FUNGI Fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. They do not have chloroplasts. Fungi are very closely related to humans. Some fungi are unicellular organisms.By: Natasha Pérez, Patricio Hinojosa , Melissa Rueda & Dominique
Fungi Anatomy The fungi consists of two parts, the reproductive structure, & the underground mycillium. The fungi usually concentrates all its energy on adding hyphae which allows for more surface area. The second part of the structure is the reproductive structure.
Characteristics: All are eukaryotes. Most are filamentous. Some are unicellular. Protoplasm of a hypha or cell is surrounded by a rigid wall. Many reproduce both sexually & asexually. Their nuclei are typically haploid & hyphal compartments are often multinucleate. All are achlorophyllous. They break down decayed substances in nutrients for plants. Some edible ones can be good for our bodies.
Diversity:Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, includingextreme environments. This organism spends part of its life cycle as a motile zoospore. Otherexamples of aquatic fungi include those living in hydrothermal areas of the ocean. Around100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists. The fungal kingdomhas been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species. Species may also be distinguished bytheir biochemical & physiological characteristics.
Mobility:Technically a fungi moves by releasing reproductive spores that are carried by wind orrain water & by growing and extending their hyphae. This allows them to growsomewhere else but they dont actually have any physical movement. Hyphae grow asnew cells form at the tips, creating ever longer and branching chains of cells.
Classification:Kingdom Fungi:The fungi kingdom is broken down into four phylums: Chytrids Zygote Fungi Ascomycota Basidium
Physiology:Nutrition: Most fungi contain complex enzymes and other chemical substances The chemical products ofdigestion are, therefore, completed outside of the organism, and the fungus absorbs the end products.Reproduction: Fungi reproduce sexually or asexually, or both, depending upon the species and theenvironmental conditions. This group is important because it contains most of the pathogenic fungi. Theyeasts reproduce both by spores and by a process known as budding, which is similar to binary fission.Growth: Fungi grow under the same conditions of bacteria. Fungi are easily killed at high temperatures.
Distribution:Fungi are spread anywhere & can live on their own or as parasites of other eukaryoteorganisms. They are usually visible on such foods as bread, jam and fruits in the form of ablue or green coating.
Pros & ConsPros: They help in the decaying process . All things that die must decay.Environmental BenefitsThe fungi are instrumental in cycling carbon, minerals and other nutrients whichbenefit local ecology. Certain fungi also decompose dead organic matter and return itto the soil.Cons: Viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae & protozoa cause many diseases .Fungal DiseasesFungal diseases are called mycoses and those affecting humans can be divided intofour groups. Superficial mycoses Cutaneous mycoses Subcutaneous mycoses Systemic or deep mycoses