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Pediatric surgery i


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  • 1. Pediatric surgery
  • 2. involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults the 20th Pediatric Pediatric century assurgery is a surgerysubspecialty the surgical of surgery care of birth defects Subspecialties of pediatric surgery itself include: neonatal surgery and fetal surgery.
  • 3. Pediatric diseases treated by surgery
  • 4. Surgery vascular Conduits for Vascular Reconstruction in the Pediatric Patientarterial and venous Such factors includegrafts, such as Many factors the small caliber ofgreat saphenous must be their vessels, theand internal iliac considered possibility of spasm, the risk of infection,veins and internal when dealing the propensity formammary, radial, with this patient children to rapidlyand hypogastric population. form collateralarteries circulation
  • 5. Otolaryngology diseases Serous otitisprocess characterized mainly affectsby collection of serousfluid or mucous in the children undermiddle ear space. 8 years
  • 6. The Role of the Eustachian tube causesdeafness mouth breathingSYMPTOMS otalgia
  • 7. MEDICAL TREATMENT steroidal anti- oral inflammatory antihistamines
  • 8. Acute otitis media Haemophilusinfluenzae in culture positive figures close to 50% of the patients studied Etiology Viral infection usually precedes the bacteria
  • 9. amoxicillin TREATMENTcefuroxime Amoxicillin- axetil Clavulanic
  • 10. Otorrhea The mucous the light to otorrhea due middle ear to middle ear disorders disease the pathology of purulent outer or middle
  • 11. Hearing screening in newborns • otoacoustic emissions and should be performed after 48 hours first • must be made within 7 days and months of life, using detection of otoacoustic emissions (OEA)second • ABR Auditory Brainstem conventional (PTC) to be held between the first and second month of third life.
  • 12. Rhinosinusitis aspiration of the germs is after the origin of the problem Pathogeny The nasal flora is an ideal medium for their proliferation, initiating the infectious
  • 13. Treatment Humidification antibiotics nasal washes topical mucolytics corticosteroids antihistamines
  • 14. Allergic rhinitis hydrorrheaobstruction symptoms itching sneezing
  • 15. treatment topical and oral antihistamines oral and topical topical and oral corticosteroids decongestants Anticholinergics topical
  • 16. Acute pharyngitis infectious process of the pharynx, of which the most notorious and frequent involvement of the palatine tonsils
  • 17. Treatmentantipyretic and alternative penicillinanalgesic erythromycin
  • 18. Transplants in children
  • 19. Organ transplants are a very serious and complex health in our country The most common transplant in general (both children and adults) is the kidney In regard to children a year are about 70Transplants inchildren in our country the needs would be 100 the pediatric donors represented 3.4% of donors which sometimes is not enough
  • 20. What are the Neonatal Liver causes?transplantation Acute liver failure and chronic
  • 21. : Pediatric patients account for Neonatal Liver about 12.5% of liver transplant transplantation recipients. Medical treatment, surgery, and postsurgical care can be broken into 4 basic steps: •1-Candidate evaluation •2- Waiting period • 3- Surgery • 4- Postsurgical care
  • 22. Medical management is generally divided into pretransplant and posttransplant periods Neonatal Livertransplantation Nutritional status impacts both pretransplant and posttransplant outcomes, especially in the pediatric population, because of an increased incidence of cholestatic liver diseases.
  • 23. Bone marrow transplantation The majority in children of cases is when a person has leukemia What is bone marrow transplantation?Involves extracting stemcells and grafted into the patient who needs to regenerate an organ
  • 24. Leukemia and stem cellsThe extraction of stem cells can produce new white blood cells altered in leukemia
  • 25. TYPES OF SURGERY IN LEUKEMIAAutologous Umbilical Cord Allogeneic Is when the It is called when The donor is an the source of umbilical cord stem cell allogeneic stemsource is the cell is a person patient other than the patient
  • 26. UROLOGY DESEASEHemorrhagic cystitis is defined by lower urinarytract symptoms that include hematuria andirritative voiding symptoms It results from damage to the bladder transitional epithelium and blood vessels by toxins, pathogens, radiation, drugs, or disease
  • 27. Infectious causes of hemorrhagiccystitis include bacteria and viruses Non infectious hemorrhagic cystitis most commonly occurs in patients who have undergone pelvic radiation, chemotherapy, or both. Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis
  • 28. VOIDING DYSFUNCTIONAccounts for as many as 40% of pediatricurology clinic visitsVoiding reflect alterations in urinary bladderfunctionMany forms of voiding dysfunction can bethought of as a delay in the acquisition ofdaytime urinary control, which typically occurs byage 4 years
  • 29. Persistent daytime urinary incontinence may havean underlying neurologic, anatomic, infectious, orfunctional basis.
  • 30. isthe narrowing of part of thestomach (the pylorus) thatleads to the small intestine This narrowing occurs because the muscle around the pylorus has grown too.
  • 31. Diagram of stomach with pyloric stenosis. Look at the cross section showing the narrowing of the pyloric opening. SYMPTOMS•projectilevomiting•weight loss•dehydration
  • 32. How is pyloric stenosis diagnosed?• Physical exam:showing an enlarged pyloric valve.• Barium study of upper gastrointestinal (upper GI).• Abdominal ultrasound Treatment •A surgical procedure called pyloromyotomy
  • 33. calledHernia parasternal or retrosternaldiaphragmatic above, characterized byabnormal development of the diaphragmmuscle in which there is a hernia with aperitoneal sac that protrudes through thehiatus sternocostal. Severe respiratory distress atSYMPTOMS birth
  • 34. Diagnosis• chest x-ray• Nuclear magnetic resonance.• Multidisciplinary assessment Treatment Emergency surgery to place the abdominal organs into the proper position and repair the opening in the diaphragm