Rapport final (draft croquis)

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Rapport final (draft croquis)

  1. 1. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Global Design Guidelines and Policies Concerning Mixed-Use Developmentsacross North America, South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle-East and China From: Alameda County in San Francisco Bay Area (2012) DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR RESIDENTIAL MIXED-USE PROJECTS San Francisco Bay Area, Alameda County – 2012 By: Albert Lopez, Planning Director in collaboration with Bay Area Planning Council 1.1Projects should be designed to enhance the visual appearance of the street and district in which they are located. 1.2 Locate and orient buildings to respect the need for privacy, light, and air of surrounding structures, especially adjoining low and medium density residential development. From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 1.3 Uses may be located in separate freestanding buildings or may be combined in multi-use buildings of single-story or multi-story design. 1.4 Where residential uses are mixed with commercial or office uses, the residential uses should be located either above the commercial and/or office components of a street frontage building, located at street level adjacent to the commercial or office uses, or located behind the commercial or office component on any floor where there is a distinct separation of uses and access, provided pedestrian connections are furnished as part of a unified development theme. 1.5 Light industrial uses may be permitted on any floor, but should not be mixed withresidential uses in the same building. A Synthesis of Municipal Guidelines and Exemplary Developments That Are Mixed-Use and/or Transport Oriented Across North America, South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle-East and China 1. Development Intensity and Orientation
  2. 2. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 ensure that the ground floor commercial uses create an active pedestrian realm that is an engaging and well-populated environment with a variety of uses and activities. 2.1 Locate active commercial uses on the ground floor adjacent to the sidewalk, including retail, restaurant, and personal service uses. 2.2Ground floor streetfrontage space is to be predominantly for active, pedestrian-oriented uses. From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 2.3 Commercial uses should be designed and operated such that neighboring residents of residential units on the floors above are not exposed to offensive noise or odors, especially from traffic, trash collection, routine deliveries or late night activity. ensure that the scale of the building is compatible, and tall buildings are not located so as to overwhelm smaller scale buildings or block access to light and sun. 3.1Locate the taller portions of residential projects away from adjoining residential properties, inorder to provide height transitions between taller and lower buildings, and to maximize light, air, and privacy for units. 3.2 For projects adjacent to low and medium density residential zones, reduce the visual and shadow impact of upper stories by using one or more of the following design strategies: • Locate upper floors in the center of the property at least 30 feet away from adjacent properties (could achieve this in the form of wrap-around terraces and rooftop gardens) • Step back the top one or two stories from the stories below. 3.3Include articulation in the project, such that the bulk as seen from existing neighbors is reduced. 2. Location of Commercial and Residential Uses 3. Building Height and Form
  3. 3. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 3.4 Locate buildings close to the sidewalk, to enclose the public realm of the street and sidewalk, and locate shops and restaurants next to the pedestrian sidewalk. Wider setbacks are appropriate to allow for the following: • Wider sidewalks where they are narrow; • Building entrances and facade articulation; • Outdoor cafes; • Plazas or other high activity public areas. 3.5 Minimize the visibility of parking from the street and sidewalk, especially at corners. Locate parking to the side or rear of buildings, or underground. 3.6 In areas where building frontage is allowed to be set back from the street, provide a substantial landscape zone between the sidewalk and the parking area to ensure that the visual definition of the street edge is maintained. 3.7 Arrange buildings located off of the street, such as at the rear edge of the site, in related groups or organized around plazas or internal circulation nodes. In addition, the site design needs to indicatea direct response to adjacent development in order to facilitate pedestrian and vehicular movement between sites and building. These guidelines seek to create unified and harmonious building compositions, promote quality architecture, and visual diversity. No official architectural style is dictated or preferred. 4.1Projects should be designed with a consistent design integrity, exhibited by all building components including, but not limited to, building mass and articulation, roof forms, windows (proportion and design), building materials, facade details (doors and entrances), fencing, and landscaping. 4.2 Design publicly-visible exterior facades, or building walls to be substantial, permanent, and integral to the entire building. 4.3 Organize facade areas to provide: • Horizontal emphasis through recesses, ornamentation and other types of decorative detail; • Pedestrian orientation through overhangs, eaves, awnings, display windows and architectural ornamentation; and • Harmonious composition through use of complementary combinations of materials and colors. 4. Building Design
