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  1. 1. Open with Mixed Use and TOD definitions as found in municipal guidelines, by-laws and policies MIXED USE Guidelines DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR RESIDENTIAL MIXED-USE PROJECTS San Francisco Bay Area, Alameda County – 2012 Albert Lopez , Planning Director in collaboration with Bay Area Planning Council A. Development Intensity - Design projects to enhance the visual appearance of the street and district in which they are located. -Locate and orient buildings to respect the need for privacy, light, and air of surrounding structures, especially adjoining low and medium density residential development. B. Location of Commercial and Residential USES These guidelines ensure that the ground floor commercial uses create an active pedestrian realm that is an engaging and well-populated environment with a variety of uses and activities. -Locate active commercial uses on the ground floor adjacent to the sidewalk, including retail, restaurant, and personal service uses. -Ground floor streetfrontage space is to be predominantly for active, pedestrian- oriented uses. C. Building Height and Form The purpose of these limits is to ensure that the scale of the building is compatible, and tall buildings are not located so as to overwhelm smaller scale buildings or block access to light and sun. -Locate the taller portions of residential projects away from adjoining residential properties, inorder to provide height transitions between taller and lower buildings, and to maximize light, air, and privacy for units. C-2For projects adjacent to low and medium density residential zones, reduce the visual and shadow impact of upper stories by using one or more of the following design strategies: • Locate upper floors in the center of the property at least 30 feet away from adjacent properties, • Step back the top one or two stories from the stories below. • Tuck the top story inside a pitched roof, • Use pitched roofs with dormer windows for top story rooms. -Include articulation in the project, such that the bulk as seen from existing neighbors is reduced.
  2. 2. -Locate buildings close to the sidewalk, to enclose the public realm of the street and sidewalk, and locate shops and restaurants next to the pedestrian sidewalk. Wider setbacks are appropriate to allow for the following: • Wider sidewalks where they are narrow; • Building entrances and facade articulation; • Outdoor cafes; • Plazas or other high activity public areas. -Minimize the visibility of parking from the street and sidewalk, especially at corners. Locate parking to the side or rear of buildings, or underground. Other Areas - In areas where building frontage is allowed to be set back from the street, provide a substantial landscape zone between the sidewalk and the parking area to ensure that the visual definition of the street edge is maintained. -when a property located along Castro Valley Boulevard, Redwood Road, or Lake Chabot Road is not built out to the front property line, and where a landscape setback exists or is created, provide a second row of the designated street trees as part of the site landscaping. D-7Arrange buildings located off of the street, such as at the rear edge of the site, in related groups or organized around plazas or internal circulation nodes. In addition, the site design needs to indicate a direct response to adjacent development in order to facilitate pedestrian and vehicular movement between sites and building. E. building design These guidelines seek to create unified and harmonious building compositions, promote quality architecture, and visual diversity. No official architectural style is dictated or preferred. Architectural Style E-1Design projects with a consistent design integrity, exhibited by all building components including, but not limited to, building mass and articulation, roof forms, windows (proportion and design), building materials, facade details (doors and entrances), fencing, and landscaping. E-2Design publicly-visible exterior facades, or building walls to be substantial, permanent, and integral to the entire building. Building Design
  3. 3. E-3Organize facade areas to provide: • Horizontal emphasis through recesses, ornamentation and other types of decorative detail; • Pedestrian orientation through overhangs, eaves, awnings, display windows and architectural ornamentation; and • Harmonious composition through use of complementary combinations of materials and colors. E-4Design commercial building facades fronting on sidewalks to consist of storefronts that include a preponderance of clear glass display windows and entry doors, that provide visibility into the ground floor lease space. • In some circumstances, such as when building security would be placed at risk or when a side or rear wall of a building is adjacent to or near the street, shallow display windows, containing merchandise or artworks, are encouraged. • Ground floor office uses are discouraged, per the Land Use Element of the Specific Plans, but, where present, must be designed and maintained as storefront spaces. E-5Include architectural elements providing shade and weather protection for pedestrians, such as overhangs and arcades F. building setbacks for light, air, and privacy The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure adequate setbacks for residential units in the project and ensure the project respects the residential units in adjoining buildings. F-1Provide adequate light, air, and privacy for residential units in the project, as well as for residential units on adjoining properties. F-2Provide distance between buildings on the same project site that is adequate to ensure light, air and privacy for adjacent residential units and to minimize shadows on open space. F-3Use design strategies to protect privacy, such as: offsetting windows of adjacent units; locating minor windows above eye level, and using opaque glass for minor windows. H. PARKING location and design These guidelines ensure that the visibility of parking is minimized from public streets and that parking areas will not create a negative visual outlook for the residential units H-1Locate parking to the rear or side of buildings, underneath buildings, or underground and avoid land intensive surface parking lots. Recommended parking locations include the following: • Interior Side Parking • Rear Yard Parking • Partial Below Grade Parking • Below Grade Parking
