icons and earcons </li></ul>
  17. 18. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound <ul><li>Auditory icons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use natural sounds to represent types of objects and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mac’s SonicFinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crumpling paper when putting file in wastebasket </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem : Some objects or actions don’t have a natural sound </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound <ul><li>Earcons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use structure - combinations of notes (motives) to represent actions and objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vary according to rhythm, pitch, timbre, scale and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchically structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compound earcons - combine motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ create’ and ‘file’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>family earcons - ‘error’ family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes learning easier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even lack of musical ability has little effect on ability to remember earcons </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Touch in the interface <ul><li>Touch both sends and receives information </li></ul><ul><li>Touch in the interface is haptic interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Two areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cutaneous - tactile sensations through skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vibrations against skin; temperature, texture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kinesthetics - perception of movement and position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resistance or force feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Entertainment or training </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic braille display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>force feedback devices in VR equipment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Handwriting Recognition <ul><li>Handwriting provides textural and graphical input </li></ul><ul><li>Technology for recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digitizing tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sampling problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic paper - thin screen on top </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognizing handwriting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>variation among individuals (even day-to-day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>co-articulation - letters are different next to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cursive more difficult </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Gesture recognition <ul><li>Subject in multi-modal systems recently </li></ul><ul><li>Involves controlling computer with movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put that there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no possibility for typing (VR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports people with hearing loss (sign language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computer vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data glove (intrusive) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Gesture recognition <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures user dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>co-articulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmenting gestures difficult </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Designing for Diversity <ul><li>Interfaces usually designed for ‘average’ user </li></ul><ul><li>Universal design indicate we take into account many factors (focus on 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Designing for users with disabilities <ul><li>10% population has disability that will affect interaction with computers </li></ul><ul><li>Moral and legal responsibility to provide accessible products </li></ul><ul><li>Look at following kinds of impairments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Visual impairment <ul><li>Screen readers using synthesized speech or braille output devices can provide complete access to text-based interactive applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically rise in use of graphical interfaces reduces possibilities for visually impaired users. </li></ul><ul><li>To extend access use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>touch </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Visual impairment <ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earcons and auditory icons to graphical objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Outspoken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses synthetic speech to make other Mac applications available to visually impaired users </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Visual impairment: Example 2 <ul><li>Soundtrack (wordprocessor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tones help users move navigate around system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clicking on a cell on screen, make its speak its name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>double-clicking on cell, causes submenu to appear which can be navigated with tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text entry by speaking words or characters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized software, could not augment other commercially available software </li></ul>
  28. 29. Visual impairment: Example 3 <ul><li>Mathematics for Blind </li></ul><ul><li>Solve 3(x - 2) + 4 = 7 - 2(3 - x) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do it in your head or on paper? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blind children have to do it their heads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mathtalk - system developed in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses speech synthesis to speak formulae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard input to navigate and manipulate them </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Visual impairment: Example 3 <ul><li>Say 3x + 4 = 7. </li></ul><ul><li>Say 3 (x + 4) = 7 without saying parentheses. </li></ul>3 + x = 7 4 time pitch time pitch 3 = 7 x + 4 Several cues: longer and shorter gaps between terms, and prosody: rising and falling pitch
  30. 31. Visual impairment: Example 3 <ul><li>Reading equations usually includes regressions : eyes move backwards and forwards through text </li></ul><ul><li>Also first glance at equation to see symbols (graphical) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathtalk supports rapid keyboard-based navigation within each equation and algebra earcons </li></ul><ul><li>Mathtalk uses keyboard input and speech output. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech input is slow and error-prone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>braille output could be used, but small number read braille </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Visual impairment <ul><li>More recent is use of touch in the interface </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic braille displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>force feedback devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elements in interface can be touched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>edges, textures and behavior (pushing a button) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires specialist software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more likely major applications will become ‘haptic enabled’ in future </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Hearing impairment <ul><li>Hearing impairment may appear to have little impact on use of an interface (or a graphical interface) </li></ul><ul><li>To an extent true (but increase in multi-media applications) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Hearing impairment <ul><li>Computer technology can enhance communication opportunities for people with hearing loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email and instant messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gesture recognition to translate signing or speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caption audio content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also enhances experiences of all users - good universal design </li></ul>
  34. 35. Physical impairment <ul><li>Users with physical disabilities vary in amount of control and movement they have in hands </li></ul><ul><li>Precise mouse control may be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Speech input and output is an option (if they can speak without difficulty) </li></ul>
  35. 36. Physical impairment <ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eyegaze system - tracks eye movements to control cursor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard driver - attaches to user’s head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gesture and movement tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predictive systems (Reactive keyboard) can anticipate commands within context </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Speech impairment <ul><li>Multimedia systems provide a number of tools for communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text-based communication and conferencing systems (slow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthetic speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be pre-programmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predictive algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anticipate words and fill them in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conventions can help provide context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smiley face :) for a joke </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Dyslexia <ul><li>Textual information is difficult for dyslexic users </li></ul><ul><li>More severe forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>idiosyncratic word construction methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spell phonetically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech input and output devices can alleviate need to read and write </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less severe forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spell correction facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistent navigation structure and clear sign posting cues are important </li></ul><ul><li>Use color coding and graphical information </li></ul>
  38. 39. Autism <ul><li>Affects person’s ability to communicate and interact with people and make sense of environment </li></ul><ul><li>Triad of impairments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social interaction - relating to others and responding appropriately to social situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication - problems in understanding verbal and textual language (including gestures and expressions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination - rigidity of thought processes </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Autism <ul><li>Universal design can assist in two main areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computers are motivating (consistent and impersonal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with language may be aided by graphical representations of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables autistic person to experience (VR and games) social situations and learn appropriate responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a secure and consistent environment where they are in control </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Designing for different age groups <ul><li>Older people and children have specific needs when it comes to interactive technology </li></ul><ul><li>Older people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proportion growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have more leisure time and disposable income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no evidence they are averse to new technologies </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Designing for different age groups: Older people <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proportion of disabilities increases with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>over 50% over age 65 have one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failing vision, hearing, speech, mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age-related memory loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some older users lack familiarity and fear learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email and instant message provide social interaction in cases of mobility or speech difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile technologies provide memory aids </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Designing for different age groups: Older people <ul><li>Manuals and terminology difficult, so use redundancy and support user of access </li></ul><ul><li>Designs must be clear and simple and forgiving of mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic and relevant training </li></ul>
  43. 44. Designing for different age groups: Children <ul><li>Children have specific needs and they are diverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have own goals and likes and dislikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve children in design of interactive design ( intergenerational design teams) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not have developed hand-eye coordination and makes keyboards difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pen-based interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multiple modes of input involving touch and handwriting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>redundant displays </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Designing for cultural differences <ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Political Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>All influence individual’s response to a system, but may not be relevant in design of a given system </li></ul>
  45. 46. Designing for cultural differences <ul><li>Key factors to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of color </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Designing for cultural differences <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toolkits for designing systems provide language resource databases to translate menu items, text, error messages, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layouts for languages that don’t read the same are a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>left to right vs top to bottom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbols have different meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ticks and crosses - interchangeable in some cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rainbow - covenant with God, diversity, hope and peace </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Designing for cultural differences <ul><li>Use of gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common in video and animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more common in virtual reality and avatars in games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>red for danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>red represents life (India), happiness (China) and royalty (France) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult to assume universal interpretation of color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support and clarify color with redundancy </li></ul></ul>