  4. 4. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windowsand entry doorsthat provide visibility into the ground floor lease space. • Ground floor office uses are discouraged, per the Land Use Element of the Specific Plans, but, where present, must be designed and maintained as storefront spaces. 4.5 Include architectural elements providing shade and weather protection for pedestrians, such as overhangs and arcades The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure adequate setbacks for residential units in the project and ensurethe project respects the residential units in adjoining buildings. 5.1 Provide adequate light, air, and privacy for residential units in the project, as well as for residential units on adjoining properties. 5.2Provide distance between buildings on the same project site that is adequate to ensure light, air and privacy for adjacent residential units and to minimize shadows on open space. 5.3 Use design strategies to protect privacy, such as: offsetting windows of adjacent units; locating minor windows above eye level, and using opaque glass for minor windows. These guidelines ensure that the visibility of parking is minimized from public streets and that parking areas will not create a negative visual outlook for the residential units 6.1 Locate parking to the rear or side of buildings, underneath buildings, or underground and avoid land intensive surface parking lots. Recommended parking locations include the following: • Interior Side Parking • Rear Yard Parking • Partial Below-Grade Parking • Below-Grade Parking • Tuck-Under Parking • Parking Wrapped with Living Space 5. Building Set-Backs for Light, Air and Privacy 6. Parking Location and Design
  5. 5. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 6.2Disperse continuously paved areas throughout the project in smaller segmented parking areas rather than creating land intensive surface parking lots. 6.3Do not locate parking between buildings and the street. • Parking areas between the building edge and the sidewalk are not allowed. • Locate all parking areas behind street frontage buildingsand ground floor use areas. • Parking areas should be located on the interior to or at the back of the site - where it is not visible to the street, and/or by garage space in the building where no more than one garage door is visible to the street. 6.4Locate garage entrances and driveways to the side of the property instead of at the center. 6.5Separate parking areas from buildings by at least a raised concrete walkway or a landscaped area, preferably both. From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 6.6 Bicycle parking spaces should be provided at the ratio of ten (10) percent of required off-street parking, with a minimum of eight bicycle parking spaces per mixed-use development. 6.7 Bicycle parking facilities should be: 6.7.1 Securely anchored to the lot surface so they cannot be easily removed and should be of sufficient strength to resist theft; 6.7.2 Separated by a physical barrier to protect the bicycle from damage by motor vehicles if located within a vehicle parking area; and 6.7.3 Separated from normal pedestrian traffic. 7.1 Provide new or repaired improvements in the public right-of-way along the lot frontage, including sidewalks, street trees, curbs, and gutters. 7. Site Landscaping Orientation
  6. 6. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 7.2 Provide street trees along the street frontage that enhance the visual appearance of the street and provide shade for pedestrians, but do not block the visibility of commercial signs. 7.3 Incorporate landscaping in order to create an attractive visual outlook for residential units, create usable open space, maximize storm-water infiltration, and provide privacy for adjacent residential units. 7.4 Design site landscape treatments to be attractive, with consistent design integrity throughout the project. 7.5 Provide site landscaping in the following priority areas: • Between commercial and residential buildings • In areas that are visible from the primary living areas of residential units • Within common open space areas • Along the edge of driveways • Along the property perimeter • Between buildings and driveways • Between buildings and parking From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 7.6 All usable open space, such as pedestrian walkways, separations between buildings, yard areas, and common recreation areas should be landscaped and provided with control timer, and underground irrigation systems, or an alternative equivalent system. These guidelines ensure that projects provide enjoyable usable outdoor living areas for residents and lightaccess, privacy, and a sense of openness is maintained in higher density developments. 8.1 Provide both common open space and private open space for residents‟ recreation and relaxation. • Design common open space as a space where people can interact, host guests, and also enjoy some time alone in the fresh air. • Design private open space for the exclusive useof household members to eat outside, garden, enjoy the fresh air, and grill outdoors. 8. Usable Open Space