  4. 4. • Tuck Under Parking • Parking Wrapped with Living Space H-2Disperse contiguously paved areas throughout the project in smaller segmented parking areas rather than creating land intensive surface parking lots. H-3Do not locate parking between buildings and the street. • Parking areas between the building edge and the sidewalk are not allowed. Buildings may be located behind other buildings that are located at the street edge, with on-site parking provided between the two sets of buildings. • In the ACBD TA, locate all parking areas behind street frontage buildings and ground floor use areas. • In ACBD RC, locate parking areas are to be interior to or at the back of the site where it is not visible to the street, and/or by garage space in the building where no more than one garage door is visible to the street. Apartment type buildings built over exposed parking spaces are not permitted. H-4Locate garage entrances and driveways to the side of the property instead of at the center. H-5Screen parking areas from view from the pedestrian sidewalk. H-6Separate parking areas from buildings by at least a raised concrete walkway or a landscaped area, preferably both. Parking spaces must not directly about buildings Sidewalks, Street Trees, and Other Public Right-of-Way Improvements I-1Provide new or repaired improvements in the public right-of-way along the lot frontage, including sidewalks, street trees, curbs, and gutters, following the Specific Plans and the Alameda County Engineering Design Guidelines. I-2Provide street trees along the street frontage that enhance the visual appearance of the street and provide shade for pedestrians, but do not block the visibility of commercial signs. Site Plan and Landscaping Treatments J-1Incorporate landscaping in order to create an attractive visual outlook for residential units, create usable open space, maximize storm-water infiltration, and provide privacy for adjacent residential units. Provide at least the minimum percentage of site landscaping required. J-2Design site landscape treatments to be attractive, with a consistent design integrity throughout the project. Site Landscaping Locations J-3Provide site landscaping in the following priority areas:
  5. 5. • Between commercial and residential buildings • In areas that are visible from the primary living areas of residential units • Within common open space areas • Along the edge of driveways • Along the property perimeter • Between buildings and driveways • Between buildings and parking K. usable open space These guidelines ensure that projects provide enjoyable usable outdoor living areas for residents and light access, privacy, and a sense of openness is maintained in higher density developments. Usable Open Space for Residents K-1Provide both common open space and private open space for residents’ recreation and relaxation. • Design common open space as a space where people can interact, host guests, and also enjoy some time alone in the fresh air. • Design private open space for the exclusive use household members to eat outside, garden, enjoy the fresh air, and grill outdoors. K-2Provide usable open space that may have a dual function for stormwater treatment and incorporates strategies such as grassy swales, vegetated swales, flow through planters, rain gardens, etc. Common Open Space: Courtyards, Plazas, and Green Spaces K-3Design common open space(s) to be a shared open space for use by all residents. K-4Locate common open space(s) in a central location that serves all the units, not at an extreme edge of the property. Common open space can be on the ground, or in courtyards above the ground level.
  6. 6. MIXED-USE ZONING DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES Mendocino, California PLANNING COMMISSION AUGUST 16, 2012 MIXED USE DESIGN GUIDELINES PAGE PC-2 Location of Uses. 1. Uses may be located in separate freestanding buildings or may be combined in multi-use buildings of single-story or multi-story design. 2. Where residential uses are mixed with commercial or office uses, the residential uses should be located either above the commercial and/or office components of a street frontage building, located at street level adjacent to the commercial or office uses, or located behind the commercial or office component on any floor where there is a distinct separation of uses and access, provided pedestrian connections are furnished as part of a unified development theme. 3. Light industrial uses may be permitted on any floor, but should not be mixed with residential uses in the same building. Transit Stops. 1. Transit stops, if applicable, should be designed as integral elements of a mixed-use development by co-locating them with pedestrian-oriented amenities, such as pocket parks, courtyards, plazas, and in retail/commercial centers, whenever possible.
