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  • Wireless can be divided into: fixed wireless -- the operation of wireless devices or systems in homes and offices, and in particular, equipment connected to the Internet via specialized modems Mobile wireless -- the use of wireless devices or systems aboard motorized, moving vehicles; examples include the automotive cell phone and PCS (personal communications services) Portable wireless -- the operation of autonomous, battery-powered wireless devices or systems outside the office, home, or vehicle; examples include handheld cell phones and PCS units IR wireless -- the use of devices that convey data via IR (infrared) radiation; employed in certain limited-range communications and control systems
  • A wireless LAN is one in which a mobile user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection. A standard, IEEE 802.11, specifies the technologies for wireless LANs. The standard includes an encryption method, the Wired Equivalent Privacy algorithm. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) fosters the development of standards that often become national and international standards.
  • This is a simulated mockup of a simple network design with clients that reside within the radius of the access point.
  • 802.11b Interference : Many common items use the 2.4 GHz band, including portable phones, microwave ovens and baby monitors. This can adversely impact performance. Power: 802.11a adapters generally consume more power, which results in shorter battery life in portable devices. Both standards were ratified in September 99. WiFi = Wireless Fidelity
  • Lower cost: Although 802.11g is expected to be priced slightly higher than 802.11b , it will be less costly than 802.11a or dual band solutions. Range and connection speeds: When speed and distance are important, 2.4 GHz devices generally go farther, and the higher speed of 802.11g is three to five times faster than 802.11b.
  • Access Points -Wireless Access Point -External or Integrated Antenna Wireless NIC -Desktop or Laptop Models
  • The Cisco Aironet® 350 Series Access Point (AP) is a wireless LAN transceiver that serves as the center point of a stand-alone wireless network or as the connection point between wireless and wired networks. In large installations, wireless users within radio range of an access point can roam throughout a facility while maintaining uninterrupted access to the network. The Cisco Aironet 350 Series Access Point (AP) delivers a cost-effective, reliable, secure, and easily managed wireless LAN (WLAN) solution for enterprise, small- and medium-sized businesses. The Cisco Aironet 350 Series supports data rates of up to 11 Mbps and is IEEE 802.11b compliant.
  • AirPort Extreme lets you use wireless bridging to increase your range beyond the standard 150-foot coverage. Bridging, which allows one AirPort Extreme Base Station to connect to another AirPort Extreme Base Station, eliminates the need to run expensive cables to extend a network. G standard
  • Since the two radios operate in different bands, they can work simultaneously, blanketing your wireless zone with bandwidth. To protect your data and privacy, the Dual-Band Wireless A+G Broadband Router can encrypt all wireless transmissions. The MAC Address filter lets you decide exactly who has access to your wireless network. The Router also serves as a DHCP Server, has NAT technology to protect against Internet intruders, DMZ capability, supports VPN pass-through, and can be configured to filter internal users' access to the Internet. Configuration is a snap with the web browser-based configuration utility.
  • PC Card slot architecture Dual PC card slots provide flexibility in the use of ORiNOCO radios. Change to a different radio can be established very easily with a swap of the ORiNOCO PC Card. Double your network capacity The use of two ORiNOCO Network Interface Cards allows each to operate on a different frequency channel. Protect unauthorized access and limit management to authorized stations The system provides four levels of integrated security: - Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum technology; - Network name; - Access Control table; - RC4 encryption. www.orinocowireless.com AP-2000 – 802.11a migration AP-2500 – Enterprise Strength with VPN support
  • This diagram is optimistic in terms of the actual effective data rate you'll see for 802.11b . It's not uncommon to have an under 50 foot indoor range in a typically constructed residence, and to have speed begin to drop off with a few walls between stations. WiFi products' best actual data transfer rates are in the 3.5 to 4.5Mbps range.
  • Overlap allows for continuous coverage via a school Roaming is similar to cellular coverage. Wireless clients will swap transparently to APs with the best signal.
  • Desktops Both internal and external typically have one single dipole antenna Laptops Integrated is the rage right now. External (USB) usually have an antenna whereas PCMCIA usually do not have an antenna. Combo cards are being issued by some vendors to meet both A and B standards. Show real-life examples of the Cisco and the Orinoco Gold cards. Wireless Cards use different keys 64-bit key WEP 128-bit key RC4 encryption
  • Shared Bandwidth is the key relative to distance from Access Point and User behavior Indoor – 300 ft. Outdoors – 2000 ft.
  • Buildings that have rooms that cannot be wired due to infrastructure. Or are wired but violate Cat5 Spec relative to interconnects and cable length Wireless allows temporary labs to be setup in locations that have only one jack Wiring costs relative to tracks or outsourcing can be an issue Many schools have annexes that are built to meet student overflow Wiring is usually not an option.