  7. 7. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 8.2 Provide usable open space that may have a dual function for storm-water treatment and incorporates strategies such as grassy swales, vegetated swales, flow through planters, rain gardens, etc. 8.3 Design common open space(s) to be a shared open space for use by all residents. 8.4 Locate common open space(s) in a central location that serves all the units, not at an extremeedge of the property. Common open space can be on the ground, or in courtyards above the ground level. From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 9.1 Transit stops, if applicable, should be designed as integral elements of a mixed-use development by co-locating them with pedestrian-oriented amenities, such as pocket parks, courtyards, plazas, and in retail/commercial centers, whenever possible. 9.2 When an existing transit stop is located on a sidewalk adjacent to the location of a new development, a shelter for transit patrons should be constructed that; 9.2.1 Incorporates an architectural design that meets the transit authority‟s design criteria; and 9.2.2 Includes a shelter, bench and lighting. From: Mendocino County, California (2012) Mixed-Use Zoning District Design Guidelines Mendocino Count, California – August 16 th , 2012 By: Planning Commission of California 10.1 All trash enclosures should be fully enclosed with self-closing and self- latching doors, and each enclosure should accommodate both trash and recycling bins. 9. Transportation and Traffic 10. Waste Management and Loading Docks
  8. 8. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 10.2. Trash enclosures should be an integral part of the building design whenever possible. 10.3 Loading areas should be screened from public view to avoid negative noise, visual, and illumination impacts on the residential portion of a mixed-use development and may be accomplished by the construction of six-foot high perimeter walls that are architecturally compatible with the primary structures and on-site landscaping. This is the model concept of a development containing various land use that is completely integrated into a single structure. No parking indications. Shawn Tubb, Cincinnati, Ohio.University of Cincinnati, Master of Architecture thesis, 2009. URL: http://archinect.com/shawnpatricktubb/project/re-marketing-modernism-the-revision-of-an-iconic-mid- century-mixed-use-hotel-2007-2009 General Research Findings and Trends Concerning Mixed-Use Developments across North America, South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle-East and China
  9. 9. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Many large-scale developments are by a waterfront or make an effort to bring civilian attention and activity to a nearby waterfront. This is true in all areas studied. Most developments have integrated sustainable practices in their infrastructure i.e. gray-water systems, photovoltaic cellular structures, radiant heating […] and/or strive to achieve sustainable practices recognition from LEED or BREEAM. This is mostly true in the United States, Canada and Europe. It is especially true in The Middle-East and Chine where all projects studied have integrated sustainable practices in their concepts. Striving for affordable housing is a common goal for the city council and developer of mixed-use developments centered on residential communities. This is especially true in the United States. - by contrast, projects that are oriented towards accommodating office or retail spaces will more often than not have middle- to higher-income housing. This is mostly true in all areas studied. Mixed-use projects strive to promote knowledge-based industry and stimulate the economy via the creative class. It is common to see bistros, art galleries and locally-owned businesses on the ground floor rather than restaurant chains or department stores. This is not true in the United States wherein mixed-use developments are marketed differently than elsewhere and often promote chains and large department stores as an integral part of the site. Bike paths are heavily encouraged as part of the street scape and street design. This is especially true for Europe and relatively true for Canada. Though there are isolated cases; in large part, the mixed-use developments in the United States do not promote bike paths nor do they support initiatives to encourage cycling as a means of transportation. Proximity to amenities and services is used in the marketing scheme ofdevelopments and included in the design concept and scheme. This is especially true in all cases including developments wherein different land uses are integrated in single structures. Almost all developments were found near a means of transportation and/or street node; highway, bridge, overpass, train tracks, canal, Laguna, round-about. This is especially true in all areas studied except for Africa (mainly Marocco).