  7. 7. 2. When an existing transit stop is located on a sidewalk adjacent to the location of a new development, a shelter for transit patrons should be constructed that: (a) Incorporates an architectural design that meets the transit authority’s design criteria; and (b) Includes a shelter, bench and lighting. Bicycle Parking 1. Bicycle parking spaces should be provided at the ratio of ten (10) percent of required off-street parking, with a minimum of eight bicycle parking spaces per mixed-use development. 2. Bicycle parking facilities should be: (a) Securely anchored to the lot surface so they cannot be easily removed and should be of sufficient strength to resist theft; (b) Separated by a physical barrier to protect the bicycle from damage by motor vehicles if located within a vehicle parking area; and (c) Separated from normal pedestrian traffic. Access and Location of Off-Street Parking. 1. At-grade parking should not be located between any building and the street frontage. (a) Vehicular access to corner lot developments should be from a side street. (b) Where feasible, parking lot access should be aligned with property lines to facilitate shared access points between adjoining properties. 2. Pedestrian walkways or sidewalks shall connect all primary building entrances to one another. Pedestrian walkways shall also connect all on-site common areas, parking areas, storage areas, open space, and recreational facilities. 3. Where commercial and residential uses are mixed in one building, residents of the development shall have a separate and secure street access to the residential units. Building Massing. (a) Massing is particularly important in creating the proper context and scale of structures in relation to their setting. Proper building massing should be achieved through the use of sufficient vertical, horizontal and roof articulation of the building. Combinations of one and two story elements on the same building are encouraged to facilitate articulation. Dormers, gables, eaves and other projections may also be used to break up architectural forms. Building Facades. a. Consistent with the architectural style of the building, street-facing facades should incorporate articulation and mix of color and materials to create diversity in the streetscape. b. Although buildings are not required to have consistent “four-sided” architectural treatments, building elevations other than the street-facing elevation should have similar but less detailed architectural treatments. Vertical Compatibility of Mixed Commercial and Residential Uses. a. Commercial uses should be designed and operated such that neighboring residents of residential units on the floors above are not exposed to offensive noise or odors, especially from traffic, trash collection, routine deliveries or late night activity. Landscaping.
  8. 8. a. All usable open space, such as pedestrian walkways, separations between buildings, yard areas, and common recreation areas should be landscaped and provided with control timer, and underground irrigation systems, or an alternative equivalent system. Walls and Fences. a. A six-foot high solid wall or fence should be constructed along the property line of any lot where construction of any residential/commercial mixed-use development is adjacent to property zoned and or used for residential purposes. Said wall/fence shall be limited in height to forty-two (42) inches where it abuts the required front yard setback on the adjacent property zoned or used for residential purposes. b. Chain-link, barbed wire, razor-wire, and spikes are discouraged. On-Site Tree Preservation. a. All species of mature oak and redwood trees should be preserved and integrated into the project design unless it is shown to be infeasible. Mature trees are defined as trees having a diameter of 30 inches or greater at a height of 4.5 feet above adjacent ground. b. Removal of mature trees may be approved through the Precise Development Plan approval process (see 20.086.040). Subsequent to Precise Development Plan approval and/or for single-use development, removal may be approved by the Planning Director administratively. Trash and Loading Areas. a. All trash enclosures should be fully enclosed with self-closing and selflatching doors, and each enclosure should accommodate both trash and recycling bins. b. Trash enclosures should be an integral part of the building design whenever possible. c. Loading areas should be screened from public view to avoid negative noise, visual, and illumination impacts on the residential portion of a mixeduse development and may be accomplished by the construction of six-foot high perimeter walls that are architecturally compatible with the primary structures and on-site landscaping. General observations and trends in mixed-use infrastructure: Many developments are by a waterfront Most developments have integrated sustainable practices in their infrastructure Striving for affordable housing is a common goal for city council and developers They all strive to promote knowledge-based industry and stimulate the economy via the creative class Bike paths are heavily encouraged as part of the development of the street scape Proximity to amenities and services is used in the marketing scheme of the development Near a means of transportation and/or street node; highway, bridge, overpass, train tracks, canal, Laguna Seem to always “renew” “rejuvenate” and “redevelop” or “reinvent” an brownfield zone
