Ecology and ecosystems

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Ecology, principles of ecology, food chains and food webs. Interactions of life.

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  • Pyramids are graphicalmodels of thequantitativedifferencesthatexistbetweenthetrophiclevels of a single ecosystem.
  • Ecology and ecosystems

    1. 1. Principles of Population EcologyJuan Francisco García4TH MYPBiology
    2. 2.  Ecosystems are made up of the interactions between theliving and non-living components within them.
    3. 3.  Living biological factors that influence the other organisms orenvironment of an ecosystem. This is a lot more than just listing the plants, animals or micro-organisms found in an ecosystem. It includes the roles playedby the organisms.
    4. 4. Bioticfactorsinteractas:ProducersConsumersDetrivoresDecomposersParasitesHostPredatorCompetitorHerbivoreSymbiantPathogen
    5. 5.  The Physical and Chemical components of an ecosystem.TheAtmosphereClimate andWaterSoil Structureand ChemistryWaterChemistrySeasonality
    6. 6.  It is the abiotic conditions in anenvironment which ultimately giverise to the biotic communitypresent. This is illustrated below withexamples of six differentecosystems, including anecosystem found on the surface ofsome rocks, each of which is theresult of the initial controllingabiotic factors which operate.
    7. 7.  The position that an organism occupiesin a food chain, or a group oforganisms in a community that occupythe same position in food chains.
    8. 8. PYRAMID OFNUMBERSPYRAMID OFBIOMASSPYRAMID OFPRODUCTIVITY/ ENERGY
    9. 9.  Group of organisms thatinterbreed and produce fertileoffspring. If 2 species breed together toproduce a hybrid, this may surviveto adulthood but cannot produceviable gametes and so is sterile.
    10. 10. TheSpeciesconceptcannot:Identify whether geographically isolatedpopulations belong to the same species.Classify species in extinct populations.Account for sexually reproducingorganisms.Clearly define species when barriers toreproduction are incomplete.
    11. 11.  Is defined in ecology as: A group of organisms of the same speciesliving in the same area at the same time,and which are capable of interbreeding.
    12. 12.  It refers to the environment inwhich a species normally lives.
    13. 13.  An ecological niches is best bedescribed as where, when andhow an organism lives. No two different species can havethe same niche because the nichecompletly defines a species.
    14. 14.  Is a group of populationsliving and interacting witheach other in a commonhabitat.
    15. 15.  Is a community of interdependentorganisms (the biotic component)and the physical environment (theabiotic component) they inhabit.BioticcomponentsAbioticcomponentsEcosystem
    16. 16.  Crypsis: is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by otherorganisms.
    17. 17.  Camouflage: is the ability of anorganism to modify their structure,texture or color to resemble theenvironment and avoid beingnotice.
    18. 18.  Mimetism: is the similarity of onespecies to another which protectsone or both.
    19. 19.  Batesian Mimetism: to resemble dangerous species. Mullerian Mimetism: they have an awful taste.
    20. 20.  Aposematism: is the ability of someorganisms to present colorful orvery visible warning to help avoidpredators.
    21. 21.  “The life in conjuction of twodifferent organisms, normally inclose association, and, ussually,with at least one of them beingbenefit.”-Anton de Bary-
    22. 22.  Ectosymbiosis: the symbiont livesover the body of the host, includingthe interior of the digestive trackand the endocrine glandules. Endosymbiosis: the symbiont livesinside the cells of the host or in theintercellular space.
    23. 23.  «The success of parasitism[also symbiosis] is wellplaced in adaptation andsurvival, it means that thesuccess is measured notby the damage that iscauses, but by thecapacity to adapt andintegrate theenvironment.»-Sanchez, 2008-
    24. 24.  One of the species gets a benefitwhile the other does not.
    25. 25.  Foresis: It`s when an organism use the other as away of transport. Inquilinism: When an organism use another oneas refuge or habitat. Metabiosis or Tanatocresis: it´s a more indirectrelation, when one organism use something fromthe other, after it dies.
    26. 26.  “Interaction between individuals of different species, in which both obtain a benefitand change their biological aptitude.
    27. 27. “It´s a type ofinterspecific relation,which consist on thehunt and death that somespecies suffer (prey), by themeans of other organisms, calledpredators. The same individual canbe prey and predator, according tothe situation.
    28. 28. “It´s described as themutual evolutiveadaptation phenomenaproduced between two ormore species as the resultof both sides influence bydifferent interactions oflife.”

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