Pyramids are graphicalmodels of thequantitativedifferencesthatexistbetweenthetrophiclevels of a single ecosystem.
Ecology and ecosystems
Principles of Population EcologyJuan Francisco García4TH MYPBiology
Ecosystems are made up of the interactions between theliving and non-living components within them.
Living biological factors that influence the other organisms orenvironment of an ecosystem. This is a lot more than just listing the plants, animals or micro-organisms found in an ecosystem. It includes the roles playedby the organisms.
The Physical and Chemical components of an ecosystem.TheAtmosphereClimate andWaterSoil Structureand ChemistryWaterChemistrySeasonality
It is the abiotic conditions in anenvironment which ultimately giverise to the biotic communitypresent. This is illustrated below withexamples of six differentecosystems, including anecosystem found on the surface ofsome rocks, each of which is theresult of the initial controllingabiotic factors which operate.
The position that an organism occupiesin a food chain, or a group oforganisms in a community that occupythe same position in food chains.
PYRAMID OFNUMBERSPYRAMID OFBIOMASSPYRAMID OFPRODUCTIVITY/ ENERGY
Group of organisms thatinterbreed and produce fertileoffspring. If 2 species breed together toproduce a hybrid, this may surviveto adulthood but cannot produceviable gametes and so is sterile.
TheSpeciesconceptcannot:Identify whether geographically isolatedpopulations belong to the same species.Classify species in extinct populations.Account for sexually reproducingorganisms.Clearly define species when barriers toreproduction are incomplete.
Is defined in ecology as: A group of organisms of the same speciesliving in the same area at the same time,and which are capable of interbreeding.
It refers to the environment inwhich a species normally lives.
An ecological niches is best bedescribed as where, when andhow an organism lives. No two different species can havethe same niche because the nichecompletly defines a species.
Is a group of populationsliving and interacting witheach other in a commonhabitat.
Is a community of interdependentorganisms (the biotic component)and the physical environment (theabiotic component) they inhabit.BioticcomponentsAbioticcomponentsEcosystem
Crypsis: is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by otherorganisms.
Camouflage: is the ability of anorganism to modify their structure,texture or color to resemble theenvironment and avoid beingnotice.
Mimetism: is the similarity of onespecies to another which protectsone or both.
Batesian Mimetism: to resemble dangerous species. Mullerian Mimetism: they have an awful taste.
Aposematism: is the ability of someorganisms to present colorful orvery visible warning to help avoidpredators.
“The life in conjuction of twodifferent organisms, normally inclose association, and, ussually,with at least one of them beingbenefit.”-Anton de Bary-
Ectosymbiosis: the symbiont livesover the body of the host, includingthe interior of the digestive trackand the endocrine glandules. Endosymbiosis: the symbiont livesinside the cells of the host or in theintercellular space.
«The success of parasitism[also symbiosis] is wellplaced in adaptation andsurvival, it means that thesuccess is measured notby the damage that iscauses, but by thecapacity to adapt andintegrate theenvironment.»-Sanchez, 2008-
One of the species gets a benefitwhile the other does not.
Foresis: It`s when an organism use the other as away of transport. Inquilinism: When an organism use another oneas refuge or habitat. Metabiosis or Tanatocresis: it´s a more indirectrelation, when one organism use something fromthe other, after it dies.
“Interaction between individuals of different species, in which both obtain a benefitand change their biological aptitude.
“It´s a type ofinterspecific relation,which consist on thehunt and death that somespecies suffer (prey), by themeans of other organisms, calledpredators. The same individual canbe prey and predator, according tothe situation.
“It´s described as themutual evolutiveadaptation phenomenaproduced between two ormore species as the resultof both sides influence bydifferent interactions oflife.”