THE SYSTEMS OF THE HUMANBODYSCIENCEJUAN FRANCISCO GARCÍA
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM“Remember to breathe. It is after all, the secret of life.”― Gregory Maguire, A Lion Among Men
RESPIRATION AND THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Breathing and respiration are often used to mean the same thing. However, breathing is only one part of respiration. Respiration Is the process by which a body gets and uses oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water. It´s divided into two parts: Cellular respiration: involves chemical Breathing: involves inhaling and reactions that release energy from exhaling. food.
RESPIRATION AND THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Respiration Respiratory System• The exchange of • A collection of oxygen and organs whose carbon dioxide primary function is between living to take in oxygen cells and their and expel carbon environment. dioxide.• Includes breathing and cellular respiration.
ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Throat Nose • Pharynx and • Larynx PassagewaysTrachea • Bronchi • Bronchioles Lungs
NOSE, PHARYNX AND LARYNX NOSE Is the main passageway into and out of Air can enter and leave through the nose the respiratory system. and the mouth. PHARYNX It branches into two tubes. Air, food and drink travel through the it. • The esophagus, leads to the stomach. • The larynx, leads to the lungs. LARYNX The vocal cords area pair When air flows betweenHere are contain the vocal of elastic bands that stretch the vocal cords, the cords cords. across the larynx. vibrate producing sounds.
TRACHEA, BRONCHI AND ALVEOLI TRACHEA The larynx guards the entrance to a The trachea is the passageway for air large tube called trachea. traveling from the larynx to the lungs. BRONCHI The trachea splits into Each bronchus branches One bronchus connects two branches called into smaller tubes called to each lung.bronchi (sg. Bronchus). bronchioles. ALVEOLIIn the lungs, each bronchiole branches Here is where the oxygen and carbon to form tiny sacs called alveoli (sg. dioxide exchange happens. Alveolus)
BREATHING When you breathe, air is sucked into or forced out of your lungs. It is done by the diaphragm and the rib muscles.
When you Exhaling is this inhale, the process in diaphragm reverse. contracts and moves down.As a result, yourchest cavity gets The chest bigger and a cavity´s volume vacuum is increases. created. Air is sucked in. At the same time, some of your rib muscles contract and lift your rib cage.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION The mitochondria INHALING AIR use the oxygen takes to transform OXYGEN the glucose into ATP. Cells grab the oxygen from It is diffuse in the interstitial the blood space and they stream from start to use it the alveoli to inside the the capilars. cells. Oxygen is release from Red blood the red blood cells pick the cells into the oxygen using a blood stream molecule and diffuses called into the hemoglobin. tissues. They deliver the oxygen to the tissues through the blood stream.
THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM (ALSO REFER ASCIRCULATORY SYSTEM)
EXERCISE • Take your pulse while remaining still. (Take your pulse by placing your fingers1.- on the inside of your wrist just below your thumb). • Using a watch with a second hand, count the number of heart beats in 15 s.2.- Then, multiply this number by 4 to calculate the number of beats in 1 minute. • Do some moderate physical activity, such as jumping jacks or jogging in3.- place, for 30 s. • Stop and calculate your heart rate again.4.- • Rest for 5 min.5.- • Take your pulse again.6.-
ANALYSIS1. How did exercise affect your heart rate? Why do you think this happened?2. How does your heart rate affect the rate at which red blood cells travel throughout your body?3. Did your heart rate return to normal (or almost normal) after you rested? Why or why not?
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
YOUR CARDIOVASCULAR HEART SYSTEM BLOOD BLOOD VESSELS LUNGS
YOUR CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM FUNCTIONS: Helps mantain homeostasis by performing many functions. Helps mantain your body by carrying nutrients to your cells and by removing wastes from your cells. Helps in regulation by carrying chemical signals called hormones throughtout the body.
BLOOD VESSELS ARTERIES CAPILLARIES VEINS• A blood vessel • Is a tiny blood • Is a blood that carries vessel that vessel that blood away from allows these carries blood the heart. exchanges back to the• Thick walls, a between body heart. layer of smooth cells and blood. • Valves in the muscle. • Capillary walls veins keep the• Artery walls are only one cell blood from stretch and are thick. flowing ussually strong backward. enough to stand the pressure.
The digestive system is a group of organs and tissues that work together to digest food so that it can be used by the body. In all theres about 9 meters of these convoluted pipeworks, starting with the mouth and ending with the anus. Along the way, food is broken down, sorted, and reprocessed before being circulated around the body to nourish and replace cells and supply energy to our muscles.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MOUTH Tongue Teeth Saliva ESOPHAGUS Peristaltic movements STOMACH Digestion of proteins and lipids. SMALL INTESTINE 3 sections. Digestion and absortion of majority nutrient content. LARGE INTESTINE Absortion of water and minerals. OTHER MAJOR ORGANS PANCREAS GALLBLADDER LIVER
THE MOUTH: THE TEETH Food on the plate needs to become a mashed-up, gooey liquid for the digestive system to be able to split it up into its constituent parts: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Our teeth start the process by chewing and grinding up each mouthful, while the tongue works it into a ball- shaped bolus for swallowing.
THE MOUTH: SALIVA Moistening saliva fed into the mouth from nearby glands starts the process of chemical digestion using specialized proteins called enzymes. Secreted at various points along the digestive tract, enzymes break down large molecules of food into smaller molecules that the body is able to absorb.
THE ESOPHAGUS Once we swallow, digestion becomes involuntary. Food passes down the throat to the esophagus, the first of a succession of hollow organs that transport their contents through muscular contractions known as peristalsis.
THE STOMACH The esophagus empties into the stomach, a large, muscular chamber that mixes food up with digestive juices including the enzymes pepsin, which targets proteins, and lipase, which works on fats. Hydrochloric acid likewise helps to dissolve the stomach contents while killing potentially harmful bacteria. The resulting semifluid paste—chyme— is sealed in the stomach by two ringlike sphincter muscles for several hours and then released in short bursts into the duodenum.
THE SMALL INTESTINE The first of three sections of the small intestine, the duodenum produces large quantities of mucus to protect the intestinal lining from acid in the chyme. Measuring about 6 meters in length, the small intestine is where the major digestion and absorption of nutrients take place. These nutrients are taken into the bloodstream, via millions of tiny, fingerlike projections called villi, and transported to the liver.
THE LARGE INTESTINE Whats left in the digestive tract passes into the large intestine, where its eaten by billions of harmless bacteria and mixed with dead cells to form solid feces. Water is reabsorbed into the body while the feces are moved into the rectum to await expulsion.
THE PANCREAS The pancreas is a gland organ located behind the stomach that manufactures a cocktail of enzymes that are pumped into the duodenum. INSULIN.
THE GALLBLADDER A duct also connects the duodenum to the gallbladder. This pear-shaped sac squeezes out green-brown bile, a waste product collected from the liver that contains acids for dissolving fatty matter.
THE LIVER The liver itself is the bodys main chemical factory, performing hundreds of different functions. It processes nutrients absorbed into the blood by the small intestine, creating energy-giving glycogen from sugary carbohydrates and converting dietary proteins into new proteins needed for our blood. These are then stored or released as needed, as are essential vitamins and minerals. The liver also breaks down unwanted chemicals, such as any alcohol consumed, which is detoxified and passed from the body as waste.