Security Best Practices What are we fighting? What are we trying to protect? How can we best combat these problems?
Security Best Practices <ul><li>Overall Top Issues </li></ul><ul><li>PC Security </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Network Securi...
What are we fighting? <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophos polled 3,000 IT administrators and learned that most do...
What are we fighting? <ul><li>Trojans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May look friendly  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server ap...
What are we trying to protect? <ul><li>Perimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Local Networks </li></ul><ul><li>PC’s </li></ul>
Overall Top Issues - 1 <ul><li>Implement Physical Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers and networking equipment in a loc...
Overall Top Issues - 2 <ul><li>Require or strongly encourage employees to choose strong passwords  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
Overall Top Issues - 3 <ul><li>Require new passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 90 days or at least twice a year </li></u...
Overall Top Issues - 4 <ul><li>Verify that your virus-protection subscription is current and working </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Overall Top Issues - 5 <ul><li>Email Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Email Server  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In...
Overall Top Issues - 6 <ul><li>Beware of Social Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site visits to gather data </li></ul>...
Overall Top Issues - 7 <ul><li>Install a total protection solution  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you host your own web sites l...
Overall Top Issues - 8 <ul><li>Test your security posture regularly  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hackers have all the time in th...
Overall Top Issues – 9 <ul><li>Terminating employee’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove their network access immediately </li><...
Overall Top Issues – 10 <ul><li>Secure Telecommuting and remote access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As VPN solutions are increasi...
Overall Top Issues – 11 <ul><li>Especially if you’re hosting web sites, update your Web server software regularly  </li></...
Overall Top Issues – 12 <ul><li>Kill network services that are not needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May include </li></ul></ul...
Overall Top Issues – 13 <ul><li>Filter Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and scan HTTP and FTP traffic </li></ul><...
Overall Top Issues – 14 <ul><li>Log everything you can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall, Web Server, Email Server, File Serv...
<ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
PC Security <ul><li>Implement a Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackIce, ZoneAlarm, McAfee, Symantec </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Internal Network Security <ul><li>What makes up the network? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers, Switches, Firewalls </li></ul>...
Securing Basic Network Devices <ul><li>Why secure a switch? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man in the Middle Attacks </li></ul></ul...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Alerter service and the Messenger service  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerte...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Messenger service  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This service provides the abil...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Clipbook service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store information (cut /...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Human Interface Device service, except for those users who need it </li...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Indexing service  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes searching the local hard ...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable Machine Debug Manager  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides support for program d...
Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Don't run any unnecessary network services  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Pu...
Email Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Using a separate relay </li></ul><ul><li>Virus/Spam Protection </li></ul><ul>...
Web Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Use IIS 6.0 if at all possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate protected applica...
User Best Practices <ul><li>Hardening user passwords  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate them as to why this is important </li>...
<ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Change the default SSID (wireless equivalency of workgroup name) to something les...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Enable the highest method of security the device will allow </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Implement media-access control (MAC) filtering  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows only...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Minimize the amount of signal leaked to the outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If ther...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Small number of wireless clients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider using static IP ...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Public Wireless Access Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All transmissions are unencry...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>If a RADIUS server exists, use it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For sites without a Remot...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Using WPA on Your Wireless Network  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Protected Access ...
Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Updating the OS to include WPA functionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft prov...
<ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
File System Security <ul><li>NTFS vs FAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul></ul></...
File System Security <ul><li>NTFS Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object ownership  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission i...
Firewall Technology <ul><li>Basically three types of Firewall technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet filter  </li></ul></...
Firewall or Perimeter Security <ul><li>Do we need publicly accessible servers? </li></ul><ul><li>How to protect transports...
<ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation can be found online at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kirbykomputing...
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Security Best Practices Use SHIFT ENTER to open the menu (new ...

  1. 1. Security Best Practices What are we fighting? What are we trying to protect? How can we best combat these problems?