  10. 10. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 The “re” phenomena: the mixed-use developments have as an objective to “renew”, “rejuvenate”, “redevelop”, “reinvent” or “re-use” a brownfield zone or existing structure whereby active use has declined. This is true in all cases. Mixed-use developments in the United States, with few exceptions (later demonstrated in the project examples),emphasize horizontal growthrather than vertical growth as they do in other areas. This is also true for Africa (mainly Morocco). In other areas, development is encouraged as vertical growth thereby creating density and opportunity for single-building integration of uses. Most mixed-use developments have spaces and corridors dedicated to agriculture and landscaping which more often than not serve ascommon or private spaces and courtyards. This is true in all cases. It is not a necessity, by guideline or by-law, for a “mixed-use” development to have residential units however, the best received projects as well as the most recognized ones have residential floors or separate residential structures in proximity to amenities and services. This is true in all areas cases studied. Commercial space is often concentrated on the ground floor followed by office space and residential units taking up the top floors. This is mostly true in all cases. Some developments mark the entrance of a city or act as the gateway to a metropolitan area. Often, this integrates with
  11. 11. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 City North, Phoenix, Arizona (2008) 4.5 Include architectural elements providing shade and weather protection for pedestrians, such as overhangs and arcades PROJECTS – United States of America
  12. 12. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 7.2 Provide street trees along the street frontage that enhance the visual appearance of the street and provide shade for pedestrians, but do not block the visibility of commercial signs.
  13. 13. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 4.5 Include architectural elements providing shade and weather protection for pedestrians, such as overhangs and arcades 3.3 Include articulation in the project, such that the bulk as seen from existing neighbors is reduced 4.1 Projects should be designed with a consistent design integrity, exhibited by all building components including, but not limited to, building mass and articulation, roof forms, windows (proportion and design), building materials, facade details (doors and entrances), fencing, and landscaping.
  14. 14. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 3.2 For projects adjacent to low and medium density residential zones, reduce the visual and shadow impact of upper stories by using one or more of the following design strategies: • Step back the top one or two stories from the stories below. 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windowsand entry doorsthat provide visibility into the ground floor lease space. Holiday Neighborhood, Boulder, Colorado (2008) 7.3 Incorporate landscaping in order to create an attractive visual outlook for residential units, create usable open space, maximize storm-water infiltration, and provide privacy for adjacent residential units. 7.4 Design site landscape treatments to be attractive, with consistent design integrity throughout the project.
  15. 15. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 6.1 Locate parking to the rear or side of buildings, underneath buildings, or underground and avoid land intensive surface parking lots. Recommended parking locations include the following:
  16. 16. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 4.1 Projects should be designed with a consistent design integrity, exhibited by all building components including, but not limited to, building mass and articulation, roof forms, windows (proportion and design), building materials, facade details (doors and entrances), fencing, and landscaping. City Center Renewal Plan, Washington, District of Columbia (concept) 1.1 Projects should be designed to enhance the visual appearance of the street and district in which they are located. 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windows 7.4 Design site landscape treatments to be attractive, with consistent design integrity throughout the project.
  17. 17. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 2.1 Locate active commercial uses on the ground floor adjacent to the sidewalk, including retail, restaurant, and personal service uses. 2.2 Ground floor street frontage space is to be predominantly for active, pedestrian-oriented uses.
