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  • 1. The Argumentative Environment
  • 2. The Beginning of Argumentation
    • Argumentation got started with the Greeks. Ancient Greece was the first country to experiment with people run government which allowed one citizen to sue another without cause. They could sue for money, or property. If the person was a good arguer he/she would win and take over property or money.
    • People that got really good at arguing were called sophist.
  • 3.
    • Sophist were intelligent people that taught others how to make a good argument and to convince others that their position should be accepted.
  • 4. Aristotle Philosophy of Argument
    • Rhetorical Approach
    • Is described as process of discovering all available means of “artistic” persuasion through the use of rhetorical process .
  • 5. Rhetorical Process
    • Truth and justice may be guarded against falsehood and wrong.
    • Debate may be conducted on subjects in the absence of absolute truth.
    • Both sides of a claim may be presented
    • Proof to establish the probability of a position may be developed.
  • 6. Aristotle's Elements of Proof
    • Logos
    • Pathos
    • Ethos
  • 7. Logos
    • Logos - means logic and is the use of reason to support a decision.
    • - Logical appeals present the situation, alternatives, and probabilities involved in the decision making process.
  • 8.
    • Ethos- Refers to the use of sources credibility to support a conclusion.
    • It is perceived as a powerful proof that is supplied by the source himself, and which judgment, character, wisdom and good will could be made about his character.
    • Ethos is the image of the source held in the minds of the audience.
  • 9. Pathos
    • Pathos- means the emotion and is the appropriate use of emotional and motivational appeals to support decision.
    • These appeals are directed to the wishes , wants, desires , goals and needs of the person whose acceptance is desired.
  • 10. Source Credibility can be developed two ways.
    • 1 st Initial Ethos
    • 2 nd Derived Ethos
  • 11. Initial Ethos
    • Initial Ethos- Is based on the arguers credentials, status, and reputation
  • 12. Derived Ethos
    • Derived Ethos- Results from what is said in the message. Is the quality of the logos and pathos use to get the arguers accepted.