From the Ancient Greek onkos (ὄγκος), meaning, mass, or tumor
And the suffix -logy (-λογία), meaning "study of")
Oncology is concerned with:
The diagnosis of any cancer in a person.
Follow-up of cancer patients after successful treatment.
Palliative care of patients with terminal malignancies.
Ethicalquestions surrounding cancer care.
Screening efforts .
1. DIAGNOSIS 2. THERAPY 3. PALLIATIVE CARE 4. ETHICAL ISSUES 5. PROGRESS AND RESEARCH 6. SPECIALTIES
DIAGNOSIS The most important diagnostic tool remains the medical history
Fever of unknown origin,
Paraneoplastic phenomena and other signs
Diagnostic methods include : Diagnostic methods include :
Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially imaging by CT scanning) are often used to determine operability, i.e. whether it is surgically possible to remove a tumor in its entirety.
Generally, a "tissue diagnosis" (from a biopsy) is considered essential for the proper identification of cancer. When this is not possible, "empirical therapy" (without an exact diagnosis) may be given, based on the available evidence (e.g. history, x-rays and scans.)
THERAPY It completely depends on the nature of the tumor identified what kind of therapeutical intervention will be necessary. Certain disorders will require immediate admission and chemotherapy, while others will be followed up with regular physical examination and blood tests.
THERAPY Often, surgery is attempted to remove a tumor entirely. This is only feasible when there is some degree of certainty that the tumor can in fact be removed. Surgery is also used for the palliative treatment of some of cancers, e.g. to relieve biliary obstruction, or to relieve the problems associated with some cerebral tumors.
THERAPY Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used as a first-line radical therapy in a number of malignancies. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are commonly used for palliation, where disease is clearly incurable: in this situation the aim is to improve the quality of and prolong life.
THERAPY There is currently a rapid expansion in the use of monoclonal antibody treatments, notably for lymphoma(Rituximab), and breast cancer (Trastuzumab). Hormone manipulation is well established, particularly in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. Vaccine and other immunotherapies are the subject of intensive research.
PALLIATIVE CARE 50% cancer cases Radical treatment A large number of cancer patients will die from the disease will die of other causes PALLIATIVE CARE: TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVANCED DISEASE pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, immobility. DEPRESSION MORAL AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES ARE ALSO IMPORTANT
SENSITIVITY AND VERY GOOD COMMUNICATION
the patient need/want know extent progression prognosis Clinical trials terminal illness Withdrawal of active treatment. "Do Not Resuscitate" about life issues
There is a tremendous amount of research being conducted on all frontiers of oncology, ranging from cancer cell biology to chemotherapy treatment regimens and optimal palliative care and pain relief
Don`t forget the old treatments that are very useful to treat cancer such as: