Preventive cons. reducing risk


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Preventive cons. reducing risk

  1. 1. PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: REDUCING RISKS TO COLLECTIONS ICCROM - CCI International Course - Rome, 6-24 June 2005 COURSE INFORMATION DOCUMENTBackgroundToday, preventive conservation is a leading theme in all fields of culturalproperty. Useful scientific and technical knowledge continues to grow but is oftenincorporated in current practice slowly, incorrectly, or not at all. Despite the bestintents, museums may apply unrealistic standards, guidelines, or lists of bestpractice, with no clear sense of priority, or of realistic expected benefits.With limited resources, decision-makers are immediately confronted with difficultchoices in planning conservation strategies. Should we put all our resources in asophisticated environmental control system, or should we upgrade the firecontrol system instead? What exactly will happen to this collection of costumesand fine basketry if they remain exposed to this level of light? And in the longterm, how will this damage compare to the various forms of damage possiblefrom the increasing numbers of visitors?Risk management, which informs and guides decision makers in many fieldsoutside cultural heritage, can help these planning decisions. It directly addressesthe question: what will be the condition of my collections at some futuremoment, 100 years for example, if no actions are taken, or if new actions aretaken. Risk management encourages the reappraisal of conservation strategieswhich require tremendous efforts from our institution, if those strategies do notsignificantly improve this future state.Motivated by the potential offered by this new perspective, aware of the need tofacilitate its understanding and practice, and anxious to bring leading developersand knowledgeable users together during this formative phase, ICCROM and theCanadian Conservation Institute, in collaboration with other leading institutions,developed this international course on Reducing risks to collections.PurposeThe purpose of this course is to focus on the risk management approach toconservation of collections. Risk management can be understood not only as themanagement of rare catastrophes, but also as the management of slowcontinuous hazards, and everything between. It becomes an integrated view of
  2. 2. all expected damages and losses to collections. The course will review the riskconcept and its current interpretations and applications in the field of culturalheritage and beyond. Participants will engage in carrying out a risk assessmentfor collections in museums and archives. They will also discuss dynamic andhigh-risk situations such as travelling exhibitions. The course will examine recentresearch that is critical to better estimates of risk, and thus to establishingpriorities. In particular, environmental standards and other guidelines will bereviewed and debated.ObjectiveAt the end of the course, participants will see preventive conservation from theviewpoint of risk management.Given a context, they will be able to use appropriately the terminology, and toidentify, estimate and rank specific risks relevant to their context. They willimprove their ability to develop and assess options to reduce risks, and tocommunicate results effectively. Since the risk management is in a formativephase in the heritage conservation field, as well as in other fields, they will alsomake plans for its application and further development in their own context.Target AudienceThe 19 course participants come from Belgium, Barbados, Canada, Italy,Lithuania, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Philippines, Slovenia,South Africa, Sweden, Turkey and Uruguay. They represent a range of heritageand conservation professions dealing mainly with collections in museums,galleries and archives, or community-based. They are collection managers,conservators and head of conservation, curators, directors and registrars. A thirdof them are involved in teaching collection management and preventiveconservation. Participants’ list and profiles are attached.Project TeamThe project team is composed of ICCROM and CCI senior staff and consultant, aswell as senior staff from the Canadian Museum of Nature, the NetherlandsInstitute for Cultural Heritage, and guest lecturers from other institutions. Twocourse moderators, both former participants of the first ICCROM-CCI course in2003, complete the team. It is expected that participants will be actively involvedin debating and sharing knowledge and methodologies. Information on theProject team is attached. 2
  3. 3. Working languageAlthough it is not the mother tongue of the majority of the group, participantsare required to be fluent in English. The course team will be available at all timesto help in overcoming language barriers during the workshops, case histories,seminars, study visits and other practical sessions.Course StructureFollowing an induction session, the course is structured into 11 units, presentedbelow in sequence. However, as suggested in the course scheme on next page,various units are inter-related, as are the knowledge and skills they encompass.The course is focused on the discovery, discussion and practice of the conceptsunderlying the risk management approach. The structure is linear andprogressive, with opportunities for participants and teachers, at various stages,and as the course develops, to refine and integrate the various notions. (Acourse schedule is provided as a separate document)Note: Units are organized into modules and then into sessions of 60 to 90minutes. In the following pages, ‘W1/D2-3/5 sessions” means “Week one,Tuesday and Wednesday, 5 sessions”. 3
  5. 5. Course unitsUNIT 1: THE RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACHAIM: To clarify the purposes of the risk management approach. To examine its use in variousfields. To contrast it with other approaches and methodologies used to inform decision-making inthe heritage conservation field.SCENARIO: This unit is composed of 3 modules, placed at key points across the course.MODULE 1: REDUCING RISKS IN OTHER FIELDS (PROVISIONAL TITLE) Introduces the risk management approach in the wider context. Keynote lecture by an expert outside the heritage field (W1/D1/1session).MODULE 2: SELECTING AND COMMUNICATING CONSERVATION PRIORITIES Gives a chance to participants and resource-persons to present an aspect of their work related to preventive conservation decisions 1 and1/2 day conference with 15 minutes presentations (W1/D5-6/5 sessions).MODULE 3: FROM BEST PRACTICE TO RISK MANAGEMENT Will use the example of emergency planning documents to separate the risk management view from the best practice view. A tutor-led seminar based on prior reading and analysis of texts (W3/D1/2 sessions).UNIT 2: CONCEPTS OF RISKAIM: To discuss and adopt a common terminology for risk. In particular, to establish themeaning, interpretation and connections of key words such as risk, loss, agent, cause, hazard,frequency, likelihood, probability, rare, and cumulative.SCENARIO: This unit is composed of 2 modules, in sequence.MODULE 1: FROM CAUSES TO EFFECTS Identify and link the possible causes related to a damage or loss. Assemble a tree diagram of some direct and indirect causes which lead to effects on the collection. Brainstorming session in small and large groups (W1/D2/1 session).MODULE 2: MAPPING THE UNIVERSE OF RISKS Review and categorize the concepts which emerged in Module 1. Concept mapping in plenary or small groups to be decided with the teacher (W1/D2/1 session). 5
  6. 6. UNIT 3: INTEGRATING RISK MANAGEMENTAIM: To consider integration of the risk management approach within national preservationpolicies and within an institution’s missions and mandates. To highlight and review preservationpriorities in current literature and official documents. To discuss integration possibilities withdecision-makers (i.e. museum directors and managers)SCENARIO: This unit is composed of 2 modules, in sequenceMODULE 1: NATIONAL POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONAL MISSIONS Analyses the content of written national policies and institutional missions (from the participants context) and explores ways in which risk management is or could be integrated. Small group work followed by a plenary discussion (W1/D2/1 session).MODULE 2: DEFINING SCOPES AND GOALS FOR RISK MANAGEMENT Introduces the course case-studies and their objectives, and provides an opportunity to discuss with the institution’s management the scope of the risk management exercise. A first session will be dedicated to close reading of the case studies documentation and the preparation of questions for the ‘clients’. It will be followed by a Tutor-led discussion with the ‘clients’, i.e. directors (or representatives) of the host institutions. Small group reading followed by a tutor-led discussion (W1/D2/2 sessions).UNIT 4: IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC RISKSAIM: To identify and describe the specific risks in a given context. To ensure that all categories ofrisk are considered comprehensively. To ensure that the description is detailed enough to allowtheir subsequent quantification.SCENARIO: This Unit is composed of 2 modules with sessions spread until the end of the secondweek. This will allow participants to gradually improve the description of the specific risks theyidentify, and to incorporate new concepts and information as they are introduced through thecourse.MODULE 1: FINDING SPECIFIC RISKS Gives a chance to participants to get familiar with the context of the case study and identify specific risks. A first session will recall the risk typology seen earlier (Unit 2: CONCEPTS OF RISK), propose a pattern for the discovery process, and discuss the various sources of information. After a tutor-led visit, participants will work in groups to survey and then report on their findings. Lecture, survey in groups, group report and discussion (W1/D3/3 sessions-W2/D1/1session).MODULE 2: REFINING SPECIFIC RISKS Discusses and refines the description of the specific risks. The two first sessions of this module take place after new information is introduced in the course. They allow participants to reconsider and improve their descriptions. The last session will be to share results and experience. Tutor-led group works, group report and discussion (W2/D1-2-5/3 sessions). 6
