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  • A denial of service ( DoS ) attack is not a virus but a method hackers use to prevent or deny legitimate users access to a computer. These attacks are typically executed by sending many request packets to a targeted Internet server, which overwhelms the server's resources, making the system unusable. Any system that is connected to the Internet and is equipped with TCP-based network services is subject to attack.
  • Security

    1. 1. Security Chapter 8 Objectives <ul><li>Societal impact of information and information technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the meaning of terms related to computer security and crime and determine ways to protect both a business and yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify areas of computer security vulnerability and ways to protect against them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the definition of encryption and apply the XOR encryption technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize good and bad passwords based on password guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Security Resources you can use <ul><li>Protecting your computer sound byte: </li></ul><ul><li>,8697,1105530-,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>Norton AntiVirus Response Center Web Page </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Test the vulnerability of your computer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gibson Research Corporation ( http:// ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualys ( http:// / ) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Computer security vulnerability points <ul><li>Hardware – </li></ul><ul><li>Software – </li></ul><ul><li>People – </li></ul>
    4. 4. Backup <ul><li>Data and Files are vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Primary defense against data loss </li></ul><ul><li>Selective, incremental & full </li></ul>
    5. 5. Software <ul><li>Perform regular updates </li></ul><ul><li> for Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft update: Windows, Office, more </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic updates </li></ul><ul><li>Check with vendors for updates </li></ul><ul><li>Verify e-mail notices independently </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hackers <ul><li>Def: </li></ul><ul><li>Types of hackers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White-hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Script kiddies </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What Hackers Do <ul><li>Steal information from computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit card numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank account numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet packet sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Commit identity theft </li></ul><ul><li>Create widespread computer attacks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backdoor programs (Trojan horse) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denial of service attacks </li></ul>
    8. 8. How Hackers Gain Access <ul><li>Direct access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacking software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet connection </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Firewall <ul><li>Def: </li></ul><ul><li>Types of firewalls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norton Personal Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McAfee Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone Alarm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackICE PC Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network routers </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Computer Viruses <ul><li>What puts you at risk for viruses? </li></ul>
    11. 11. How to &quot;Catch&quot; a Virus <ul><li>Email attachments. Do not open attachments before checking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this email from someone I know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the message a sensible follow-up to the last message from the sender? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the content of the message something the sender would say to me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a reason for the sender to include an attachment? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, be cautious </li></ul>
    12. 12. Antivirus Software <ul><li>Def: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan files looking for virus signatures (unique code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide options for deleting or fixing infected files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to be updated frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: McAfee, Norton, and Sophos, Inc. </li></ul>
    13. 13. What Viruses Do <ul><li>Replicate themselves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow down networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display annoying messages </li></ul><ul><li>Delete files </li></ul><ul><li>Change computer settings </li></ul>Love Letter – Fastest spreading virus Melissa – Caused $80 million damage Nimda – Affected more than 1 million computers
    14. 14. Logical security <ul><li>Def: </li></ul><ul><li>What are ways to protect your password? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Biometric identification systems <ul><ul><li>Fingerprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iris scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face recognition technology </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Encryption <ul><li>Def: </li></ul><ul><li>Encrypted data can be safely stored or transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this needed? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Encryption example <ul><li>Using Exclusive OR, XOR,  </li></ul><ul><li>If bits are the same, result is 0; if different 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a key to the plain or clear text </li></ul>
    18. 18. Encryption example <ul><li>0101 Cleartext (The hex digit 5) </li></ul><ul><li> 1001 Key </li></ul>
    19. 19. Encryption example <ul><li>If the cleartext is the hex digit D and the XOR key is 1001, what is the encrypted text? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Encryption example <ul><li>Encrypt the word NO with the key 10110110 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Assignment <ul><li>Using XOR and the key 10110110, determine the encrypted results for the ASCII text: PASSWORD </li></ul><ul><li>Complete HTML3 </li></ul>
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