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Referencing Autumn 2009

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An introduction to Harvard referencing

An introduction to Harvard referencing

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Referencing Alexander Buchanan
  • 2. Outcomes
    • What referencing is
    • Why we reference
    • Bibliographies and reading lists
    • Key information you need for a reference
    • Where to find this information
    • Citing references in the text
  • 3. Help on Referencing
    • search for 'referencing' on either:
      • shuspace
      • library catalogue
        • Guide to Referencing and Citations
    • Learning centre helpdesks
    • e-mail [email_address]
    • telephone: 0114 225 3333
  • 4. What is Referencing? 1
    • A way of acknowledging your use of other people's work
    • A way of enabling people to find the material you have used for themselves
  • 5. What is Referencing? 2 There are two parts to referencing:
    • Bibliography
      • listing the materials you used so that others can find them
    • Citation
      • marking out the ideas and information you used in your assignment that came from other people.
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8. What is Referencing? 3
    • More than one system of referencing!
    • Biggest difference in the citation
      • some use the author's name
      • some use a number
    • Sheffield Hallam uses a system of referencing called 'Harvard SHU LITS'
      • uses author's name for the citation
  • 9. What is Referencing? 4
    • But whatever you do, be consistent in how you reference
      • helps to avoid confusion
    • Which is the author, which is the title?
      • Diana Brydon
      • Christina Stead
    • Why references often use italics, capital letters, etc to delineate between elements
  • 10. Why Reference? 1
    • It's an academic convention
    • Shows when you are using others' ideas or information
      • Courtesy to those whose ideas you use
    • But more importantly…
      • Helps avoid plagarism (stealing ideas)
  • 11. Why Reference? 2
    • To show your evidence
      • readers can check the original sources
      • readers can find more information on the topic
        • an easy way for you to do research!
    • And in context of the university:
      • your tutor can see what- and how much- you've read
      • you can see what you've read!
  • 12. When to Reference
    • Every Time you:
    • Directly quote someone else's work
    • Paraphrase someone else's work (use your own words)
    • Use ideas from someone else's work
    • Use data, figures, or information from someone else's work
    • Use diagrams, images, tables or charts from someone else's work
  • 13. Bibliographies and Reading Lists
    • A list of material you have read for the piece of work
    • At end of your assignment
    • In alphabetical order by the surname of the first author/ editor/ creator
    • DAVIS , Claire and WILCOCK, Elizabeth (2005). The science of tennis. Physics review, 15 (1), 2-5.
    • KAWAMURA , S., et al. (2006). Influence of sports equipments on human arm. Sports engineering, 9 (4), 229-249.
    • MILLER , Stuart (2005). Performance measurement of tennis equipment. Journal of mechanics in medicine and biology, 5 (2), 217-229.
  • 14. What information to use
    • All materials needs:
    • Author/ editor/ creator/ artist/ director/ etc…
      • Surname first (in capitals), then forename
      • can be an organisation, government, committee, etc
    • Year material was published/created
    • Title
      • both title of article/chapter and of journal/book
    • Page numbers
      • if using part of larger work (book chapter, journal article, etc)
      • write it down now- you'll never remember later!
  • 15.
    • VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394
    • CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press
  • 16.
    • VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394
    • CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press
  • 17.
    • VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394
    • CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press
  • 18.
    • VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24. What if the information isn't there?
    • Sometimes, the necessary information won't all be there
      • very common problem with websites
      • just put as much as you can
        • every extra bit makes it easier to find
      • If possible, don't just give a URL
        • URLs can change over time!
  • 25. Citing in the text
    • Inserted into your assignment to mark and acknowledge other people's ideas and information
    • Refers back to the bibliography
    The Sheffield Hallam entry got the biggest round of applause (Williamson, 2008). WILLIAMSON, Manny (2008) University and schools heavy lift challenge 2008. [Online]. Last accessed 3rd March 2009 at: http://www.bmfa.org/unichallenge/2008/index.html
  • 26. Citing
    • Author's surname
      • Doesn't have to be in capitals
    • Year of publication
    • Just like first part of the reference
    • Expert judgements are necessary (Vernez and Vuille, 2009).
    Vernez and Vuille (2009) say that expert judgements are necessary.
  • 27. Citing quotations, diagrams and images
    • Need to include a page number to make it easier to find.
    (Vernez and Vuille, 2009, p386) "Worse, as systems are becoming more and more specialised and dedicated, the availability of existing dependability data describing the performance of such systems is limited." (Vernez and Vuille, 2009, p382)
  • 28. Refworks
    • Refworks software:
      • downloading and storing references as you find them
      • creating bibliographies
      • best used as you do your research- not so helpful afterwards
  • 29. Conclusion I
    • Referencing acknowledges others' work
    • Referencing makes it possible for others to find the sources which you used
    • List all the materials you have used at the end
      • in alphabetical order
    • Insert a citation whenever you use someone else's ideas, saying where you got it from
  • 30. Conclusion II
    • Author, Date, Title
    • Page number
    • Check title page for a book
    • Check start of article, top of page or database for a journal article