  7. 7. UNIT 5: VALUE AND LOSS IN VALUEAIM: To discuss the importance of values of cultural heritage, the interpretation of ‘loss’ of suchvalues, and how such losses integrate into the risk management approach.SCENARIO: This unit is composed of two modules in sequence. It is an introduction to notions,which underlie the whole risk management approach.MODULE 1: CULTURAL HERITAGE VALUES AND CONSERVATION Provides an historic overview of cultural heritage values, and how they influence the conservation thinking. Lecture by 2 resource-persons from different cultural context, followed by a discussion (W1/D4/1 session).MODULE 2: LOSS OF VALUE Explores the concept of loss of values through the discussion of various examples. Group exercise, using a mock-collection of a sample object with different forms of damages. (W1/D4/1 session).UNIT 6: COLLECTION UNITS AND THE FRACTION AT RISKAIM: To consider the reasons for partitioning the museums collections into units for purposes ofrisk assessment and management. Then, to consider methods for calculating the fraction of acollection unit which is exposed to a specific risk.SCENARIO: This unit is composed of one module only. Expressing the fraction of the collection atrisk is a skill, which participants will start practicing while refining and quantifying specific risks.MODULE 1: COLLECTION UNITS AND THE FRACTIONS AT RISK Discusses when and how to break the museum collections into units, based on organisational realities such as collection type, management structure, building location, etc. Once these units are fixed, many specific risks will apply only to a fraction of the unit. The module examines the methods for quantifying this fraction at risk by methods such as object count, area covered, shelf space, rooms, etc. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different partitioning, and common confusions arising. Lecture and discussion of examples (W2/D1/2 sessions). 7
  8. 8. UNIT 7: FINDING AND APPLYING USEFUL INFORMATIONAIM: To stimulate a proactive, diversified and critical approach to the collection and use ofinformation needed for risk assessment.SCENARIO: The unit is composed of 5 modules that form most of the second week of the course.The topic is already introduced briefly in the first session of the Unit 4, Identifying Specific Risks,when three main sources of information, i.e., material science, history of risks, and evidence ofdamage, are characterized. Considering the quantity and diversity of information available, and inkeeping with the course announcement, the course purposely focuses on a selected number ofcritical issues. For other issues, during the individual study sessions, participants will have accessto specialized literature and advice from the resource persons in the course team.MODULE 1: FINDING THE HISTORICAL RECORD OF RISKS Develops skills in finding and developing useful historical records and in anticipating those specific risks which require this source of information for their assessment. Lecture and discussion avoiding entering case studies examples (W2/D2/1 session).MODULE 2: MAKING DEDUCTIONS FROM EVIDENCE OF DAMAGE Develops skills in interpreting the evidence of damage to the collections or facilities, and in making reliable deductions for risk assessment (especially as compared to traditional collection condition surveys). Discussion of illustrated examples, from the resource-persons and possibly from the participants (W2/D4/1 session).MODULE 3: THE ENVIRONMENT: FROM STANDARDS TO RISK MANAGEMENT Reviews the latest research and developments in the environmental standards, in particular for relative humidity (RH), temperature, and light. The module will examine the necessary material science to enable risk assessment. It will empower participants to solicit constructively such information from conservation science. Participants will develop this skill by assessing the sensitivity of the course study collection to RH, temperature, and light. For each topic, lecture followed by a group exercise (W2/D2-4/ 4 sessions).MODULE 4: RISK IN TRANSIT Reviews the latest research and developments in the risk management of packing, crating and moving collections. There will be an opportunity for participants to discuss issues directly with an interdisciplinary panel of transport experts and professionals. Insights into the topic will be completed by a hands-on workshop in the design, fabrication, and testing of an artefact crate. Lecture, roundtable, and hands-on workshop (W2/D3/4 sessions).MODULE 5: LOAN REQUIREMENTS AND RISKS Combines information from this unit to explore current dilemmas and conflicts in specifying, and meeting, loan requirements. Group reading and analysis followed by a negotiation game between the loaning and lending teams (to refine with the resource-person) (W2/D5/2 sessions). 8
  9. 9. UNIT 8: QUANTIFYING RISKS IN TERMS OF SCIENCE, RATE ANDPROBABILITIESAIM: To further develop the ability to quantify the specific risks along the linked parameters of 1)fraction of collection and 2) the rate or probability of loss, using the information developed in thespecific risks descriptionsSCENARIO: This unit is composed of one module only. Quantifying rates and probabilities ofrisks, concurrently with fraction at risk, is a skill that participants will continue practicing with theexamples from the course case studiesMODULE 1: QUANTIFYING RISKS IN TERMS OF SCIENCE AND PROBABILITIES Develops participants’ skills in quantifying specific risks along the parameters that are informed by material science and statistical data, i.e., fraction susceptible and rate or probability of damage. Tutor-led discussion (W2/D5/1 session).UNIT 9: COMPARING ALL THE RISKSAIM: To provide a complete framework within which risks can be compared on a single commonscale. It combines the science and probabilities of risk, the estimation of the fraction at risk, withthe estimate of loss of value. Various scales and computation methods are developed.SCENARIO: This unit is composed of 2 modules, the first of which forms a core unit of the lastweek. Module 1 discusses a framework within which to compare risks and make calculations. Thesecond module will involve participants in applying the method to the examples from the casestudies.MODULE 1: SCALES FOR ASSESSING RISKS Returns to the notion of loss of value as the key to comparison of different risks. By combining estimates from the science of rates and probability of each risk, estimates of fraction of collection at risk, and estimates of loss of value, risk can be expressed on a common scale. Various scales for these parameters of risk will be discussed, and participants will practice with the simplest versions. Lecture, discussion and large group exercise (W3/D1/2 sessions).MODULE 2: MAKING RISKS COMPARABLE Develops skills in practicing the scales, using the examples of the case studies Tutored group work (W3/D2/2 sessions). 9