  18. 18. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 8.4 Locate common open space(s) in a central location that serves all the units, not at an extreme edge of the property. Common open space can be on the ground, or in courtyards above the ground level. Crocker Park, Westlake, Ohio (commercial started in 2003 – in progress) 4.1 Projects should be designed with a consistent design integrity, exhibited by all building components including, but not limited to, building mass and articulation, roof forms, windows (proportion and design), building materials, facade details (doors and entrances), fencing, and landscaping. 8.4 Locate common open space(s) in a central location that serves all the units, not at an extreme edge of the property. Common open space can be on the ground, or in courtyards above the ground level.
  19. 19. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 The Square 3, Berlin, Germany (concept, master plan in progress) 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windowsand entry doorsthat provide visibility into the ground floor lease space. 1.3 Uses may be located in separate freestanding buildings or may be combined in multi-use buildings of single-story or multi-story design. 1.4 Where residential uses are mixed with commercial or office uses, the residential uses should be located either above the commercial and/or office components of a street frontage building, located at street level adjacent to the commercial or office uses, or located behind the commercial or office component on any floor where there is a distinct separation of uses and access, provided pedestrian connections are furnished as part of a unified development theme. PROJECTS – Europe
  20. 20. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 3.1 Locate the taller portions of residential projects away from adjoining residential properties, in order to provide height transitions between taller and lower buildings, and to maximize light, air, and privacy for units. 3.2 For projects adjacent to low and medium density residential zones, reduce the visual and shadow impact of upper stories by using one or more of the following design strategies: • Locate upper floors in the center of the property at least 30 feet away from adjacent properties (could achieve this in the form of wrap-around terraces and rooftop gardens) • Step back the top one or two stories from the stories below. 3.3 Include articulation in the project, such that the bulk as seen from existing neighbors is reduced.
  21. 21. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Bryghusprojektet, Copenhagen, Denmark (started May 2013) 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windowsand entry doorsthat provide visibility into the ground floor lease space.
  22. 22. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 9.1 Transit stops, if applicable, should be designed as integral elements of a mixed-use development by co-locating them with pedestrian-oriented amenities, such as pocket parks, courtyards, plazas, and in retail/commercial centers, whenever possible
  23. 23. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 8.4 Locate common open space(s) in a central location that serves all the units, not at an extreme edge of the property. Common open space can be on the ground, or in courtyards above the ground level Coolsingel Cube, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (started 2007)
  24. 24. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 1.4 Where residential uses are mixed with commercial or office uses, the residential uses should be located either above the commercial and/or office components of a street frontage building, located at street level adjacent to the commercial or office uses, or located behind the commercial or office component on any floor where there is a distinct separation of uses and access, provided pedestrian connections are furnished as part of a unified development theme. 1.5 Light industrial uses may be permitted on any floor, but should not be mixed withresidential uses in the same building. 5.1 Provide adequate light, air, and privacy for residential units in the project, as well as for residential units on adjoining properties. Kuntsevo Center, Moscow , Russia (to be completed in 2014)
  25. 25. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 1.1 Projects should be designed to enhance the visual appearance of the street and district in which they are located. 1.4 Where residential uses are mixed with commercial or office uses, the residential uses should be located either above the commercial and/or office components of a street frontage building, located at street level adjacent to the commercial or office uses, or located behind the commercial or office component on any floor where there is a distinct separation of uses and access, provided pedestrian connections are furnished as part of a unified development theme. 4.4 Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display
  26. 26. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 windowsand entry doorsthat provide visibility into the ground floor lease space PORTICO, Vancouver, British Columbia (2005) PROJECTS – Canada
  27. 27. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 3.1 Locate the taller portions of residential projects away from adjoining residential properties, in order to provide height transitions between taller and lower buildings, and to maximize light, air, and privacy for units
  28. 28. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 3.5 Minimize the visibility of parking from the street and sidewalk, especially at corners. Locate parking to the side or rear of buildings, or underground. 6.1 Locate parking to the rear or side of buildings, underneath buildings, or underground and avoid land intensive surface parking lots. Recommended parking locations include the following: • Interior Side Parking • Rear Yard Parking • Partial Below-Grade Parking • Below-Grade Parking • Tuck-Under Parking • Parking Wrapped with Living Space
  29. 29. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 7.6 All usable open space, such as pedestrian walkways, separations between buildings, yard areas, and common recreation areas should be landscaped and provided with control timer, and underground irrigation systems, or an alternative equivalent system. 8.1 Provide both common open space and private open space for residents‟ recreation and relaxation. • Design common open space as a space where people can interact, host guests, and also enjoy some time alone in the fresh air. • Design private open space for the exclusive use of household members to eat outside, garden, enjoy the fresh air, and grill outdoors.