  • SSID – Service Set ID – alphanumeric code, default value given by each vendor, rudimentary security Access Lists – define MAC addresses of the WNICs that you allow to use this access point Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) standard. That security technology uses fixed keys, which can be figured out by readily available software, allowing people to tap into a network. Encrypts data in 64 or 128 bit fashion Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) The WPA standard uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), which generates new keys for every 10K of data transmitted over the network, making it more difficult to access. Firmware upgrades will migrate current products. Available Q1 2003
  • A VPN (virtual private network) is a way to use a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. IPsec, the main encryption protocol used in VPN, prevents traffic sniffing. Firewall will pass only VPN traffic.
  • Equipment Inventory Number of Laptops Number of Desktops Networking Needs Number of Wi-Fi ready computers Number of Ports per room Mobile Lab? Remote Buildings Power over Ethernet (PoE) is needed? Prepare for Security Needs Use Encryption and Authentication Methods VPN needs to be used Firewall is necessary.
  • PowerPoint Presentation

    1. 1. Wireless Networking:  A View from within Mississippi Schools Sean Owen and Peter Graves C·R·E · A · T · E for Mississippi MECA 2004
    2. 2. What is Wireless? <ul><li>Telecommunications in which EM waves carry a signal </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones, pagers, GPS, garage door openers </li></ul><ul><li>Baby monitors, cordless phones </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LANs </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is a WLAN? <ul><li>Wireless Local Area Network </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile users connect to a LAN via Wireless Means </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Connection via a standard, IEEE 802.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Many 802.11 standards currently being implemented </li></ul>
    4. 4. VPN Firewall Router Wireless Access Point Mobile Lab Stationary Lab Internet
    5. 5. Current Wireless Standards <ul><li>802.11B (WiFi) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz, 32 users/AP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual throughput: 4.5 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbo Mode APs approach the true range </li></ul></ul><ul><li>802.11A (WiFi5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mbps, 5 GHz, 64 users/AP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Interference, Shorter Range </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Upcoming Wireless Standards <ul><li>802.11g </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward compatible with 802.11b </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was ratified in May 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>802.11i </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on security and authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Available Q4 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Protocols and Encryption Methods </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. WLAN Components <ul><li>Access Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(WAP or AP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying designs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless NICs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Interface Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Types </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. What is an Access Point? <ul><li>Access Transmits and receive data </li></ul><ul><li>WLAN to LAN connection </li></ul><ul><li>All APs are not created equal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Cisco Aironet 350 Access Point <ul><li>802.11b </li></ul><ul><li>11 Mbps shared </li></ul><ul><li>Dual External Antennas </li></ul><ul><li>www.cisco.com </li></ul>
    10. 10. Apple AirPort Extreme <ul><li>Contains Antenna, LAN, & USB Ports </li></ul><ul><li>Can Act as a Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apple.com/airport/ </li></ul>
    11. 11. Linksys Dual-Band WiFi Router <ul><li>4-Port Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Tri-Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-Band </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.linksys.com/products/product.asp?grid=33&scid=35&prid=537 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Orinoco AP-1000 <ul><li>Dual PC Card Slots </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>www.orinocowireless.com </li></ul>
    13. 13. SMC 4-port Wireless Router <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-port switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-In Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.smc.com </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Wireless Signal Performance This signal performance chart is based on an open, optimal environment which does not take into account physical barriers or the number of users sharing the signal. This is a chart based on the 802.11b standard. Up to 300’ 2 Mb/s Up to 150’ 5.5 Mb/s Up to 100’ 11 MB/s Range Data Rate
    15. 15. Access Point Placement <ul><li>Range indoors ~ 300 feet ~ B or G </li></ul><ul><li>Overlap ranges; Pools Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes “roaming” for users </li></ul>Access Point A Access Point C Access Point B
    16. 16. Wireless Cards <ul><li>Desktops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal or external </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External – USB with antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laptops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal or external </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64- and 128-bit varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on WEP </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Wireless Considerations <ul><li>Users Per Access Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 15-20 users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WLAN range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoors or outdoors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open area or closed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Clients Sharing Access Point </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Benefits of Wireless <ul><li>Avoids infrastructure issues </li></ul><ul><li>Cabling problems </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Long Distance Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building to Building without Leased Lines </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Wireless Concerns <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Over Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PoE– Allows APs to be placed in unique places without the need for an outlet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External - Power Injectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built-In on Some Models </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. VPN – Virtual Private Networking <ul><li>Sample schematic </li></ul>
    21. 21. Checklist <ul><li>Equipment Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate physical Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Networking Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for Security Needs </li></ul>
    22. 22. Wireless Networking:  A View from within Mississippi Schools Sean Owen and Peter Graves C·R·E · A · T · E for Mississippi MECA 2004