  10. 10. UNIT 10: DEVELOPING OPTIONSAIM: To develop options for reducing risks.SCENARIO: The unit is composed of 3 modules in sequenceMODULE 1 : DEVELOPING OPTIONS: STRUCTURE, TOOLS, AND APPROACH Provides structure, tools, and a methodical approach to developing options for reducing risks. Participants practice these skills by developing options for their case studies. Brainstorm and tutor-led discussion, group work, group report (W3/D2-3/3 sessions).MODULE 2: EVALUATING OPTIONS: WHAT IF? Examines the possible positive or negative effects of an option that addresses one risk, on another risk. Different examples will be discussed. Presentation and discussion of examples from the past (W3/D3/1 session).MODULE 3: BASIC RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Considers the possible existence of a universal list of basic risk management strategies. This list combines measures against catastrophes such as fire, and measures that reduce many risks at once, at low cost. Lecture & group work (to be decided with the resource-person) (W3/D4/2 sessions).UNIT 11: SHARING RISK ASSESSMENTAIM: To evaluate and communicate risk assessment results to decision-makersSCENARIO: The units is composed of 3 modules in sequenceMODULE 1: COMMUNICATION – GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR PRODUCING REPORT ON RISKASSESSMENT Critically reviews the various report systems and visual aids that are used to disseminate and share risk assessment results and the risk management approach. Lecture and discussion (W3/D3/1 session).MODULE 2: REFLECTIONS ON CRITICAL MOMENTS An opportunity for participants to provide and share feedback on the risk management approach developed in the course, and to identify steps which require clarification and further research. The intent is to ensure that participants are confident in their learning process to date, and that they can identify areas where they wish to develop further their knowledge and skills. Participants-led discussion (W3/D3/1 session).MODULE 3: SHARING RESULTS Presentation of the results of risk assessment and management case-studies to the ‘clients’, i.e. the directors (or representatives) of the host institutions. Report compilation work followed by group presentations and discussions (W3/D4- 5/3 sessions). 10
  11. 11. Story so farAt the beginning of the second and third weeks, one hour is dedicated to a“story so far” session, a time for review, further thinking, discussion andlinkages. It will be an opportunity to review the former steps in the riskmanagement process, and introduce those to come.Individual study and the “home project”Every week, time has been allocated for individual study. During these periods,participants will have the opportunity to read suggested articles, to use theICCROM library, to arrange individual appointments with the available resource-persons and colleagues, and to plan a “home project”. We encourage eachparticipant to think in advance of an idea or a project that they can carry outwithin three months of their return. Some follow-up will be available by ICCROMover those three months.Variety of teaching and learning activitiesIn order to tap and to develop the participants’ wealth of learning andcommunicating skills, the course offers a variety of teaching and learningactivities. It includes a balance of illustrated lectures, practical work, study visits,case histories, group works, seminars and discussions. Most sessions promoteinteractive learning.This year in particular, it is proposed that participants practice the various stepsin the risk management approach through one specific situation.Three situations will be proposed, 2 in the Museo di Roma, the historic museumof the city of Rome, and one in the ICCROM archives. Approximately one third ofthe course will focus on the case-studies.Participants’ contribution to the courseThe course will bring together a group of professionals from very diversebackgrounds. The past experience and the challenges they face in their work willbe an important contribution to the course content, and the exchange ofexperience, concerns and ideas is a major aim of this project.A separate document “Participants’ contribution to the course” describes avariety of items that participants are invited to collect or prepare in view of theircontribution to the course. 11
  12. 12. Course evaluation systemAs for all ICCROM courses, a formal course evaluation system is in development.It will address course content and approach as well as the learning environment.It will involve the participants and their institutions, the coordinating andteaching team, as well as the partners. It will follow course impact and outcomeswell after the end of the event.In practical terms, the course evaluation will consist of questionnaires toparticipants and teaching team, during and after the course. There will also be afinal evaluation discussion on the last day. Three months after the course,participants will be asked for final feedback, and a report on their “homeproject”. 12