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The atom project
 

The atom project

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  • Everything with see is made of atomsEverything with touch Everything with taste and Everything with smell

The atom project The atom project Presentation Transcript

  • The Atom
  •  Everything with see is made of atoms Everything with touch Everything with taste Everything with smell
  • What is an Atom? Democritus described it as the smallest piece of matter that could not be divided into smaller pieces the world atom means not to be cut.
  •  Then John Dalton proposed the atomic theory of matter based on his experimental observation.He said that: All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties. Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. Atoms can be neither created nor destroyed
  •  Then in 1807 Thomson proposed the plum pudding model or chocolate chip cookie model. An atom is a sphere of which is positive and an electron that has a negative charge embedded in it. The positive and negative charge in the atom are equal in magnitude. That’s why atoms are electrically neutral.
  •  In 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev classified the elements by the atomic weight. He arranged the elements of increasing. He discovered that there existed a periodicity of elemental properties
  •  Then in 1911 Rutherford describe the atom with the nucleus and the vast majority of the atom as empty space.
  •  Then Neils Bohr refined Rutherfords proposing that electron orbits the nucleus without losing energy Can move only in fixed orbits of specific energies. Electrons with low energy would orbit closer to the nucleus while electrons with high energy orbit further from the nucleus.
  •  Then in 1932 James Chadwick discover the neutron . He said that the neutron has significant mass and no charge
  • The modern quantum cloudmodel carbon
  • Conclusion: Atoms are composed of three elementary particles: the electron, the proton and the neutron.
  • Conclusion: Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus of the atom. The protons and the neutrons are at the center. And electrons are outside the nucleolus.
  • Conclusion: In neutral atoms, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
  • Conclusion: The type of element each atom is determined by the number of protons it has. carbon helium
  • Conclusion: The number of protons in an element is equal to the atomic number - the number on which the periodic table is based.
  • Conclusion: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different masses.
  • Conclusion: The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a particular atom. The mass number is different for different isotopes of the same element.
  • References: http://web.neo.edu/rjones/Pages/1014new/Lecture/ chemistry/chapter_8/pages/history_of_atom.html http://profmokeur.ca/chemistry/history_of_the_atom .htm