  30. 30. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 West Don Lands,Toronto,Ontario (2005 – in progress) 2.2 Ground floor street frontage space is to be predominantly for active, pedestrian-oriented uses. Pointe Nord, Ile-des-Soeurs, Québec (2008 - 2014)
  31. 31. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 2.2 Ground floor street frontage space is to be predominantly for active, pedestrian-oriented uses.
  32. 32. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 8.1 Provide both common open space and private open space for residents‟ recreation and relaxation. • Design common open space as a space where people can interact, host guests, and also enjoy some time alone in the fresh air. • Design private open space for the exclusive use of household members to eat outside, garden, enjoy the fresh air, and grill outdoors
  33. 33. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Global Design Guidelines and Policies Concerning Transport Oriented Development across North America, South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle-East and China Overreaching TOD principle: Higher density, walkable, predominantly mixed- use environments within station areas optimizing use of existing transit infrastructure, creating greater mobility options and benefiting local communities. From: City of Vancouver (July 2012) Transit-Oriented Communities Design Guidelines Creating more livable places around transit in Metro Vancouver By: TransLink Vancouver 6 “Ds” of TOD Destination, Distance, Design, Density, Diversity and Demand Management Destination: coordinating land use and transportation New transit-oriented communities should be located along reasonably direct corridors so that most destinations are „on the way‟ to other destinations. When land use and transportation are well coordinated, transit can provide fast, direct, and cost-effective access to more destinations for more people. Distance: creating a well-connected street network A well-connected street network shortens travel distances, making it possible for people to quickly and conveniently walk or cycle to where they want to go or to easily connect with transit en route to their destination. Design: create places for people Using a mobility device, people of all ages and abilities should be able to access and enjoy a comfortable, safe, delightful, and inviting public realm. Density: concentrate and intensify activities near frequent transit Transit-oriented communities concentrate most growth and development within a short walk of frequent transit stops and stations. A higher density of
  34. 34. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 homes, jobs, and other activities creates a market for transit, allowing frequent service to operate efficiently. Diversity: encourage a mix of uses A vibrant mix of land uses helps to create complete, walkable neighbourhoods around transit stations and stops, and supports a transit system that is well-utilized throughout the day. Demand Management: discouraging unnecessary driving Transit-oriented communities use TDM strategies to discourage unnecessary driving and to promote walking, cycling, and transit. General Research Findings and Trends Concerning Transport Oriented Developments across North America, South America, Africa, Europe, the Middle-East and China There are usually residential towers of 10 stories or more in proximity to a transportation hub such as a bus station, metro station, train station or a central station of any of the mentioned means of transportation. Single family homes or low density buildings are placed further away from transportation hubs with intermittent buffering by landscaping or walls. This is done because it is believed that residents likely to live in high density affordable housing are less likely to own cars and therefore more likely to commute using public transportation. Proximity to the transportation hub was used to promote the projects in all cases. Most developments have direct access to the transportation station or are in themselves the direct access to the station. This is true is most cases. The occurrence of TODs were the least frequent in the United States and the most frequent in Asia and Europe.