  9. 9. Mixed-use developments occur horizontally and not vertically as it does in other places of the world Set-backs are used to achieve human scale with high density towers and developments They all have spaces dedicated to green space and public squares Some developments considered “mixed-use” don’t have residential by necessity however the best examples do Commercial space is more often than not concentrated on the ground floor followed by office and residential taking up the top floors Some developments mark the entrance of a city or act as the gateway to the city City North, Phoenix, Arizona 2008 SHADING
  10. 10. WINDOW HARMONY
  11. 11. BUILDING HEIGHT SIDEWALKS and ENTRANCES and RETAIL ON GROUNDFLOOR
  12. 12. STREET DESIGN Holiday Neighborhood, Boulder, Colorado
  13. 13. SIDEWALKS AND PEDESTRIAN PATH PARKING ON THE INTERIOR OF SITE, PROXIMITY OF SERVICES AND AMMENITIES STREET GRID, HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS
  14. 14. LARGE WINDOWS IN THE ABSENCE OF SET-BACKS LIVELY CORRIDOR AND PED. PATH
  15. 15. SOCIAL SPACES AND CORRIDORS Crocker Park, WestLake, Ohio HEIGHT, ARCHITECTURAL HARMONY, PEDESTRIAN ORIENTED SIDEWALKS
  16. 16. The Square 3, Berlin, Germany STREETSCAPE, PEDESTIRAN SCALE, ENTRANCES TO RETAIL, ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY PUBLIC SPACE, OPEN SPACE, LANDSCAPING
  17. 17. DIVERSE ROOF initiative, terrace, green spaces Gerling Ring, Cologne, Germany
  18. 18. Pedestrian paths, landscaping, public space Bryghusprojektet, Copenhagen, Denmark
  19. 19. ENTRANCE and PUBLIC SPACES, WATERFRONT The Red Line, FinLand WATERFRONT, DIVERSITY IN USES TODS specifics Global TOD principle: Higher density, walkable, predominantly mixed-use environments within station areas optimize use of existing transit infrastructure create greater mobility options benefit local communities.
  20. 20. 6 Ds of TOD (VANCOUVER resource) Destination, Distance, Design, Density, Diversity and Demand Management Destination: coordinating land use and transportation New transit-oriented communities should be located along reasonably direct corridors so that most destinations are ‘on the way’ to other destinations. When land use and transportation are well coordinated, transit can provide fast, direct, and cost-effective access to more destinations for more people. Distance: creating a well-connected street network A well-connected street network shortens travel distances, making it possible for people to quickly and conveniently walk or cycle to where they want to go or to easily connect with transit en route to their destination. Design: create places for people Using a mobility device, people of all ages and abilities should be able to access and enjoy a comfortable, safe, delightful, and inviting public realm. Density: concentrate and intensify activities near frequent transit Transit-oriented communities concentrate most growth and development within a short walk of frequent transit stops and stations. A higher density of homes, jobs, and other activities creates a market for transit, allowing frequent service to operate efficiently. Diversity: encourage a mix of uses A vibrant mix of land uses helps to create complete, walkable neighbourhoods around transit stations and stops, and supports a transit system that is well-utilized throughout the day. Demand Management: discouraging unnecessary driving Transit-oriented communities use TDM strategies to discourage unnecessary driving and to promote walking, cycling, and transit. Infrastructure trends in Transport Oriented Developments: Towers of 10 stories or more in proximity to transportation hub
  21. 21. Single family homes or low density buildings are placed further away from transportation hubs with intermittent buffering via landscaping or walls Mostly proximity to the transportation node was used in the marketing of the projects Most developments have direct access to the transportation station or are in themselves the direct access CollingWood Village, Vancouver BC: In order to create and maintain a mixed-income community around a transit hub or along a corridor, it is crucial that the inclusionary units be constructed within the pedestrian commute-shed for the transit service as lower-income households are less likely to own cars and more likely to use transit than higher-income households. Shoemaker Projects are only eligible for HIP if the net density is at least 30 units to the acre (slightly lower in the less transit-rich parts of the region). Grant amounts go up based on the density and affordability of development; $1,000 per bedroom at 25 units per acre up to $2,000 per bedroom for 60 units per acre. The HIP program provides an additional $500 per bedroom for projects that are affordable. The Housing Incentive Program
  22. 22. Equinox, Toronto ON: In order to create and maintain a mixed-income community around a transit hub or along a corridor, it is crucial that the inclusionary units be constructed within the pedestrian commute-shed for the transit service as lower-income households are less likely to own cars and more likely to use transit than higher-income households. Shoemaker Projects are only eligible for HIP if the net density is at least 30 units to the acre (slightly lower in the less transit-rich parts of the region). Grant amounts go up based on the density and affordability of development; $1,000 per bedroom at 25 units per acre up to $2,000 per bedroom for 60 units per acre. The HIP program provides an additional $500 per bedroom for projects that are affordable. The Housing Incentive Program
  23. 23. Pointe Nord, Ile des Sœurs, QC (Transport OrientedDevelopment POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The main lessons from this research are summarized below: Although residential density is important for supporting good public transit service, it must be considered alongside other measures of land use intensity, such as employment density Cervero, Robert, &Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219
  24. 24. The Bridges, Alberta: The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  25. 25. Thornton Place, Seattle, Washington Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie
  26. 26. City Center, Washington, District of Columbia (POTENTIAL for Transport Oriented Development) The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute. Transit-supportive land uses encourage transit use and increased transportation network efficiency. As such, the pattern of land uses around LRT stations should be characterized by: • high employee and/or residential densities • promoting travel time outside of the am/pm peak periods • attracting reverse-flow travel on roads and LRT • encouraging extended hours of activity, throughout the day and week • attracting pedestrian users / generates pedestrian traffic Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  27. 27. The primary user group for transit and associated TOD uses is pedestrians, since all transit trips begin and end with a pedestrian trip component. The planning area for TOD around an LRT station should therefore be the distance that a pedestrian is likely to travel to take transit. This has been determined to typically be a 5 to 10 minute walk, or approximately 600 m. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  28. 28. Stockholm City Station, Stockholm, Sweden Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The primary user group for transit and associated TOD uses is pedestrians, since all transit trips begin and end with a pedestrian trip component. The planning area for TOD around an LRT station should therefore be the distance that a pedestrian is likely to travel to take transit. This has been determined to typically be a 5 to 10 minute walk, or approximately 600 m. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005
  29. 29. Bryghusprojektet, Copenhagen, Denmark (Transport Oriented Development POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie
  30. 30. Roppongi Station - Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected, pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  31. 31. Namba Park, Seoul, Korea Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The success of transit-oriented developments depends to some extent on how origins and destinations are connected. The commonly-used indicators of street network design draw heavily on the principles of New Urbanism, which suggest that well-connected,
  32. 32. pedestrian friendly streets encourage people to walk as a mode of transportation (Dunphyet al. 2004). Dunphy, R., Cervero, R., Dock, F., McAvey, M., & Porter, D. (2004). Developing around transit:strategies and solutions that work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
  33. 33. The Opera Quarter, Oslo, Norway (Transport Oriented Development POTENTIAL) Transit service types include existing and projected metro stations, commuter train stations, LRT and tramway stations, bus terminals and park-and-ride lots. The morphological characteristics considered were street patterns, block sizes, building placement and the presence of major infrastructure (highways, bridges, ports, etc.). Mitchell Lavoie The main lessons from this research are summarized below: Although residential density is important for supporting good public transit service, it must be considered alongside other measures of land use intensity, such as employment density Cervero, Robert, &Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219
  34. 34. CONCEPTS and what we can take from them! COMPACT CITIES! SMART GROWTH: It is a term to describe ways of developing more sustainable cities by supporting economic development initiatives, creating healthy environments and strengthening communities. • Create walkable neighbourhoods • Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place • Encourage transit use • Provide a variety of transportation choices • Mix land uses • Strengthen and direct development toward existing communities • Create a range of housing opportunities and choices. Transit Oriented Development Policy Guidelines The City of Calgary Land Use Planning and Policy Amended December 2005

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