  2. 2. Security Best Practices <ul><li>Overall Top Issues </li></ul><ul><li>PC Security </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Network Security </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Security </li></ul><ul><li>File System Security </li></ul><ul><li>Firewall or Perimeter Security </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are we fighting? <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophos polled 3,000 IT administrators and learned that most do not update antivirus signatures for remote offices and telecommuters as often as they do for office-based systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally attaches to files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propagates over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpatched systems are at risk </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What are we fighting? <ul><li>Trojans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May look friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server approach = Zombie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning, sniffing, intrusion attempts, buffer overflows, DDOS attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized attempts </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What are we trying to protect? <ul><li>Perimeter </li></ul><ul><li>Local Networks </li></ul><ul><li>PC’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. Overall Top Issues - 1 <ul><li>Implement Physical Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers and networking equipment in a locked area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup devices and media in locked area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Login access to backup server secured </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Overall Top Issues - 2 <ul><li>Require or strongly encourage employees to choose strong passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let upper management know the reasons why this is important to protect the businesses assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet programs use brute force dictionary attacks which contain tens of thousands of common passwords that hackers use to break in to unsecured computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords should have a minimum of seven characters, be nondictionary words, and combine uppercase, lowercase, and special characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 trillion combinations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Overall Top Issues - 3 <ul><li>Require new passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 90 days or at least twice a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A stagnate network is a perfect test bed for exploitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the very least, if an intrusion was occurring, it raises the deterrent factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If your company was profiled by a hacker and recorded that passwords frequently change, they may not waste time on you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Set account lockout parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Use a brute force attack on your own passwords </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overall Top Issues - 4 <ul><li>Verify that your virus-protection subscription is current and working </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you include spyware protection also? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does engine updates to the antivirus programs occur automatically or manually? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Overall Top Issues - 5 <ul><li>Email Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Email Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Install either a gateway or API filtering solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both is better as some solutions will allow it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client PC’s should also email scanning functionality for a second layer of defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Train or educate employees about email attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the need to avoid opening attachments from unknown sources </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Overall Top Issues - 6 <ul><li>Beware of Social Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site visits to gather data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person posing on the phone as an employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoofed email </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Train employees to be cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Lock PC when away </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overall Top Issues - 7 <ul><li>Install a total protection solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you host your own web sites locally, using just a firewall is not going to make it secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install an IDS system and policy management </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Overall Top Issues - 8 <ul><li>Test your security posture regularly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hackers have all the time in the world to update their technology and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See where your ‘holes’ exist before someone else does </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Overall Top Issues – 9 <ul><li>Terminating employee’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove their network access immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escort them out </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Overall Top Issues – 10 <ul><li>Secure Telecommuting and remote access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As VPN solutions are increasing to allow greater flexibility and more productivity, securing remote access is critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Quarantine services built into Windows Server 2003 RRAS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Overall Top Issues – 11 <ul><li>Especially if you’re hosting web sites, update your Web server software regularly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay up-to-date on current patch level and service packs for underlying OS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Overall Top Issues – 12 <ul><li>Kill network services that are not needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network browsing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Overall Top Issues – 13 <ul><li>Filter Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and scan HTTP and FTP traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS IM used? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider hosting your own </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filter the traffic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Overall Top Issues – 14 <ul><li>Log everything you can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall, Web Server, Email Server, File Server, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy logs to another system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider a centralized approach </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  21. 21. PC Security <ul><li>Implement a Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackIce, ZoneAlarm, McAfee, Symantec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install Patches and Service Packs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn on the Automatic Updates feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Update </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep the antivirus software up-to-date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for updates every 2 hours minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the scanning engine updated automatically? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Spyware detection/removal software </li></ul>
  22. 22. Internal Network Security <ul><li>What makes up the network? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers, Switches, Firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SERVERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File, Email, Web, Database, Dedicated Application, Backup, Testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And the BIG one, USERS ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically, anything connected </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Securing Basic Network Devices <ul><li>Why secure a switch? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man in the Middle Attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Sniffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN port forwarding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about a router? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Table poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reroute traffic </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Alerter service and the Messenger service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerter service notifies users of administrative alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This service usually is not required under normal circumstances </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Messenger service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This service provides the ability to send messages between clients and servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to use &quot;net send&quot; messages hitting your computer from the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Messenger service uses UDP ports 135, 137, and 138; TCP ports 135, 139, and 445 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Clipbook service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to store information (cut / paste) and share it with other computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service has nothing to do with moving data from Excel to Word </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Human Interface Device service, except for those users who need it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service enables the use of specialized devices such as game controllers and virtual reality devices </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable the Indexing service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes searching the local hard drive faster by keeping a virtual index of the files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses about 500 K to 2 MB in an idle state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sore spot for buffer overflow attacks </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Disable Machine Debug Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides support for program debugging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used by developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disable it in Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Don't run any unnecessary network services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web Publishing Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP Publishing Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network News Transfer Protocol </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Email Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Using a separate relay </li></ul><ul><li>Virus/Spam Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Test to verify an open relay doesn’t exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.samspade.org </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.abuse.net/relay.html </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Web Server Security Best Practices <ul><li>Use IIS 6.0 if at all possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate protected application pools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>URLScan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/tools/urlscan.mspx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep current on patch level </li></ul>
  33. 33. User Best Practices <ul><li>Hardening user passwords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate them as to why this is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show them how to create strong passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Putting a password on a sticky note </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not store miscellaneous passwords on hard drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrators and sensitive account users should have stronger than normal passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce the policy </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Change the default SSID (wireless equivalency of workgroup name) to something less common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or better yet, disable SSID broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a unique login name and password to gain access to the device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Default login and passwords are publicly available on the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Enable the highest method of security the device will allow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEP is not bulletproof, but it provides additional protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>128-bit is preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure the device has up-to-date firmware </li></ul>
  37. 37. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Implement media-access control (MAC) filtering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows only the wireless adapters specified to access the device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not bulletproof or “spoofproof”, but adds another layer of security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SNMP community names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If not being used, turn it off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the string to something other than public </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Minimize the amount of signal leaked to the outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is no need for wireless access outside the building, place the device to the center of the building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audit the wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk around the outside of the building with a laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ‘Network Stumbler’ to assist with the security audit </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Small number of wireless clients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider using static IP addresses instead of DHCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use subnets different from the default setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider using a VLAN or VPN to protect the traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L2TP with IPSec is a common method </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Public Wireless Access Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All transmissions are unencrypted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the very least, use a firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off Windows File and Print Sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a VPN solution if connecting to something secure </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>If a RADIUS server exists, use it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For sites without a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) infrastructure, WPA supports the use of a preshared key. For sites with a RADIUS infrastructure, Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and RADIUS is supported. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Using WPA on Your Wireless Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Protected Access is a stronger protocol that fixes the weaknesses in WEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The encryption key changes with every frame </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three critical components needed to upgrade wireless security from WEP to WPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access point (AP) or wireless router that supports WPA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wireless network card that has WPA drivers available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>client that supports WPA and your operating system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Wireless Security Best Practices <ul><li>Updating the OS to include WPA functionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft provides a free WPA upgrade, but it only works with Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 815485 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the OS other than Win XP, you'll need third-party client software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MeetingHouse Data Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mtghouse.com/products/index.shtml </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  45. 45. File System Security <ul><li>NTFS vs FAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAT 32 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98, ME, 2000, XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT, 2000, XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000, XP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. File System Security <ul><li>NTFS Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission inheritance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encrypting File System (EFS) </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing and File Permissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Control, Change, and Read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a difference between Server 2000 and 2003? </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Firewall Technology <ul><li>Basically three types of Firewall technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routes traffic based on IP/port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stateful packet inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes traffic on top of routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application proxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works as a translator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Firewalls are a combination or hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The general role is to block unsolicited traffic </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Firewall or Perimeter Security <ul><li>Do we need publicly accessible servers? </li></ul><ul><li>How to protect transports? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VPN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lock down where inbounds are coming from </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a necessity today </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation can be found online at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kirbykomputing.com/Shared%20Documents/Forms/AllItems.aspx </li></ul>Brian Kirby SEDA – Council of Governments [email_address] [email_address]
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