  35. 35. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 CollingWood Village, Vancouver BC: In order to create and maintain a mixed-income community around a transit hub or along a corridor, it is crucial that the inclusionary units be constructed within the pedestrian commute-shed for the transit service as lower-income households are less likely to own cars and more likely to use transit than higher-income households. Shoemaker Projects are only eligible for HIP if the net density is at least 30 units to the acre (slightly lower in the less transit-rich parts of the region). Grant amounts go up based on the density and affordability of development; $1,000 per bedroom at 25 units per acre up to $2,000 per bedroom for 60 units per acre. The HIP program provides an additional $500 per bedroom for projects that are affordable. The Housing Incentive Program
  36. 36. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  37. 37. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  38. 38. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Equinox, Toronto ON: In order to create and maintain a mixed-income community around a transit hub or along a corridor, it is crucial that the inclusionary units be constructed within the pedestrian commute-shed for the transit service as lower-income households are less likely to own cars and more likely to use transit than higher-income households. Shoemaker Projects are only eligible for HIP if the net density is at least 30 units to the acre (slightly lower in the less transit-rich parts of the region). Grant amounts go up based on the density and affordability of development; $1,000 per bedroom at 25 units per acre up to $2,000 per bedroom for 60 units per acre. The HIP program provides an additional $500 per bedroom for projects that are affordable. The Housing Incentive Program
  39. 39. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Pointe Nord, Ile des Sœurs, QC (Transport OrientedDevelopment POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The main lessons from this research are summarized below: Although residential density is important for supporting good public transit service, it must be considered alongside other measures of land use intensity, such as employment density Cervero, Robert, &Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219
  40. 40. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  41. 41. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 The Bridges, Alberta: The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  42. 42. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  43. 43. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Thornton Place, Seattle, Washington Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie
  44. 44. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  45. 45. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 City Center, Washington, District of Columbia (POTENTIAL for Transport Oriented Development) The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute. Transit-supportive land uses encourage transit use and increased transportation network efficiency. As such, the pattern of land uses around LRT stations should be characterized by: • high employee and/or residential densities • promoting travel time outside of the am/pm peak periods • attracting reverse-flow travel on roads and LRT • encouraging extended hours of activity, throughout the day and week • attracting pedestrian users / generates pedestrian traffic Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy
  46. 46. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Amended December 2005 The primary user group for transit and associated TOD uses is pedestrians, since all transit trips begin and end with a pedestrian trip component. The planning area for TOD around an LRT station should therefore be the distance that a pedestrian is likely to travel to take transit. This has been determined to typically be a 5 to 10 minute walk, or approximately 600 m. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  47. 47. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  48. 48. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Stockholm City Station, Stockholm, Sweden Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The primary user group for transit and associated TOD uses is pedestrians, since all transit trips begin and end with a pedestrian trip component. The planning area for TOD around an LRT station should therefore be the distance that a pedestrian is likely to travel to take transit. This has been determined to typically be a 5 to 10 minute walk, or approximately 600 m. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  49. 49. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  50. 50. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Bryghusprojektet, Copenhagen, Denmark (Transport Oriented Development POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie Roppongi Station - Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected,
  51. 51. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  52. 52. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  53. 53. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  54. 54. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Namba Park, Seoul, Korea Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004).
  55. 55. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  56. 56. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  57. 57. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 The Opera Quarter, Oslo, Norway (Transport Oriented Development POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The main lessons from this research are summarized below: Although residential density is important for supporting good public transit service, it must be considered alongside other measures of land use intensity, such as employment density Cervero, Robert, &Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219
  58. 58. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  59. 59. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  60. 60. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 CONCEPTS and what we can take from them! COMPACT CITIES! SMART GROWTH: It is a term to describe ways of developing more sustainable cities by supporting economic development initiatives, creating healthy environments and strengthening communities. • Create walkable neighbourhoods • Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place • Encourage transit use • Provide a variety of transportation choices • Mix land uses • Strengthen and direct development toward existing communities • Create a range of housing opportunities and choices. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  61. 61. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09
  62. 62. Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Last Update by: Sandra Vespa | 2013-08-09 Ecological City of Tianfu, Chengdu, China

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